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M. Humboldt divides this population, in respect of languages, as follows:English, 11,297,500; Spanish, 10,174,000; Indian, 7,800,000; Portuguese, 3,740,000; French, 1,058,000; Dutch, Danish, Swedish, and Russian, 214,500.
The sudden development of commercial power in the United States is unprecedented in the annals of civilization. Discovered only about 330 years ago, this immense territory remained, for years, the abode of savages and beasts: a few wandering and half-starved hordes possessed the land which now supports 10,000,000 civilized beings. In 1778, the capital of this country might be roundly stated at
between two and three millions sterling; in the short period of half a century, this sum has been increased to no less an amount, it is calculated, than nearly a hundred and forty millions.
In these, now Christian, islands rapid improvements are going on in the arts of civilized life. At Otaheite a sugar manufactory has been established, where sugar is made from the native cane. At Eimeo, a building designed for a cotton manufactory has been erected; the machinery for spinning and weaving was imported from England, and was to be put in motion by water power. Cotton grows spontaneously in abundance.
LIST OF NEW PUBLICATIONS.
Discourses on the Lord's Prayer; by the Rev. S. Saunders. 8vo. 10s. 6d. Seventeen Sermons; by the Rev. H. M'Neile. 8vo. 12s.
Death-Bed Scenes; by the Author of the "Evangelical Rambler." 7s.
Remarks on applying the Funds of the Bible Society to the Circulation of such Foreign Versions as contain the Apocrypha, where no other Version will be generally received.
Essays and Letters; by John Kitto; with a Memoir of the Author.
Six Sermons, preached at Cheltenham; by the Rev. J. W. Cunningham. 3s. 6d. Guthrie's Christian's Great Interest; with an Introductory Essay, by Dr. Chalmers. 12mo. 3s. bds.
Butler's Analogy; Essay, by the Rev. Daniel Wilson. 12mo. 6s. bds.
Rutherford's Letters; Essay, by T. Erskine, Esq. 12mo. 4s. bds.
The Christian; by the Rev. Samuel Walker, Curate of Truro; Essay, by the Rev. C. Simeon. 12mo. 3s. bds.
Treatise on the Religious Affections; by Jonathan Edwards; Essay, by the Rev. D. Young. 12mo. 7s. bds.
Pascal's Thoughts on Religion, a new Translation, with a Memoir of his Life; by the Rev. E. Craig. 6s.
The Importance of a full Exhibition of Scriptural Truth, a Sermon, preached before the University of Cambridge; by the Rev. T. Webster, M. A.
The Parish Church; containing the Religion of the Britons, the Errors of Popery; the Reformation and Revolution; by the Rev. T. Wood, A. M. 8vo. 10s. 6d.
Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon to the
Books of the Old Testament, including the Geographical Names and Chaldaic Words in Ezra and Daniel. Translated into English from the German; by Christopher Leo. 11. 4s.
A Sermon, preached at St. Michael's, Bath, on the Death of the Rev. John Richards, A. M.; by the Rev. James Pears, B.C.L. 8vo. 1s. 6d.
Sermons; by the Rev. Thomas Frognell Dibdin, M. A., F. R. S. 8vo. 158.
Sermons on various Subjects; by the Rev. Thomas Rennell, B. D., F. R. S. 8vo.
PARIS BIBLE SOCIETY. Ar a meeting for the formation of a Ladies' Bible Association at Sommières, as a Branch of the Auxiliary Society at Nismes, M. Marignan, a small country farmer, one of the collectors of the Milhaud Bible Association, rose, and, in a simple but very feeling and expressive manner delivered an address, in which he remarked;
"I am, gentlemen, but in an humble station: : you will excuse me if I do not speak with eloquence: it is the love which I have to my religion, that induces me to address you on this occasion. M. Borrel, the pastor of our church, proposed to me to become a collector of a Bible Association, and obtain subscribers of one penny weekly, with the design of employing the sums raised in the purchase of Bibles and Testaments; in order to present them to newly-married persons at the celebration of their marriage, and also to those poor persons who had not the means of procuring them for themselves.
