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punish, according to his judgment, as guided and limited by the naval laws, I trust such power will never be changed. If some of the plans I have known suggested in theory, for the internal discipline of a ship of war, had been attempted in practice, no experienced officer would have risked his character in the command; and our fine fleet had, in such case, be better continued in ordinary.
I doubt, Mr. Editor, if there are punishments "of other and more humane kinds" which would prove really humane in the practice and effects. Solitary confinement is almost impracticable, and in some climates much more severe than the lash. To reserve men to the end of a voyage, to be then tried by a court-martial, would add long imprisonment and apprehension, to much more severe punishment than could, or would, have been inflicted by a captain; and I have not yet heard of a proposed alteration in our code, which would not effectually be a harsh one. Let us war against ignorance and vice, by suitable instruction, and the encouragement of all good conduct; and it will have a much more beneficial effect, thus to do away the necessity of any punishment, than to dispute about the nature of punishment itself.
The sentence in the same page, 366, for which I justly incur your mildly given reproof, will be however found to insinuate no unmerited censure. I most sincerely believe there is no "pretence" in your expressions of "horror" at the practices in question; and I have many valuable friends, genuinely impressed by the same feeling. Yet, in the midst of human imperfections, may not some persons be found who do pretend to more horror than they really feel? It is doubtless possible, and it is made to me probable, from my observance of time, place, and manner, aided also by the clear general purposes of some of those whose talents are
used to produce a powerful effect on that stage on which popularity is courted. If I could not truly say, that I not only do not bear ill will to any individual in the world, but that I feel good will to every such individual, I would not have ventured to give this public opinion of public conduct. The impression has been forced upon me, and I hope it is erroneous. My remark applies not to the sincere; and, if there are no pretenders, it applies not at all. I confess, however, with regard to the sentence itself, that, on perusal after publication, it pleased me less (how numerous soever may be the passages in which alterations would be great improvements, and perhaps omissions still greater,) than any other in my little work, from the fear that it might merit the character you have justly assigned to it.
With regard to punishment, I have, I trust, sufficiently expressed my opinion, that it should be applied most cautiously, and I have also admitted its general inadequacy to the end designed, though no one will deny the necessity of a power of punishing, or that necessity is the only plea for punishment. Whatever may be the faults of the nature of naval punishments, I have never yet heard of a plausible, much less an adaptable, substitute.
With respect to impressment, does it not as yet resolve itself into the following queries? If Great Britain is at war, is it necessary that her fleet should be manned? Can it be manned without impressment? Which evil must we submit to,-to leave our commerce unprotected, and our enemy triumphant, or impress men to complete our ships' crews? Long before any of your valued pages went to the press, I had been earnestly endeavouring to discover means to do away the necessity of impressment; and I have formed an opinion, as I have always declared, that means could be adopted which might prevent that necessity, except upon urgent and tem
porary occasions; and I have never ceased to consider the subject with anxious solicitude. This, I have no doubt, is also done by those who have means of information which I do not possess; and I must there
fore conclude that there are obstacles which I cannot perceive.
In page 369, you say of those gentlemen who would not send their sons to sea, after reading the anonymous pamphlet in question, "Must they not have inquired into the facts of the case, and have found the statements of the pamphlet notoriously true?" In the cases I referred to, the resolution was formed from reading the pamphlet, which was deemed sufficient evidence. Had the gentlemen inquired, they would doubtless have found the particular statements true; but the impression made on many, that such was a general case in the navy, would have been found very incorrect. I have, before and since I wrote my pamphlet, made diligent inquiry from many respectable officers, who all declare they never heard of such atrocities elsewhere, and considered the writer must have been peculiarly unfortunate in having been himself acquainted with them *.
* In reply to this statement, we might oppose the notority of the facts in our sea-port towns. It so happens that the very day we received the gallant admiral's letter, we received a packet inclosing several little pamphlets (dated Devonport, June 28, 1825,) which are at this moment widely circulating in Plymouth and its neighbourhood, with a view to urge the inhabitants to subscribe for a "mariner's chapel." The author is said to be a Dissenting minister, and he states himself in one of these tracts to have been once an officer in the naval service. The merits of his plans or tracts it is not necessary that we should here discuss; but we presume that his personal testimony, as to facts, will not be impeached. At the very time then that Admiral Sir C. Penrose is stating, and we are convinced most ingenuously, his belief that the immoral practices alluded to are very rare, the following statements are widely circulating in Plymouth, without any attempt, that we have heard of, to impeach them, and merely as incidental and average facts, not selected for the occasion, but which happened at the moment to be passing under the writer's
I inclose a little tract written by me for private distribution a few
"The writer has visited the Carnation
own eye, and in the cognizance of the
"Let but an Hindoo or an Asiatic go on board the Carnation, or any other ship that comes in to be paid off, and will he not stand amazed, saying to England, You send missionaries to my country; but, physician, heal thyself? What if he were told the officers and men and women were Christians! What if he were informed the king's proclamation was against this immorality, and yet all hands despised it with impunity! What if he were informed also, that in matters of naval duty,
years since, when it was the fashion among seamen to "pretend" (see page 13 of the tract) to a dislike to the navy: it will shew you my disobedience and contempt to royal edicts, or Admiralty orders, might be punished with death; but in cases of morality or religion, it was of no consequence!"
