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of Paul's solicitude (for his welfare): for who could be more affectionate than he, when from such a distance, and surrounded as he was with so much business, he shewed so provident a regard for the health of the disciple, and gave particular directions for rectifying his stomachic disorder? And what can equal the virtue of Timothy, who so despised luxury, and derided expensive entertainments, that he fell into an infirm state of health from excessive rigour and intense fasting; for that he was not originally infirm, but destroyed the strength of his stomach by fasting and drinking water, may be learnt from the Apostle himself, who signifies as much very clearly, for he did not simply say, "use a little wine," but premised, "drink no longer water," and then added this advice about drinking wine and the word, "no longer," signifies, that up to that time he did drink water, and for that reason was become infirm. Who can avoid being struck with his ascetic and strict life? He grasped heaven itself, and rushed to the very summit of virtue: his master bears this testimony of him when he says, (1 Cor. iv. 17.) “ I have sent unto you Timotheus, who is my beloved son, and faithful in the Lord:" and when Paul calls him son, and faithful and beloved son, these words are an adequate description of all his virtues; for the judgments of the saints are not grounded in partiality or enmity, but are free from all prejudice. Timothy would not have been so much regarded, if he had been Paul's son by birth; nor so admirable as he is, now that, being no relation to him, he has, by a kindred piety, advanced himself to be his adopted son, preserving in all respects the linea ments of his divine philosophy with great exactness-for as a steer and bull harnessed together, so they jointly drew the (Gospel) yoke in every part of the world, and he was not at all inferior, notwithstanding inequality of age, but his zeal qualified him to grapple in the la

bours of his master: and this also is attested by Paul himself in these words, (1 Cor. xvi. 10, 11.) "Let no man therefore despise him; for he worketh the work of the Lord, as I also do." You see how he bears witness to his zeal and constancy: then, that he may not be thought to say these things from partial affection, he makes his hearers themselves become witnesses to the virtue of his (adopted) son, saying, "Ye know the proof of him, that, as a son with the father, he hath served with me in the Gospel." (Phil. ii. 22.) Ye, says he, have yourselves had experience of his virtue and tried activity of mind; but though he had risen to such a height of piety, he did not grow confident upon it, but was anxious and fearful: therefore he fasted even with strictness; and he was not of the same mind as many are, who, after they have given themselves to fasting for ten days only, or perhaps twenty, then immediately break loose (or perhaps "destroy all the benefit,” καταλύεσιν απαντα,) from all (restraint): but he was not of such a disposition, nor did he say to himself any thing of this kind; "What need have I to fast any more? I have obtained the victory, I have subdued my lusts, I have mortified my body, I have struck terror into evil spirits, I have expelled satan (himself), I have raised the dead, I have cleansed lepers, I am formidable to all adverse powers; how can I any longer need fasting, and the stability resulting from it ?" No such thing did he speak, or (even) think: but the more he abounded in good works, so much the more he feared and trembled: and this spiritual wisdom (piλooopiar) he learnt from his master; for even he, who was caught up into the third heavens, and transported into paradise, and heard unutterable words, and had such great mysteries imparted to him, and traversed the whole world, like a winged (messenger)...even he, when writing to the Corinthians, said, (1 Cor. ix. 27.) I fear "lest that by any means, when

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I have preached to others, I myself should be a cast-away." And if Paul feared, after such great attainments (in the Christian life), he who could say, "To me the world is crucified, and I unto the world," much more does it become us to fear; and the more we have abounded in good works, the greater reason there is for this fear, for then the devil is more exasperated: then he is more incensed when he sees us regulating our lives carefully; when he sees grace and virtue accumulated, like bales of merchandize of great magnitude; then he is eager to effect a shipwreck, that will be more than commonly ruinous: for an abject person of little worth, if he be supplanted and fall, doth not inflict so great an injury upon the community; but he that stands conspicuous upon an eminence, on the pinnacle of virtue, known and marked by all men, and held in great admiration, when he is assaulted and falls, (he) makes a great downfal and damage, not only be cause he has fallen from a high station, but also because he has made many of those who looked up to him decline in zeal and piety; and as in the body, when some other (inferior) member is destroyed, the damage is not great, but when the eyes are blinded, or the head wounded, the whole body becomes useless in future, so may we say of those saints who had made great attainments in righteousness; when (their light) is extinguished; when they stain their high reputation, they inflict on the rest of the body an universal and intolerable injury..

