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Sect. I.

The necessity of connectives for this purpose.

them. If it is produced as an exception, there are also exceptive conjunctions for that purpose ‡. Both the last mentioned orders are comprehended under the general name disjunctive. If the latter sentence include the reason of what had been affirmed in the preceding, the casual is used §. If, on the contrary, it contain an inference, it must be introduced by an illative. Besides these, there is in every tongue a number of phrases, which have the power of conjunctions in uniting sentences, and are of great utility in composition, both for enabling the orator to hit with greater exactness the relations almost infinitely diversified that may subsist between the thoughts, and for the variety they afford in that part of the speech, wherein variety is more needed than in any other *. It likewise deserves our notice, that several of those words which are always classed by grammarians and lexicographers among the adverbs, have, in uniting the several parts of a discourse, all the effect of conjunctions tt. The general name of connexive, I shall therefore apply indiscriminately to them all.

+ But, or, however, whereas.

§ For.

Yet, nevertheless.

Then, therefore.

* Add to this, in like manner, on the contrary, in short, proceed, to return, to conclude. We might produce phrases, if necessary,

corresponding to each of the above orders.

++ Such are some adverbs of time, as then, signifying at that time, hitherto, formerly; of place, as here, thus far; of order, as first, secondly, finally; of resemblance, as thus accordingly; of contrariety, as else, otherwise, contrariwise.

Of the connectives employed in combining the sentences in a discourse.

SECT. II...Observations on the manner of using the connectives in combining sentences.

Ir remains to make a few observations with regard to the right manner of using the materials above specified, for connecting sentences and paragraphs. It is not indeed by any use of them, that we can propose to add much energy to the style, for that is rarely the gift of these particles; but we may employ them so as to preclude the irksomeness and languor which invariably result from an improper use of them.

My first observation shall be, that as there are many conjunctions and connective phrases appropriated to the coupling of sentences that are never employed in joining the members of a sentence, so there are several conjunctions appropriated to the latter use, which are never employed in the former; and some that are equally adapted to both these purposes. This distinction in connectives will be found in different instances to flow from different sources. In some it is a natural distinction arising from the very import of the words; in which case we shall always find, on inquiry, that it obtains alike in every tongue. In other instances it is a distinction merely customary, founded on the usages which prevail in a particular language.

Sect. II. Observations on the use of connectives in combining sentences.

As to those particles which are naturally fitted for conjoining clauses and members, but not sentences, they are chiefly the comparative *, the hypotheticalt, and the intentional t. Let it not be imagined, that because a conjunction which falls under one or other of these denominations, is often found in the beginning of a sentence, it serves to couple the sentence with that which went before. Such a connexive will always be discovered, on examination, to have no reference to any thing without the sentence. Consider the following examples. If ye love me, ye will keep my commandments."






"I tell you what I am, ye will not believe me.' "That I might save sinners, I came into the world." It is manifest that the conjunction wherewith each of these sentences begins, marks singly the relation that subsists between the two following clauses, or the nature of the dependence which the one has on the other. It is not even implied in the expression, that any thing had been said before. Accordingly, the same sense, without any variation, is expressed when the clauses are transposed; though sometimes the one arrangement will exhibit it with greater energy than the other. Thus, " Ye will keep my commandments, .. if love me; "Ye will not believe me, though I "tell you what I am ;" and, "I came into the world, "that I might save sinners," are precisely the same



+ If, tho', altho', when, unless, except.

That, so that, insomuch that, lest.

Of the connectives employed in combining the sentences in a discourse.

sentiments with those contained in the examples produced.

BUT may not the subordinate part connected with the additional particle, properly constitute one sentence, and the declaration another? Impossible. Every sentence must contain the enunciation of some proposition distinctly intelligible by itself, and expressive of some judgment, desire, or purpose of the speaker. But what only points to the motive or condition of something yet untold, answers none of these ends. Thus the words, "Unless ye repent," enunciate nothing, and therefore convey to the hearer no information of judgment, purpose, or desire. They give indeed the expectation of such information, and thereby keep up the attention, till we hear what follows. No sooner are the words "ye shall perish" added, than we have the explicit declaration of a certain judgment or sentiment of the speaker. For this reason grammarians have justly remarked, that in every sentence there must be a verb in the indicative mood either expressed or implied. In all the three examples above given, we have it expressed in the second clause of their original form; the verb in the hypothetical part, and in that which marks the intention, is properly in the subjunctive or potential. It matters not whether the mood be distinguished by inflection, arrangement, or particles. In commands, interrogations, and wishes, the indicative is not expressed, but implied, and by the idiom of the tongue sug

Sect. II.

Observations on the use of connectives in combining sentences.

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gested to the understanding with sufficient clearness. The interrogative, and the optative, as well as the imperative, are, in respect of sense, totally distinct from the two moods abovémentioned; though in most languages distinguished only by particles or arrangement *. *. Thus though in these three sentences, "Go away;" "Will ye go away?" and, "O that ye "would go away;" there is properly no indicative expressed, yet it is so manifestly implied, that none who understands the language can be at a loss to perceive, that each of them fully enunciates a certain affection of the speaker, a command, request, or wish. They signify neither more nor less than "I command you "to go away;" "I desire to be informed whether ye "will go away;" and, "I wish that ye would go away."


WHAT hath been said of the conditional and intentional particles, holds still more evidently of the comparative particle than, which as frequently it doth not even need to be followed by a verb in any mood, so it can never begin the sentence without a manifest hyperbaton. The particle as is sometimes strictly a comparative conjunction. Such it is in these words: "As your father did, so do ye.". In this case it falls under the same predicament with the conditional connectives. Sometimes it is equivalent to thus, and may be still called a comparative particle, as it intimates

* Hermes, B. I. chap. viii.

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