"The appearance of the Carnation on the Monday afternoon was almost too bad for description. A great exhaustion of spirits appeared among the wretched seamen and mariners: a general languor prevailed fore and aft, among those who were below; and such as were above unrigging the ship, did not appear more lively, excepting the officers. Many of the unhappy females were sleeping in the greatest wretchedness, some on tables, others on lockers, and others on the decks. The Sabbath Bacchanalian revel and festival
had subsided, and God's air was polluted no longer with the horrid oaths and blasphemies of this den of desperadoes against all laws human and divine. Nothing can describe the lower deck of this ship, and all other ships, where such sinners dwell, more powerfully than the picture of Babylon, in Rev. xviii. 2: The habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful
good will, at the same time with my want of ability to give it effect, and also some of my opinions as to the condition of a naval seaman. Were I to address my brother-sailors at present, I should have still more advantages to point out to them, in consequence of those truly beneficial regulations mentioned in my introductory remarks. The benevolently useful and boldly extensive operations of these regulations may well convince all us naval reformers, that the interests of British seamen occupy a large portion of attention, guided by no common talent; and the time has been so well chosen for doing what has been done, that we may confidently rely, that whatever more is useful and feasible will also follow.
I beg leave to repeat my thanks for the manner in which you have reviewed my pamphlet; many parts of which review, as to the principles inculcated, would lead me into cordially concurring observations, longer than the pamphlet itself, if I did not value your time more than my
That the operations of genuine Christian motives may lead to genuine Christian practice, both afloat and ashore, is the sincere wish of your constant reader,
C. V. PENROSE.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
PREPARING for publication :-Archdeacon Jortin's Sermons abridged, by the Rev. G. Whitaker ;-Sermons by the Rev. D. Gordon.
In the press-The Forest Sanctuary, a Poem, by Mrs. Hemans ;- History of India during Lord Hastings's Administration; by H. Prinsep.
Cambridge. The Porson Shakespeare prize is adjudged to J. Hodgson, of Trinity College; and the Members' prize for the
best dissertation in Latin prose, to J. Buckle of Trinity College.
The following statements have been published in the town of Cambridge, by Mr. J. J. Cribb :-More than 300 individuals have probably died in Cambridge of natural small-pox, in the course of twenty-five years preceding the summer of 1824-i. e. 1 in 7 of those who have had the disease. Ten have died in the same period of small-pox from inoculation-i. e. 1 in 113. Three have died of small-pox after vaccination; or
I in 1318 vaccinated. From the joint influence of vaccination and small-pox inoculation, it is very probable that 713 deaths from natural small-pox have been prevented. If all who have been affected, within the given period, with either of these diseases (namely, inoculated small-pox, and natural small-pox, or cow-pox) had been inoculated with small-pox, 64 only would have died. Had all undergone vaccination, five or six only would have died of small-pox. Where one person has died of small-pox after vaccination, 11 or 12 have died of inoculated small-pox. In several parishes of Cambridge, in proportion to the diffusion of vaccination has been the prevention of small-pox. Two hundred and twenty-four cases of smallpox have occurred after supposed vaccination. In these cases the disease was slight in 163; more severe, but not dangerous, in 33; dangerous in 9, and fatal in 3. The supervention of small-pox in persons previously vaccinated, has been incomparably more frequent of late than in former years. The lapse of time does not impair the protecting influence of cow-pox, in the persons of those who have once undergone the disease. The vaccined virus has lost none of its efficacy from the time which has transpired, and the number of individuals through whom it has passed, since it was first taken from its original
The following is the substance of the Prospectus of the London University.
"The object of the institution is to bring the means of a complete scientific and literary education home to the doors of the inhabitants of the metropolis; so that they may be enabled to educate their sons at a very moderate expense, and under their own immediate and constant superintendance. The whole expense of education at the London University, will not exceed 251. or 301. a year, (this supposes a student to attend five or six of the general classes; but the medical education is necessarily more expensive, from the costs of the anatomical department,) including the sums paid to the general fund; and there will not be more than ten weeks of vacation in the year.
"A suitable piece of ground for the buildings and walks, and in a central situation, is now in treaty for; and it is expected that the structure will be completed in August, 1826, and the classes opened in October following. A fortnight's vacation will be allowed at Christmas and Easter, and six weeks from the middle of August to the end of September. The
money being raised by shares and contributions, each holder of a 1001. share will receive interest at a rate not exceeding four per cent., and be entitled to send one student to the University. The shares will be transferable by sale and bequest. No person can hold more than ten shares. Each contributor of 50%. will have all the privileges of a shareholder during his life, except that of receiving interest, and transferring his rights.
