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ed to their skill, as were the Jews by their boldness, which was nourished by the fear they were in, and that hardiness which is natural to our nation under calamities; they were also still encouraged by the hope of deliverance, as were the Romans by their hopes of subduing them in a little time. Nor did either side grow weary ; but attacks and fightings upon the wall, and perpetual sallies out in bodies were there all the day long ; nor were there any sort of warlike engagements that were not then put in use. And the night itself had much ado to part them, when they began to fight in the morning ; nay the night itself was passed without sleep on both sides, and was more uneasy than the day to them, while the one was afraid lest the wall should be ta. ken, and the other lest the Jews should make sallies upon their camps : both sides also lay in their armour during the night time, and thereby were ready at the first appearance of light to go to the battle. Now among the Jews the ambition was, who should undergo the first dangers, and thereby gratify their commanders. Above all, they had a great veneration and dread of Simon; and to that degree was he regarded by every one of those that were under him, that at his cornmand they were very ready to kill themselves with their own hands. What made the Romans so courageous was their usual custom of conquering, and disuse of being defeated, their constant wars, and perpetual warlike exercises, and the grandeur of their dominion. And what was now their chief encouragement, Titus, who was present every where with them all ; for it appeared a terrible thing to grow weary while Cæsar was there, and fought bravely, as well as they did, and was himself at once an eye-witness of such as behaved themselves valiantJy, and he who was to reward them also. It was besides esteemed an advantage at present to have any one's valour known by Cæsar, on which account many of them appeared to have more alacrity than strength to answer it. And now, as the Jews were about this time standing in array be. fore the wall, and that in a strong body, and while both parties were throwing their darts at each other, Longinus, one of the equestrian order, leaped out of the army of the Romans, and leaped into the very midst of the army of the Jews; and as they dispersed themselves upon this attack, he slew two of their men of the greatest courage ; one of them he struck in his mouth as he was coming to meet him, the other was slain by him by that very dart which he drew out of the body of the other, with which he ran this man through his side as he was running away from him; and when he had done this, he first of all ran out of the midst of his enemies to his own side. So this man signalized himself for his valour, and many there were who were ambitious of gaining the like reputation. And now the Jews were unconcerned at what they suffered themselves from the Roma's, and were only solicitous about what mischief they could do them; and death itself seemed a small matter to them, if at the same time they could but kill any one of their enemies. But Titus took care to secure his own sol. diers from harm, as well as to have them overcome their enemies. He also said, that inconsiderate violence was madness, and that this alone was the true courage, that was joined with good conduct. He therefore commanded his men to take care, when they fought their enemies, that they received no harm from them at the same time, and thereby shew themselves to be truly valiant men.

4. Aud now Titus brought one of his engines to the middle tower of the north part of the wall, in which a certain crafty Jew, whose name was Castor, lay in ambush, with ten others like himself, the rest heing fled away by reason of the archers. These men lay still for a while, as in great fear, under their breast-plates ; but when the tower was shaken, they arose, and Castor did then stretch out his hand, as a petitioner, and called for Cæsar and by his voice moved his compassion, and begged of him to have mercy upon them; and Titus, in the innocency of his heart, believing him to be in earnest, and hoping that the Jews did now repent, stopped the working of the battering ram, and forbade them to shoot at the petitioners, and bid Castor say what he had a mind to say to him. He said, that he would come down, if he would give him his right hand for his security. To which Titus replied, that he was well pleased with such his agreeable condurt, and would be well pleased if all the Jews would be of his mind, and that he was ready to give the like security to the city. Now, five of the ten dissembled with him, and pretended to beg for mercy, while the rest cried out aloud, that they would never be slaves to the Romans, while it was in their power to die in a state of freedom. Now, while these men were quarrelling for a long while, the attack