"I will not attempt to describe the joy which I felt, when this excellent servant of Christ offered me this employment I opened a list of subscriptions, in conjunction with my colleagues and friends. Scarcely was the first stone of our undertaking laid, when a considerable number of persons became subscribers, declaring themselves happy in being able to co-operate in a work so excellent; and we have the delightful satisfaction of seeing this number increase daily. Thus, our enterprise is as a small grain of mustard-seed which we have sown: but if all Christian churches acted thus, the tree would attain to its perfect height, and cover with its shadow many of our brethren who are living without God and without hope in the world; and who, destitute of the light of the Gospel, walk according to the course of this world and the desires of the flesh, not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth them to repentance.
Many of our brethren, desirous of possessing the Book of Books, and not having the means of obtaining it, loudly call for our assistance. How affecting is this spectacle! Shall we be indifferent to it? No: we will open our hearts to the first of Christian graces-charity; and our continued exertions will, I trust, bring multitudes to the obedience of
Christ; happy if we may attain that end, without at the same time attributing to ourselves the glory."
After this address, and another delivered by a person of the same class, M. Vincent, pastor of St. Mamert, addressed the meeting on the influence of Bible Societies, in reference to the religious knowledge which they have already been the means of diffusing among the humbler classes of society, and added
Experience here comes in to the sup. port of argument. It says more upon this subject than all our discourses. Two men, born and brought up in the country, accustomed from their childhood only to the laborious employments of agriculture, having entered upon no studies which could enable them to express themselves correctly before a large assembly, have eagerly accepted a place among the members of the Bible Society. They have read and meditated on the holy Scriptures. By this pious employment, their minds have been enlightened—their zeal has been excited their tongues are unloosed-they have become eloquent. You have seen it, you have heard it, gentlemen. They have edified us; and the sentiments, with which their hearts were overflowing, have deeply penetrated our own."
PROGRESS OF CHRISTIANITY IN
The following is an extract from a letter of a missionary at Madagascar.
"It is with inexpressible joy I inform you, that I have important and very encouraging information to impart. The mission at Madagascar now wears a most pleasing and promising aspect. There are fourteen schools established, in which are taught about one thousand two hundred children; and, were we furnished with sufficient means, many, very many, more might be formed, as applications for teachers have been made from various quarters which we have not, as yet, been able to meet. Many of the youths in the Royal School have made commendable progress in learning; can read the Bible with facility; write a fair hand; are far advanced in arithmetic; and have acquired a general knowledge of the principles of the Christian reli. gion. It is from this school that the villages have been supplied with teachers. The in
struction of native females is likewise attended to. Mrs. Jones and Mrs. Griffiths have more than 100 under their care. The children who have been with them from the beginning are become very clever at their needle. Messrs. Jones and Griffiths have commenced preaching in the native language. The number of people who attend is considerable. The prejudices of the natives are stronger, and their superstitious observances more numerous, than persons in England are aware of; but, blessed be God, they perceptibly lose ground."
The following is an extract from a recent letter from another missionary.
"I have the pleasure to inform you, that this mission has never worn a more promising aspect, than it has since last May. The King continues his protection to us, and gives us encouragement to labour with assiduity. We have twentytwo schools established since last April, under his patronage, in which more than 2000 children are instructed. Our first scholars teach at the different villages; and their ardent pursuit after knowledge, and their unceasing assiduity in communicating instruction to others affords us great satisfaction and encouragement. Those villages that have above eighty scholars have four teachers; two to teach every other week by turns, while the other two are learning in town; so that they are one week learning and the other teaching. The scholars both in town and the country have learnt almost the whole of a large catechism which I have translated, and formed for the use of the schools.
"I have a chapel built annexed to my house. Mr. Jones and myself preach by turns when we are in town; one in English, and the other in Malagash. About two months ago, Mr. Jones and I commenced visiting the villages where schools are established, to preach and catechise: we go by turns every Sunday. We have thronged congregations on the Sabbath: our chapel in town is crowded, and the doors and windows lined. We have three or four, and sometimes 5,000 hearers in town, and often 2 or 3,000 in the country, besides the assembling of three or four schools. We catechise them first, and then we sing and pray, and preach, often in the open air. We ask them to repeat what they remember of the sermon, and we propose to them any question that may occur to us. The talents they display on these occasions would put many in England to the blush.
