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LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
GREAT BRITAIN. PREPARING for publication:-The whole Works of Archbishop Leighton, with his Life; by the Rev. J. N. Pearson ;-Historical Notes respecting the Indians of North America, and the Attempts to civilize and convert them; - The Parish Church; or the Religion and Customs of the Ancient Britons; by the Rev. T. Wood; No. I. of the Christian Examiner, and Church of Ireland Magazine; to be continued monthly.
In the press-The Works of Dr. Lightfoot; edited by the Rev. J. Pitman, 13 vols. 8vo; -Sermons by the Rev. H. M'Neile, 1 vol. ;-Nine Sermons intended to illustrate the leading Truths contained in the Liturgy; by the Rev. F. Close.
Oxford.-Four University Scholarships have been instituted by the munificence of the Dean of Westminster, "for the promotion of classical learning and taste." The candidates are to be Undergraduate Members of the University, without regard to place of birth, school, parentage, or pecuniary circumstances, who shall not have exceeded their sixteenth term from their matriculation. The first election on Dean Ireland's foundation takes place next term.
A Professorship of Political Economy has been founded, on the endowment of Henry Drummond, Esq. The Professor is to be elected by Convocation, and to hold the professorship for the space of five years, being capable of re-election after the lapse of two years. He is to read a course of nine lectures at the least during one of the four academical terms in every year, and to print and publish one of the same lectures. Three persons are to be considered as forming a class; and if the Professor neglects so to read or to publish, according to the intention of the founder, he forfeits all claim to the salary during the period of such neglect.
The late Mr. Rich's valuable collection has been purchased for the British Museum: it consists of Arabic, Persic, Turkish and Syriac manuscripts; gems and other antiquities, from Babylon and Nineveh; and coins, Oriental, Greek, Roman, &c. The report of the parliamentary committee gives the opinions of variCHRIST. OBSERV. No. 281.
ous learned men as to the value of the collection. Professor Lee states, that the manuscripts are the best he has seen collected by any one man. The Syriae consist of sixty-eight volumes: there is one copy of the Philoxenian version of the Gospels, which is valuable. Mr. Lee knows of only one other copy, which is at Oxford. There are copies of the Nestorian and Jacobite editions of the Peschito version of the Scriptures: there is no other complete copy of the Nestorian edition in any of our libraries. The Nestorian and Jacobite sects separated as early as the year 500, and continued their editions in their own churches: the collection of them may therefore be important on certain disputed passages. Some of the copies are a thousand years old. There is a History of the Persecutions of the Nestorians, which Mr. Lee believes to be unique. Among the coins and medals, there is one coin, a Kufic Derham, represented to have been struck in the 79th year of the Mohammedan era, considered worth 1007.; there being only one similar one known, belonging to the Royal Academy of Sweden. Among the Babylonish and Nineveh antiquities is a cylindrical brick, covered with arrow-head characters. The house of commons have voted 7,5007, for the whole collection.
Since the discovery of the Milton manuscript among the state records in the Tower of London, several other papers have been rescued from oblivion, which give information hitherto unknown, relative to the official situation and family affairs of that celebrated man. They have been put into the hands of Mr. Todd, who is about to incorporate them in a memoir of the poet.
A contemporary periodical work, the Gentleman's Magazine, notices Mrs. Hannah More's late publication, entitled "The Spirit of Prayer," in the following terms. We copy the passage, not only to intro duce to our readers this excellent little publication, (which, being a compilation from the author's works already reviewed, and recommended in detail in our pages, scarcely comes within our critical department) but to express the pleasure which we feel in observing the merited eulogy paid to the writings and character of that revered Christian instructress, by the conductors of a respectable and widely 2 T
circulated miscellany, usually perhaps candid, but not always so correct or fortunate, in its theological decisions. We were not however aware, nor do we think, upon reconsideration, that Mrs. More has pushed some devotional points further" than either Scripture or the formularies of our church warrant. The reviewers say: "This is a sacred and a beautiful work; sacred as being the dying legacy of a pious Christian, whose life has finely illustrated the important truths she has uttered; beautiful in the correct purity of its taste, and in the lucid arrangement of its matter. To no female writer of the present age has the Christian world been so largely indebted as to Mrs. Hannah More. We say this deliberately, and, we are aware, at some hazard; but if she may have pushed some doctrinal points further than many sincere persons are disposed to go with her, still we affirm, that those subjects on which all sincere believers are agreed have been enforced and treated with a strength of argument, a felicity of style, and a masculine energy of thought, which we should in vain look for in any contemporary female? Of the instructive tenor of her conversation, let those who have enjoyed the happiness of an introduction to her society at Barley Wood speak. No one ever yet left her uninstructed by her conversation, or unaffected by her cheerful piety and her devout resignation. To a friendly intercourse with the young, she always was partial; and she never failed, almost in an instant, to remove those impressions of awe which would naturally steal upon their minds, from the consideration of her superior talents; such was the suavity of her manners and the gentleness of her heart. The present little volume contains the collected thoughts of the writer upon the subject of prayer, which were hitherto scattered throughout her numerous works. These reflections have been arranged under their several heads, and the whole form a manual worthy the attention of every pious mind."