"Each student is to pay five guinces à year to the general income, besides one guinea to the library, museum, and collection of maps, charts, drawings, and models.
"It is proposed to vest the government of the institution in a Chancellor and ViceChancellor, and nineteen ordinary Membars of Council, chosen by the shareholders; a certain number of the Council to go out every year. The emoluments of the professors will be made to depend on the fees received from students, with the addition of very moderate salaries."
A decision has been lately given in the Court of Chancery, connected with the question of literary property and the right of publication. The proprietors of a medical work called the Lancet, which is published weekly, obtained an exact copy of Mr. Abernethy's lectures (which, are delivered not from a written paper, but orally), and inserted them in their publication. Mr. Abernethy applied to the Court of Chancery to stop the publication by summary injunction; but was unsuccessful, because, as the identity of the lectures could not be proved by any copy or manuscript, no legal evidence of property could be shewn. Mr. Abernethy then made a fresh application to Chancery, on the ground that an implied contract existed between himself and those to whom the lectures were 'delivered; and that, consequently, a crust became vested in the hearers. The Chancellor has issued his injunction to restrain the publication; thereby establishing the rule that individuals výho attend a lecturer to whom they pay a fee, have no right to publish what they hear.
'The private bills, brought before Parliament during the late session, amounted to the unprecedented number of 383. In the four years ending with 1794, there were only 112 bills on the average. Only a small proportion of the several hundred propose d joint-stock speculations, have been hithe to brought before the Legislature.
A company is announced for raisi ng silk in this country, and forming plan tn
tions of mulberry-trees. One individual at Camden-town has already planted eight thousand of the trees.
The quantity of blood taken into the heart, and expelled therefrom into the arteries, in the course of twenty-four hours, has been lately estimated, by Dr. Kidd, at 243 hogsheads in a man, and 8,000 hogsheads in a whale! The whole mass of blood therefore, reckoning it at thirty-five pints, passes 288 times through the heart daily, or once in five minutes, by 375 pulsations, each expelling about 14 ounce of blood.
A patent has been taken out by Mr. Arrowsmith for his Diorama; the principle of which consists in a new mode of throwing the light upon or through painted scenes, and of varying the brilliancy of the light. In the diorama in the Regent's Park the pictures are transparently painted on canvas, hung before large windows, at sufficient distances to admit of screens being occasionally let down or drawn aside, as often as a changing scene is intended to be represented. In the roof there are large sky-lights, furnished with transparent-coloured screens, so as to modify the light on the front of the picture.
The Society for the Encouragement of National Industry has adjudged a gold medal to M. Crespel, for the manufacture of red-beat sugar. This gentleman annually disposes of 150,000 lbs. of this sugar: his factory is open to all who wish to examine its regulations, and he supplies workmen acquainted with all his proceedings. A prince of the Ukraine left his country, to put on a labourer's frock, and learn of M. Crespel to make beet sugar. INDIA, &c.
Public Instruction, Government Chinsurah Schools, School-Book Society, School Society, Female Juvenile Society, Ladies' Society for Native Female Education, Benevolent Institution for the Instruction of Indigent Children, Military Orphan Society, Military Widow's Fund, Lord Clive's Fund, King's Military Fund, Marine Pension Fund, Civil Fund, Mariners', and General Widows' Fund, Presidency General Hospital, Native Hospital, Hospital for Native Insanes, Government Establishment for Vaccination, School for Native Doctors, United Charity and Free School, Charitable Fund for the Relief of Distressed Europeans and others, European Female Orphan Asylum.
Communications from India continue to abound with such melancholy facts as the following:-Vizier Singh died at Nepal on the 3d of last December. The following day the body was burned, and along with it two of his wives and three slave-girls: the latter, however, had not the honour of being burned on the same pile with their master, but had a pile to themselves. The brother of the deceased, with his nephew in his arms, lighted the funeral fires-such being the custom. Suttees are not unfrequent in the valley. One took place some months ago, of a woman burning herself with her seducer, who had been killed by her own husband.
Indians........7,530,000 Mixed Races &
Whites........ 920,000 Negroes...... 1,960,300 Mixed Races &
Indians .... 1,120,000
United States, Lower Canada, and French Guiana ...... Hayti, Porto Rico, & Freuch West Indies
It is highly pleasing to perceive that the benevolent spirit which so honourably Portuguese America: characterizes Great Britain and Ireland extends itself more or less throughout our colonies. We subjoin, in confirmation of this remark, the following list of religious and charitable institutions, established at Calcutta. Religious Institutions:Auxiliary Bible Society, Bible Association, Committee of the Church Missionary Society, Church Missionary Association, Diocesan Committee of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, Auxiliary Missionary Society, Baptist Missionary Society, Bishop's College, Bethel Union, and Seamen's Friend Society. Benewolent Institutions :-Government Sanscrit College, Madrissa or Government Mohammedan College, Committee of
United States.............. 9,990,000
Independent Indians, not Christians