Wherefore Timothy, being aware of all these things, secured himself on every side; for he knew that youth is intractable [or atrocious, xaλemov], unstable, easily deceived, slippery, and needs a strong curb: it is as a pile of wood lying exposed, and easily taken [by every passenger], or quickly set on fire for which reason he fenced it on every side, that it might submit to coercion, and diligently endeavoured by all

means to slacken this flame, and checked with much vehemence this horse so impatient of bit and bridle, till he had repressed its sallies, till he had made it tractable, and delivered it up into the hands of reason, to hold the rein and exercise a vigorous authority over it. He said, "Let the body be weak, but let not the soul be weak: let the flesh be curbed, and let not the progress of the soul towards heaven be impeded." And, besides all these things, this circumstance in particular must raise our admiration of him, that though so ill, and struggling with such great infirmity, yet he never neglected the things of God, but with more (speed) than men of vigorous health, he flew about every where,-one while to Ephesus, then to Corinth; in Macedonia often, in Italy, in every part of the earth and sea he appeared with his master, and shared all his conflicts and dangers. The infirmity of his body did not damp the piety of his soul-so powerful is Divine zeal, with such swiftness does not wing the soul! For as they who have a sound and healthful frame, will derive no profit from it, if the soul be abject, inert, and sluggish, so will the infirmities of the infirm be no injury to them, if the soul be strenuous and alert.

But this admonition and counsel may to some appear to countenance immoderate drinking of wine; but it does no such thing, for if any one weighs the expression itself carefully, (he will observe) that the admonition supposes a case of fasting rather (than intemperance); for take notice that Paul did not give this advice in the beginning, in the outset, but when he saw all his strength thoroughly impaired, then he advised it, and then not absolutely, but with a certain limitation, for he did not say positively, Use wine, but a little wine; not because Timothy needed such (cautious) exhortation and counsel, but because we do: for this reason, it is that when writing to Timothy, he assigns to us the just measures and bounds in drink

ing of wine, bidding (him) drink as much as would relieve his weakness, as would impart health and not another disease: for immoderate drinking of wine produces disorders of mind and body, no less than too much drinking of water; yea more numerous and more grievous disorders, for it introduces into the mind a conflict of passions and a storm of absurd and wicked thoughts, and makes the body weak, tumid, and watery. For the texture of the earth, when infested by a watery deluge, is not so rapidly and constantly dissolved as the strength of the body is, when it is relaxed, slides away and disappears, by being exhausted with continual ebriety. Let us therefore avoid extremes on either side: let us both take care of the health of the body, and also restrain its exorbitance; for wine was given us by God, not that we should be intemperate, but cautious (in the use of it), that we should be exhilarated, not oppressed (by it); for he says (Psalm ciii. 16), "Wine maketh glad the heart of man:" whereas you make wine the occasion of depressing it; for intemperate drinkers are clouded by heaviness of heart, much darkness overspreads their intellect: it is an excellent medicine, if it be tempered with an excellent moderation. And this passage is of use to us against heretics, who disparage the things which God has created; for if it were one of those which are prohibited, Paul would not have allowed it, he would not have said that he should use wine. And not only against heretics (is this passage applicable), but also to some more abstemious persons among our own brethren, who, when they see men that are inebriated behaving indecently, instead of censuring them, throw the blame upon the fruit (of the vine) which God has given us, saying, Let there be no wine,"and we may reply, Let there be no drunkenness; for wine is the work of God, but drunkenness is the work of the devil. Wine is not the CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 283.

cause of drunkenness, but it is man's intemperance produces it. Blame not the creature of God, but blame the phrenzy of thy fellowservant: but you [here Chrysostom again speaks προς τις αφελετέρως, those simple persons above-mentioned, who argued from the abuse against the use,] instead of punishing and reclaiming him that commits a sin, reproach him that confers a benefit. When therefore we hear men saying such things as these, let us stop their mouths; for not the use (of wine) but the immoderate use produces drunkenness ...drunkenness, that root of all evil. Wine was given to relieve the infirmity of the body, not to destroy the strength of the soul; to remove the sickness of the flesh, not to injure the health of the spirit. Do not then, by an immoderate use of this gift of God, afford a handle to the simple and foolish: for what is more wretched than drunkenness ? A drunkard is a breathing corpse; he is become a devil by his own choice; it is a vice that excludes from pardon, a transgression destitute of excuse, the disgrace of human nature: for the drunkard is not only useless to society, both in private and public affairs, but barely as an object of sight he is of all things the most unpleasant, exhaling offensive effluvia. The eructations and yawnings of the inebriated, and their grating, discordant yells, fill the beholders and attendants with extreme disgust. And what completes the mischief, this vice renders heaven inaccessible, and excludes from eternal felicity: besides ignominy here, intolerable punishment hereafter awaits those that are infected with it. Let us then extirpate this evil habit, and give ear to the Apostle when he says, Use a little wine; for even that little he permitted on ac count of infirmity, insomuch that, if the disciple had been troubled with no malady, he would not have enjoined him to take a little: for in the use of those gifts of God which are the necessaries of life, meat 3 H

ject); for I propose, my beloved brethren, to set before you eight reasons for the multifarious afflictions of the righteous: wherefore let us all exert ourselves with close application of mind, considering that in future we shall have no excuse or apology for being (offended and) scandalized at such events, if, when so many reasons may be alleged for them, we will nevertheless be as much troubled and alarmed as if there were none.

and drink, we are bound to regulate the proportion by the season, and by our own want of them, and by no means to exceed what is requisite and useful, nor to do any thing without reason, in (a rash and foolish) simplicity.