At a late meeting of the Asiatic Society Mr. Platt, the Librarian of the British and Foreign Bible Society, presented, on their behalf, copies of the translations of the holy Scriptures into various languages, made under the auspices, or at the expense of the Society. This magnificent donation amounted to upwards of one hundred volumes, handsomely bound. The Secretary also read a communication from Mr. Platt, accompanying copies of certain Abyssinian MSS. relative to the constitution and condition of the Christian church
of Ethiopia, and including a calendar of its saints, obtained by the Bible Society, by means of the Rev. Wm. Jowett.-The Abyssinian devotional works contain page after page of prayers and ascriptions of praise to the Virgin Mary, and various other objectionable particulars; but Mr. Platt has translated several prayers of a much higher and more excellent character. We give the following example :-"O my Lord and my God, Jesus Christ, Son of the ever-living Jehovah, I entreat and beseech thee, that thou wouldst pardon my sin and my transgression-thou whose mercy is unbounded! What man is he that sinneth not? Where is the wood that burns not? and who is he, a man, the son of a woman, that doth not commit sin? Unto whom wilt thou look, O Lord Jesus Christ? There is none good and pure be sides thee! And now, O Lord, pardon my sin and trangression, and blot out the hand-writing of my debt that is against me, according to thy mercy and compassion : for thou art merciful and compassionate : to thee be glory and praise! to the Father, to the Son, and to the Holy Ghost, in heaven and on earth, always and for ever and ever. Amen."
The clerks and apprentices of the woollen-drapers, haberdashers, and some other tradesmen in Edinburgh, lately addressed a representation to their employers, requesting that the shops might be shut at such an hour as to enable them to attend the School of Arts, or other institutions, from which they might derive the means of improvement. The representation was immediately attended to, and nearly all who are engaged in these branches of trade now shut their shops at eight o'clock. Most of the tradesmen of Glasgow have followed the laudable example of those of Edinburgh, so as to allow their apprentices to attend Mechanics' Institutions and Reading Rooms.
A work has recently been published at Copenhagen, entitled, "De Originibus et Fatis Ecclesiæ Christianæ in India Orientali; " by Matthew Haquin Hohlenberg. It is well known, that when the Portuguese arrived in India they found there certain Christians of the Nestorian sect, who were afterwards denominated Christians of St. Thomas, according to a tradition that St. Thomas preached the Gospel to the Hindoos. This tradition has been treated by some writers as a fable; but M. Hohlenberg agrees with Dr. Buchanan, who has defended the truth of the tradition in his Christian Researches. The
1825.] Italy... Sweden... Egypt... Algiers...India... Guiana...Mexico. 323
Danish author examines the arguments against the tradition, and labours to prove that the Apostle was really the founder of the Christian church in India. He then traces the history of this church up to the arrival of the Portuguese. The inscriptions which Dr. Buchanan has preserved, but which have not been decyphered, it is said might probably throw some light upon the subject. ITALY.
It is stated in some of the periodical publications that Angelo Maio, pursuing his palimpsest researches, has discovered voluminous fragments of Polybius and Diodorus; an entire book of the latter, containing details of the Phoenicians; and numerous fragments of Menander.
The first expedition to Columbia, from Sweden, sailed last October, freighted with Swedish iron and steel.-A project is afloat, at Copenhagen, to introduce "Macadamization " into Holstein.
Mohammed Ali Pacha, the Viceroy, among his other projects for the improvement of his states, has lately established telegraphs from Alexandria to Cairo, and relays of horses for the despatch of couriers. He has also founded a college, supported by himself, at a short distance from Cairo, in the palace of his son, Ismael Pacha: it already contains one hundred students. Some of the students are studying the European languages, for the purpose of translating the works which Ali Pacha intends to introduce. He has also established a printing press, and published an Arabic and Italian Dictionary, with some military works, translated from Italian into Turkish. It is his intention to build an hospital for persons infected with the plague; and, by the precautions he prescribes, it is hoped that Egypt may be freed from this distemper. French and Italian physicians are sent all over the country to vaccinate the children; a mea. sure the more extraordinary, as it opposes the strongest religious prejudices of the people. The country is making rapid advances in agriculture and commerce, particularly in the culture and exportation of cotton.
The city of Algiers and its neighbourhood were visited with a tremendous earthquake on the 2d of March, which continued at intervals for the five follow
ing days. It has totally destroyed the town of Blida, burying in its ruins nearly all the inhabitants. Out of a population of 15,000 souls, chiefly Moors, Jews, and Arabs, it is asserted that about 300 only have been saved, and those in a sadly mutilated state. INDIA.
