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plated by the Court of Directors were intended only for the education of the natives of India, the promotion of Science being an object of very inferior importance. But to all those, who have had an opportunity of getting acquainted with the nature of a university, it requires no explanation that a sound and fertilizing instruction in Natural Science is only to be looked for, when the professors or instructors themselves are in constant intercourse with nature, studying by observation and experiment to enlarge their own views, and correctly to interpret the many-fold action of the natural forces. If merely the passing through a prescribed course of learning were sufficient to fit the student to be a teacher in his turn, where would be the sources of improvement in Science, or its application? We should be thrown back to the scholastic age, when the essence of scientific condition consisted in a knowledge of the dogmas of defunct philosophers, and research was confined to the discovery of new interpretations of their words, a time, when industry and the art of applying the forces of nature to our purposes were at their lowest level. The choice of the term of university itself, the name implying activity in both directions, research and instruction--sufficiently attests that the authors of the despatch of the 19th July, 1855, were fully aware of the importance attached to the spirit in which the foundation of an establishment for the highest education should be undertaken.
After what has been already said, it is hardly necessary to dwell at greater length on the local advantages to be derived from universities in India. Amongst those deserving of particular consideration, the education of good and competent teachers for the many schools and colleges in other parts of the country is certainly not the smallest. If it is an object of the new scheme to let the whole people of India partake of the benefits accruing from a knowledge of the principles of Science, this would only partially be accomplished, if instruction was confined to the capitals and their immediate neighbourhood.
A university, satisfactorily to answer its purpose, must comprise a representation of all departments of the field of knowledge which it is intended to cultivate. In Natural Science, almost every branch is dependent to a certain degree upon the rest, and the entire neglect of one would necessarily impede the progress and take away from the effective teaching of the others. If instruction in one particular direction be omitted, the professors of the other departments must include the elements of that branch to a certain extent in their own courses, in order to make them intelligible to their pupils. Such an arrangement would consume a part of their time and care, which would otherwise have been devoted to their own departments, Speaking in a higher sense, Science is one whole, and the several branches are only its development in different directions.
To lay the foundation of institutions intended to ensure the uniform advancement of knowledge and instruction in all parts of science in India is not so great or difficult a task, as it would perhaps at first sight appear. The heads of the different branches, if for the commencement a representation only of the principal subjects is desired, are comparatively few, and might be further developed or augmented in the course of time, if the demand should require it. In the various colleges and other public institutions already in existence, the germs of museums, cabinets, laboratories and libraries may be found, which have only to be improved upon, completed or united, and subjected to a good scientific management. A good collection or complete cabinet of phy. sical or other instruments is always a work of time. If the most indispensable technical apparatus for instruction and investigation are once provided, then, comparatively small annual or monthly contributions from Government, at the disposal of the competent representatives of departments, will suffice to obtain in time, valuable and useful establishments.
ART. VII.-" The Friend of India,” July—December, 1855. The
Rajmahal Hills, or Damun-2-koh ; Journal of a Tour, &c. by Capt. W. S. Sherwill, 66th Goorka Regt.
In Book XI. Chapter II. of Elphinstone's History of India, the reader is presented with the following narration :-
“ A. D. 1676. The Emperor Alamgér, (commonly styled Aurangzíb) had scarcely returned from this unsuccessful expedition, (against the Affghans) when an extraordinary insurrection broke out near the capital. A sect of Hindu devotees, called Satuaramis, were settled near the town of Nárul : they were principally engaged in trade and agriculture ; and though generally peaceable, carried arms, and were always ready to use them in their own defence. One of their body, having been mobbed and beaten by the comrades of a soldier of the police, with whom he had a quarrel, collected some of his brethren to retaliate on the police. Lives were lost, and the affray increased, until several thousand Satuaramis were assembled ; and the chief authority of the place having taken part against them, they defeated a band of troops, regular and local, which he had got together; and finally took possession of the town of Nárul. An inadequate force sent against them from Delhi was defeated, and served only to add to their reputation ; a repetition of the same circumstance raised the wonder of the country ; and, joined to their religious character, soon led to a belief that they were possessed of magical powers ; swords would not cut, nor bullets pierce them : while their enchanted weapons dealt death at every blow.--The belief that they were invincible nearly made them so in reality. Many of the zemindars of the neighbourhood took part with them ; no troops could be got to face them ; and as they approached Delhi, Aurangzib ordered his tents to be prepared to take the field, and with his own hand wrote extracts from the Korán, to be fastened to the standards. as a protection against enchantment. The absolute necessity of re. sistance, and the exertions of some chiefs both Mussulman and Hindú. at last prevailed on the royal troops to make a stand, when the in: surgents were defeated and dispersed with great loss. But the previous success had tempted many of the Hindú population to take up arms, and had thrown the whole provinces of Ajmír and Agra into such confusion that Aurangzíb thought his own presence necessary to restore order."