"I have translated the Book of Exodus, CHRIST, OBSERV. No. 283.
and the Gospels by Mark and Luke, and also part of the Psalms, as far as the 50th, and the first three chapters of the Epistle to the Romans. I have also prepared a course of plain discourses. Mr. Jones has finished translating the Book of Genesis, and the Gospel by Matthew, and is far advanced with the Gospel by John, and the Acts,and with the First Book of Samuel, &c. He has prepared a series of discourses on the work of creation, and is also preparing discourses on the Divine attributes. Every thing is going on in union and peace."
FEMALE EDUCATION IN INDIA.
The Committee of the Church Missionary Society have issued an "Appeal to the Ladies of the United Kingdom, in behalf of the Native Females of British India," from which we copy the following passages, most earnestly recommending the object to all our readers.
"The deplorable state of ignorance and degradation under which females in heathen countries labour has long excited the compassion of those Christians who have witnessed their situation, and who feel as they ought for this branch of the great family of man. Several attempts were made, from time to time, to remedy this flagrant evil; but they were not successful. The prejudices and apprehensions of the men and the apathy of the females themselves defeated the plans pursued.
"In the autumn of 1820, a fund was raised for the purpose of sending out to the Calcutta School- Society a lady duly qualified, who would undertake to superintend a school for training native female teachers, who might be fixed, after proper instruction, as school-mistresses in suitable stations. On her arrival in Calcutta, in November 1821, she was greatly concerned to find that the Committee of the School Society, to whom she had been recommended, composed partly of native gentlemen, was not at that time prepared to engage in any general plan of nativefemale education. At this juncture, the Corresponding Committee of the Church Missionary Society, who had for seventeen years been watching every opportu nity of meliorating the condition of the heathen, thought that they could perceive, among the natives generally, the growth of more liberal habits of thinking. They devoutly hoped, that the time had arrived, when the heathen youths, who had been instructed in their schools and had grown up to manhood, began to appreciate the positive benefits which they had derived 3 N
American Bible Society... Education in Canada.
from their education; and they trusted that the confidence, reposed in themselves by the natives, would greatly facilitate their plans to impart instruction to the females. Under this impression, they undertook to provide for the support of Miss Cooke (who has since been married to the Rev. Isaac Wilson, one of the society's missionaries in Calcutta), and to promote the objects of her mission. The result has surpassed their most sanguine expectations. In three years, the number of girls under instruction, in the society's schools, in Bengal alone, has exceeded 800; and that number may now be enlarged to a very great extent, when adequate funds shall be provided-so rapidly is this happy change of sentiment in regard to females taking place among the natives.
"With a view to meet the wish of some ladies of high consideration in Calcutta, as well as the feelings of native gentlemen well disposed to promote the education of females, the society's female schools in and near Calcutta were, in March of last year, placed under the direction of a special institution. (See Christian Observer for March, p. 197.) For the present, that institution confines its operations to Calcutta and its more immediate neighbourhood: if it should be deemed expedient, it will endeavour to extend its influence to other parts of India. Its Church Missionary female schools are rapidly increasing, not only in parts of Bengal beyond the present range of the Calcutta Ladies' Society, but in its missions in the South of India and in Ceylon. The Committee have made a grant of five hundred pounds to the Calcutta Ladies' Society; and they hope to be enabled, by enlarged contributions, effectually to cultivate this new field of labour."
AMERICAN BIBLE SOCIETY. The last Report states, that there have been printed at the depository, during the year, 48,550 Bibles and Testaments, including 2000 Spanish Bibles ;-making a total in the nine years of the Society's existence of 451,902 Bibles and Testaments, and parts of the latter, printed, or other wise obtained by the Society. Stereotype plates for a pocket Bible are casting, and are expected to be completed by the ensuing autumn. There have been issued from the depository in the course of the year 63,851 Bibles and Testaments, and the Gospels in the Mohawk language; making a total, since the establishment of the Society of 372,913 Bibles and Testaments, and parts of the latter, exclusive
[JULY, of the number issued by the Kentucky Bible Society. The managers have been recently engaged in contributing to the supply of penitentiaries and prisons with the Scriptures; and the troops stationed at remote posts of the United States; the army and navy both being now furThe managers have granted 500 dollars to nished with Bibles from the same source. the Scriptures in some of the languages of assist in the translation and publication of the native tribes of Peru; one of which tribes contains a million of people. Gratuitous donations of the Scriptures for distribution, principally in the new terriing the year to the value of 10,447 doltories of the Union, have been made durlars. The number of new auxiliaries, recognized during the year, has been 45making in the whole 452.