Semaphoric telegraphs are about to be introduced into Bengal; by means of which it is calculated communications can be made between Calcutta and Madras in forty-eight hours.
The car of Juggurnauth is kept at Chandernagore, which belongs to the French. This huge car used to be dragged along the main road leading to Taldanga; but the road having undergone repair, the French authorities sent word to the proprietors of the Ruth, that as the wheels of the car. would tear up the road, they could not suffer it to be dragged over it, unless they consented to pay five hundred rupees for its repair; in consequence of which the Ruth was not allowed to be drawn, in spite of the earnest entreaties of the Hin. doos. "The conduct of the French," remarks the Calcutta Missionary Herald, "has not created any spirit of rebellion among the Hindoos. O that the rulers would exercise their authority in abolishing the burning of widows! And that they might do it without causing any stir among the people, the prohibition of the removal of Juggurnauth's car fully testifies."
The importation of cotton-wool from the East-Indies, which in 1792 was only seven pounds weight, now amounts to upwards of ten millions.
Baron Milius, the governor of Cayenne, has sent an expedition up the country, composed of two scientific men, a physician and a missionary, with a view partly to examine the soil and its productions, and to complete the topography and geography of Guiana, but especially to open a communication with the natives, and to lay a foundation for their civilization and conversion to Christianity.
The American journals state, that the President of Mexico had published a decree of the Sovereign Congress, authorizing him to receive proposals for cutting a communication between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, by the isthmus of Tehuantepec.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
A Catechetical Exposition of the Apostles' Creed; by J. T. Law, A. M. Chancellor of Lichfield and Coventry. 1 vol. 8vo. 9s.
Sermons, by the Rev. J. E. N. Moles worth. 1 vol. 8vo. 10s. 6d.
Supplement to the Protestant's Companion; by the Rev. C. Daubeny, LL.D. Archdeacon of Sarum. 1 vol. 8vo. 6s. 6d. Formularies of Faith in the Reign of Henry VIII. 8vo. 7s.
A Collection of Passages from the Holy Bible, which combat the Errors of the Church of Rome. 1s.
The Bible prohibited, a Dialogue between a Roman-Catholic Priest and a Roman-Catholic Layman. 4d. Reflections on the Word of God; by W. Ward of Serampore. 6s. 6d. Rickard's Hymns for Private Devo
A Letter to R. Wardlaw, D.D. on Infant Baptism; by John Birt.
Calendariam Palestina: comprising the Natural History of Syria; and the Jewish Fasts and Festivals, on a large sheet; by William Carpenter. Also, an Edition in 12mo. with a Dissertation on the Hebrew Months, from a Tract of Michaëlis.
Letters to C. Butler, Esq. on the Roman Catholic Church; by the Rev. H. Phillpotts, D.D. 1 vol. 8vo.
The Doctrines of our Saviour in Harmony with those of St. Paul, the Hulsean Prize Dissertation for 1824; by J. A. Jeremie, B. A.
The Doctrine of the Church of Geneva, illustrated in a Series of Sermons, preached by the Modern Divines of that city; edited by the Rev. J. S. Pons. 8vo. 10s.
A Picture of England, from the Arrival of the Saxons down to the Eighteenth Century; by J. Aspin. 7s. 6d.
The Negro's Memorial; or the Aboli tionist's Catechism; by an Abolitionist. 8vo. 2s. 6d.
Travels among the Arab Tribes inhabiting the Countries East of Syria and Palestine; by J. S. Buckingham. 4to. plates. 3. 15s. 6d.
The Dublin Philosophical Journal and Scientific Review, No. 1. 7s. 6d.
The Century of Inventions of the Marquis of Worcester, from the Original Manuscripts, with Notes, and a Biographical Memoir; by C. F. Partington. 12mo. 7s. 6d.
The Philosophy of Trade and Manufactures; by J. Fontaine. 1s.
The Poetical Works and Letters of Thomas Gray; with a Memoir of his Life and Writings, and a Portrait of the Author. 2 vols. crown 8vo. 15s.; large paper, 24s.
An Attempt to establish the First Principles of Chemistry by Experiment; by T. Thomson, M. D. 2 vols. 8vo. 30s.
A Reply to Mr. Brougham, on the Education of the People; by the Rev. E. W. Grinfield. 8vo.
Appendix to the Report of the Trial of Lieut. Dawson, R. A.; being an Appeal to the Lords Archbishops of Canterbury and York, and to the Lord Bishop of London.
The History and Antiquities of Bath Abbey Church; by J. Britton, F. A. S. Royal 8vo. 11.
The History and Antiquities of Wells Cathedral, with 24 engravings; by J. Britton, F. A. S. Medium 4to. 21. 10s.