Having enlarged upon the virtues of Timothy, and Paul's solicitude for his welfare, let us proceed to the solution of the questions (which were previously stated). What then are they? for it is necessary to repeat them, that the solution may be the clearer: Why then did God permit so great a saint, and one who had the management of such important affairs, to decline in his health, so that neither he himself nor his master could cure the disease, but must have recourse to the aid of wine? This was the question: the answer ought to be adapted not only to the case of disease and infirmity, but also poverty, hunger, imprisonment, torture, injuries, false accusations, and whatever sufferings of the present life may befal men of admirable piety and goodness; that such persons may be enabled to derive from what I shall this day speak a full and clear answer to those who are disposed to accuse them. For I hear many putting such questions as these: How is it that every day such or such a man, so moderate and equitable, is dragged before a court of justice by another who is lawless and wicked, and undergoes many grievous sufferings, and God permits it? How is it that another is put to death unjustly, by a false accusation? one man is cast into the sea, another down a precipice. And we might produce many instances, both in our own times and in those of our forefathers, of saints who have sustained many and various afflictions. Wherefore, that we may see the reason of all these things, and not be ourselves distressed by them, nor negligently pass over the stumbling block which they present to others, let us attend diligently to what shall now be said (upon the sub

The first reason then is this: God suffers these (righteous persons) to be afflicted, that they may not be suddenly elated by the greatness of their virtues and miracles. The 2d is, That other men may not have a greater opinion of them than comports with human nature, and may not think them gods rather then men. The 3d, That the power of God may be made manifest by its prevailing and getting a victory, and propagating his religion by (such incompetent instruments as) sick men and prisoners. The 4th, That there may be a more conspicuous exercise of patience in the persons themselves, as not serving God for the sake of the reward, but discovering such constancy of mind as even after great afflictions to shew the same attachment as ever. The 5th, That we may exercise our thoughts upon the subject of the resurrection, (and the rewards of the life to come); for when you see a just man who abounds in all virtues suffering an infinite number of afflictions, and departing this life in the midst of them, you will be altogether constrained, even against your will, to form some conception of a judicial sentence (to be pronounced) elsewhere; for if men do not let those depart without a recompence who have suffered for their sake, much less would God ever think of dismissing uncrowned those who have endured such great conflicts (for him): and if he would not choose to deprive them of the reward of their labours, then it is quite clear that there must be, after their departure hence, some other

opportunity of receiving the reward of these labours of the present life. The 6th, That all who are involved in great afflictions, may derive sufficient consolation and encouragement from looking at these (eminent saints), and remembering the evils which have befallen them. The 7th, That when we exhort you to (the imitation of) their virtues, and say to each of you, Emulate Paul, emulate Peter, ye may not be backward to this imitation, from imagining that they who were so eminent in righteousness, must have been partakers of a different nature. The

8th, That when we have occasion to decide the question of man's any felicity or infelicity, we may (hence) learn who ought to be considered as (really) happy, and who wretched and miserable. These then are the reasons: and we ought to prove all of them by the Scriptures, and accurately demonstrate, that these assertions are not the inventions of human reason, but the declaration of the Scriptures; for so will our discourse be more deserving of credit, and be more deeply imminds. pressed upon your (To be continued.)


Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. Ar a time when so many ecclesiastical structures are being erected, and solemnly set apart from all secular uses for the worship of God, it may be interesting to your readers to peruse the usual Form of Consecration, which all who have witnessed the dedication of any of our new churches or chapels must attest to be exceedingly solemn and appropriate. The following is copied from the Bishop of London's Registry, in Doctors' Commons, and is given as used in his lordship's recent consecrations. There will of course be a few alterations according to the character of the particular edifice to be consecrated. In the following form there is no allusion to baptisms, marriages, or funerals; but I be lieve there are appropriate clauses for one or all of these, where they are intended to be solemnized.


The bishop, attended by his chaplain, goes to the church, and is received at the door by the chancellor, registrar, minister, and vestrymen; and being shewn into the vestry room, he there puts on his episcopal robes, and from thence proceeds to the front of

the altar, where the minister presents to him the petition, which the bishop receives, and orders the registrar to read: and the same being read, the bishop declares that he is ready to consecrate the church, according to the prayer of the petition; and he then proceeds to the consecration and dedication thereof, and, with the clergy and others attending him, walks in procession down the church and back, alternately repeating the twentyfourth Psalm-the bishop beginning thus:

1. The earth is the Lord's, and all that therein is: the compass of the world, and they that dwell therein.

2. For he hath founded it upon the seas, and prepared it upon the floods.

3. Who shall ascend unto the hill of the Lord; or who shall rise up in his holy place?

4. Even he that hath clean hands, and a pure heart; and that hath not lift up his mind unto vanity, nor sworn to deceive his neighbour.

5. He shall receive the blessing from the Lord: and righteousness from the God of his salvation.

6. This is the generation of them. 3H 2

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