was delayed ; Castor also sent to Simon, and told him that they might take some time for consultation about what was to be done, because he would delude the power of the Romans for a considerable time. And at the same time that he sent thus to him, he appeared openly to exhort those that were obstinate to accept of Titus's hand for their securi. ty; but they seemed very angry at it, and brandished their naked swords upon the breastworks, and struck themselves upon their breast, and fell down, as if they had been slain. Hereupon Titus, and those with him, were amazed at the courage of the men, and as they were not able to see exactly what was done, they admired at their great fortitude, and pitied their calamity. During this interval, a certain person shot a dart at Castor, and wounded him in his nose, whereupon he presently pulled out the dart and shewed it to Titus and complained that this was unfair treatment: so Cæsar reproved him that shot the dart, and sent Josephus, who then stood by him, to give his right hand to Castor. But Josephus said, that he would not go to him, because these pretended petitioners' meant nothing that was good; he also restrained those friends of bis who were zealous to go to him. But still there was one Æneas, a deserter, who said he would go to him. Castor also called to them, that somebody would come and receive the mioney which he had with him; this made Æneas the more earnestly to run to him, with his bosom open. Then did Castor take up a great stone and threw it at him, which missed him, because he guarded himself against it but still it wounded another soldier that was coming to him. When Cæsar understood that this was a delusion, he perceived that mercy in war, is a pernicious thing, because such cunning tricks have less place under the exercise of greater severity. So he caused the engine to work more strongly than before, on account of his anger at the deceit put upon him. But Castor and his companions set the tower on fire when it began to give way, and leaped through the flame into an hidden vault that was under it, which made the Romans farther suppose that they were men of great courage, as having cast themselves into the fire.


How the Romans took the second wall twice, and got all ready for

taking the third wall.

& l. Now Cæsar took this wall there, on the fifth day after he had taken the first; and when the Jews had fled from him he entered into it with a thousand armed men and those of his choice troops, and this at a place where were the merchants of wool, the braziers, and the market for cloth, and where the narrow streets led obliquely to the wall. Wherefore if Titus had either demolished a larger part of the wall immediately, or had come in, and according to the law of war, had laid waste what was left, this victory would not, I suppose, have been mixed with any loss to himself. But now out of the hope he had that he should make the Jews ashamed of their obstinacy, by not being willing, when he was able, to afflict them more than he needed to do, he did not widen the breach of the wall, in order to make a safer retreat upon occasion ; for he did not think they would lay snares for him that did them such a kindness. When, therefore he came in, he did not permit his soldiers to kill any of those they caught, nor to set fire to their houses neither; nay, he gave leave to the seditious if they had a mind, to fight without any harm to the people, and promised to restore the people's effects to them; for he was very desirous to preserve the city for his own sake, and the temple for the sake of the city. As to the people, he had them of a long time ready to comply with his proposals ; but as to the fighting men, this humanity of his seemed a mark of his weakness, and they imagined that he made these proposals because he was not able to take the rest of the city. They also threatened death to the people if they should any one of them say a word about a surrender.-They, moreover, cut the throats of such as talked of a peace, and then attacked those Romans that were come within the wall, some of them they met in the narrow streets, and some they fought against from their houses, while they made a sudden sally out at the upper gates, and assaulted such Romans as were near the wall, till those that guarded the wall were so affrighted, that they leaped down from the towers, and retired to their several camps. Upon which, a great noise was made by the Romans that were within, because they werc encompassed

round on every side by their enemies; as also by them that were without, because they were in fear for those that were left in the city. Thus did the Jews grow more numerous perpetually, and had great advantages over the Romans by their full knowledge of those narrow lanes; and they wounded a great many of them, and fell upon them, and drove them out of the city. Now these Romans were at present forced to make the best resistance they could for they were not able, in great numbers, to get out at the breach in the wall, it was so narrow. It is also probable, that all those that were gotten within had been cut to pieces, if Titus had not sent them succours; for he ordered the archiers to stand at the upper ends of these narrow lanes, and he stood himself wliere was the greatest multitude of his enemies, and with his darts he put a stop to them; as with him did Domitius Sabinus also, a valiant man, and one that in this battle appeared so to be. Thus did Cæsar continue to shoot darts at the Jews continually, and to hinder them from coming upon his men, and this until all his soldiers had retreated out of the city.

2. And thus were the Romans driven out, after they had possessed themselves of the second wall. Whereupon, the fighting men that were in the city were lifted up in their minds, and were elevated upon their good success, and began to think that the Romans would never venture to come into the city any more ; and that, if they kept within it themselves, they should not, be any more conquered. For God had blinded their minds for the transgressions they had been guilty of, nor could they see how much greater forces the Romans had than those that were now expelled, no more than they could discern how a famine was creeping upon them; for hitherto they had fed themselves out of the public miseries, and drank the blood of the city. But now poverty had for a long time seized upon the better part, and a great many had already died for want of necessaries : although the seditious indeed supposed the destruction of the people to be an easement to themselves ; for they desired that none others might be preserved but such as were against a peace with the Romans, and were resolved to live in opposition to them, and they were pleased when the multitude of those of a contrary opinion were consumed, and being then freed from an heavy burden. And this was their disposition of mind with regard to those

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