The History of Paris, from the earliest Period to the present Day. 3 vols. 8vo. 21. 2s.
The Historical Works of Sir J. Balfour of Kinnaird. 4 vols. 8vo. 3.
Origines; or Remarks on the Origin of several Empires, States, and Cities; by the Right Hon. Sir W. Drummond. 2 vols. 8vo. 24s.
The History of Italy, from the Fall of the Western Empire; by G. Percival. 2 vols. Svo. 30s.
CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. IN proceeding with our abstract of the last published Report of the Society, we arrive at the
Calcutta and North-India Mission. The appointment of Dr. Reginald Heber to the See of Calcutta is an event of the greatest promise to the cause of Christianity, in the vast regions of the East connected with the United Kingdom. In
reference to this Society, the Committee warmly congratulate the members on his lordship's appointment: having long been its zealous friend and able advocate, his countenance and support in its enlarging concerns in India was confidently anticipated.
It was stated in the Twenty-second Report, that the Committee had placed the sum of 1000l. at the disposal of the
late Bishop of Calcutta, for the use of Bishop's College: this was to be considered as a grant for the year 1822; and a confident expectation was expressed that the liberality of the members of the Society would enable the Committee to appropriate a like sum annually to the benefit of the College. The Bishop's lamented death occurring, no further steps were taken in India in reference to the grant, On the appointment of the Rev. Dr. Heber to the vacant See, the Committee placed at his lordship's disposal this sum, with a request that he would be pleased to appropriate it in such manner as might seem most expedient, and would apprise the Committee in what way, in his lordship's judgment, the Society could hereafter most effectually render assistance to the college-the statutes having been framed with a wisdom and liberality which afford opportunity, both to the local governments and the religious societies -connected with the United Church, of co-operating with the College to the attainment of its great ends. His lordship, at a monthly meeting of the Committee, stated, that he had reason to believe that the sum might be most advantageously applied, in placing the printing depart ment of the College on an efficient footing. His lordship had appointed the Senior Chaplain, the Rev. Daniel Corrie, a warm and steady friend of the Society, to the Archdeaconry of Calcutta. In reference to the Society's operations in Calcutta and its vicinity, the Corresponding Committee report the arrival of several new missionaries, and the useful employment of others. The native female schools had increased to twenty-two; and of the persons who were first admitted to the schools, three young women had made sufficient proficiency to be employed as teachers. They have each charge of a school containing from fifteen to twentyfive girls, and acquit themselves with much credit. Many other women, who were under instruction, would soon be able to engage in similar undertakings. The Marchioness of Hastings had rendered important aid to the female schools, especially by visiting them in person. The parents were much attracted by her ladyship's visiting lanes and gullies where Europeans are seldom seen, and by her condescension to their children. The Coresponding Committee had circulated proposals for the erection of a central school, for the especial improvement of the first classes of all the other schools. Very considerable contributions were in a shor
time collected, for that object and the general support of native female education. The press also has been entirely employed, no less than 17,150 tracts and school-books having been printed for the The use of schools and missionaries. Society's affairs in the north of India, had been placed under the charge of an Auxiliary Society; and the Bishop of Calcutta had lent his powerful sanction in placing them in a relation to the Episcopate, which gives the best promise of usefulness.
On & review of the different stations of the North-India Mission, it appears that there were employed in it 12 Missionaries; two of whom are natives, and the rest These are assisted by 10 Europeans. Europeans, of whom six are females; and by 75 native men and youths, and 28 native females-making a total of 125 agents in this mission. The schools of the mission were in number 65; and there were under instruction in these schools, 2453 boys, 520 girls, and 65 adults—making a total of 3038 scholars.
The expenditure, from the 1st of July 1822 to the 31st of August 1823, amounted to 84,588 rupees; or about 10,5731. reckoning the rupee at 2s. 6d.
Madras and South-India Mission.
The Corresponding Committee at Madras had continued, with the best effect, their vigilant superintendance of the Society's concerns in the south of India. In the different stations of this mission, there are employed 9 European Missionaries; assisted by 8 Europeans of whom 7 are females, and by 143 native mer and youths-forming a total of 160. The schools, at the last returns, amounted to 119; and contained 4287 boys, 40 girls, and 45 students at Cotym Collegemaking a total of 4372 scholars. Corresponding Committee had collected a mass of information relative to the state of the natives in some of the chief dis. tricts of the Madras Presidency, which cannot fail to afford most valuable aid to the Society. Protestant and RomanCatholic Missions had been established, at different periods, in several parts of the countries composing the southern portion of the Indian peninsula. Brahminical influence is generally on the decline-and there is no aversion, on the part of the people, to receive books, or to listen to discourses on religious subjects Every year witnesses increased proofs of the value and importance of missionary establishments in this country, and their growing efficiency and utility.