In one of the late Dr. Arnold's delightful chapters on the fortunes of the Roman Commonwealth is a description, as fol. lows, of certain events, which occurred in the Island of Sicily :
“ B. C. 102, Eunus, a Syrian by birth, was the slave of a citizen of Euna named Antigenes ; and had acquired great influence amongst his companions in bondage by pretending to divine inspiration, and particularly to a knowledge of the future. Amongst many guesses
OWS. . C. 102Antigendage by the
into futurity, some were likely to be verified by the event, and these established his reputation ; so that at last he professed himself to be favoured with constant communication from heaven ; and it is said that he used to secrete in his mouth some lighted combustible substance, and thus amazed the vulgar by seeming to breathe forth smoke and fire, as if under the immediate impulse of the god, who spoke from within him. The belief in his miraculous endowments was so general, that the slaves of another citizen of Euna, named Demophilus, unable to bear longer the cruelty with which they were treated, and bent on revenging themselves, applied first to Eunus, and enquired of him, if the gods would grant success to their attempts. Eunus eagerly caught at the opportunity thus offered him ; assured them of the favour of heaven ; and exhorted them to execute their purpose without delay. The slaves, employed on the several estates in the neighbourhood of Euna, were excited by the call of the slaves of Demophilus ; a body of four hundred (400) men was collected ; and they entered the town under the command of Eunus himself, whose trick of breathing fire is said to have produced a great impression on the minds of his followers. The insurgents were instantly joined by the slaves in the town; and an indiscriminate massacre of the free inhabitants followed, in which men, women, and children were treated with equal cruelty. Demophilus and his wife were seized at their country-house, dragged in triumph to Euna, and there murdered ; but their daughter was saved by the slaves, in gratitude for kindnesses which they had always met with at her hands. Meantime Eunus spared out of the general slaughter such of the citizens of Euna as understood the manufacture of arms, and compelled them to labour in order to supply his followers with weapons. He also took to himself the title and the ensigns of a king, while he bestowed those of queen on the female slave who lived with him; and he formed a council consisting of those of his associates most eminent for their courage or ability. In three days he was at the head of six thousand men tolerably armed, besides a great multitude provided with merely hatchets, spits, or such weapons as they could find ; and the number of the insurgents daily increasing, he was enabled to overrun the country, and several times to encounter with success the Roman forces, which attempted to oppose him. The example presently became contagious ; Cleon, a Cilician slave, took up arms in another part of the island ; and far from attempting to rival Eunus, he immediately acknowledged him as king, and acted in every thing by his orders. L. Hypsæus, one of the prætors, who arrived from Rome about a month after the com. mencement of the revolt, brought a regular army of eight thousand (8000) men against the insurgents, but was outnumbered by them, and defeated. Several other Roman officers met with the same bad fortune ; and the slaves made themselves masters of many of the towns of the island. Their career was first checked by M. Perpena, one of the prætors, and afterwards finally stopped by the consul, P. Rupilius. This officer first recovered the town of Taurominjum after a long blockade, in which the insurgents were reduced to the utmost ex
tremities of famine ; and having put to death all those who fell into his hands, he proceeded to besiege Euna, the first scene of the revolt, and their principal stronghold. The sure process of blockade rendered the condition of the besieged desperate ; Cleon was killed in a sally ; and the place was in a short time betrayed to the Romans. Eunus escaped from the town, but was soon afterwards taken, and died, it is said, in prison of disease ; after which Rupilius proceeded to regulate the island, and ten (10) Commissioners were sent from Rome to assist in the settlement, in the manner which we have seen regularly practised by the Senate after the conclusion of its wars with Antiochus and Perseus, with Achaia and Carthage. The revolt was thus apparently suppressed ; but the cause of the insurgents found everywhere so many who sympathized with it, that similar attempts were made within a few years in several other parts of the empire. A serious disturbance soon broke out for the second time in Sicily. When C. Marius was looking for troops in every quarter to repel the invasion of the Cimbri, the Senate empowered him to demand assistance from the more distant allies of the Republic. He accordingly sent to Nicomedes, king of Bithynia, who excused himself by saying that so large a portion of his subjects had been carried off for slaves, that he was unable to raise the force demanded of him. The Senate then issued an order, that no freeborn native of any State in alliance with Rome, should be kept as a slave in any of the Roman provinces ; and the provincial magistrates were desired to liberate within their jurisdictions all who came within the terms of the decree. Accordingly Licinius Nerva, the prætor of Sicily began to set at liberty above eight hundred (800) slaves within a few days : but the rich slaveowners persuaded him to suspend his proceedings ; and he referred all who applied to him for liberty to the decision of their own masters, The slaves, thus disappointed of their hopes, resolved to obtain their freedom for themselves : insurrections broke out in several parts of the island, and though partially suppressed, revived with redoubled fury. Sabrius and Athenio were two of the chief insurgents : the latter displayed considerable military talents, and accustomed his men to regular discipline. He also, like Eunus, appealed to the superstition of his followers, and declared that the stars had foretold that he should be king over all Sicily. Several Roman prætors were defeated with loss in successive attempts to reduce the revolters ; and the whole of Sicily became a scene of plunder and destruction ; many of the free inhabitants of the poorer class availed themselves of the general confusion to carry on an organized system of devastation throughout the country. At length M. Aquilius, consul, shut the insurgents up in their strongholds, and surrounded them with lines of circumvallation, till famine obliged them to surrender. Many had fallen by the sword in several previous engagements ; and those who at last submitted were sent to Rome, to afford sport by fighting with beasts in the amphitheatre. But, it is said, they preserved their fierceness to the last ; and instead of combating with the beasts, turned their swords against one another, the last survivor completing the slaughter by killing himself. The peace of the island, thus with difficulty