with the distribution of the Scriptures The following simple facts connected by the Philadelphia Bible Society, shew the importance of the Society's operations. The copies adverted to were in the German language.
pressing his thanks to the distributor,"I have been," said a poor man, exmany plans to get a Bible; I have never "I have been for a long time contriving yet been able: at last I saw a notice in the paper, that the poor would be supplied.-What a fine thing it is that the poor can get Bibles!" another," but one quarter of a dollar, but "I have," said I want a Bible badly; and if that will be of any service, I willingly give it." It was accepted, and a Bible given. The poor served, "Now you see, that the English man went away rejoicing.-Another obpeople are friendly to the Germans: if they were not, they would not send them Bibles." Another writes as follows:"Friend, I wish to inform you that I have been so long sick, now more than a for one. year, and I want a Bible and cannot pay send me one, I will thank you, and God If you would be so good as to also for it." This note was accompanied Bible sent. with 25 cents, which were received and a had a Bible, nor his father before him, nor Another said, "he had never his wife's father.'
SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING EDU-
An institution has been formed under
the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada as are destitute of the means of instruction. The reading of the Scriptures, and some useful manual labour, are to constitute parts of the daily exercise of the pupils.
Mr. Osgood, who has been itinerating seventeen years in the provinces of Canada, and on the frontiers of the United States, distributing Bibles, Testaments, and elementary tracts, giving moral and religious instruction to the poor, establishing schools, particularly Sunday schools, and setting up small libraries wherever practicable, visited England in the year 1813, under the patronage of the Governor in Chief, Sir George Prevost, aird collected 1,800. partly for an asylum for the poor, and partly for the instruction of orphans and destitute children. Though it was thought adviseable that the interest only of the money should be used, so pressing have been the importunities in behalf of the poor in Canada, that more than half of the original fund has been expended, but, it is added, not in vain; for, in consequence of this effort, it is calculated that more than 2000 children have been brought under elementary and moral instruction: and assistance has been granted to two masters, versed in the system of mutual instruction, who were sent out to organize and conduct schools in Canada. In these schools a number of young men have been qualified to become teachers; two of whom are sons of an Indian chief. So anxious are some of these natives of the forest to receive instruction, that one of the chiefs offered to give up his own house for a school
Mr. Osgood has again visited this country, bringing with him most respectable testimonials, with a view to obtain funds for civilizing and christianizing the Canadian Indians, and training teachers for the new settlements, many of which are in a most deplorable condition, with regard to the means of instruction. The time is fast approaching, when these Canadian Indians must either be civilized and christianized, or extirpated; for their means of subsisting by the chace must soon be entirely cut off, their reservations being almost surrounded by the White people.
In order effectually to promote the intended objects, a society has been instituted; among the first contributors to which are the names of the Earl of Liverpool, the Earl of Harrowby, Lord Bexley, Lord Calthorpe, the Bishop of Salisbury, Joseph Butterworth, Esq. M. P.,
and various clergymen and gentlemen. The following gentlemen have agreed to take charge of the funds collected, and to superintend their application:-Mr. Mortlock, Mr. Hankey, Mr. Allen, Mr. Howard, Mr. Reyner, Mr. Haslope, Mr. Mills, Mr. Steven, and Mr. Pellatt.-The trustees will receive donations for the object; also the following Bankers: Messrs. Hankey and Co., 7, Fenchurch street; Sir John Perring and Co., Cornhill; Sir Peter Pole and Co., Bartholomew lane; Messrs. Drummond, Charing Cross; Messrs. Lees and Co., Lombard street; also Messrs. Hatchards, 187, Piccadilly.
We have great satisfaction in recommending to the notice and patronage of our readers this newly formed society, the chief object of which is the religious improvement of the rapidly augmenting population of Spanish America,—of sixteen or eighteen millions of our fellowmen, professing Christianity indeed, but strangers in a great degree to its real nature and effects. To communicate to this vast population just views of revealed truth, must be considered as an object of very high interest. The political revolution they have recently undergone has awakened amongst them a spirit of free inquiry, which in its excursive range is beginning to be eagerly directed to the subject of religion. Should they, however, be left to form their ideas of Christianity from that exhibition of it which alone they have hitherto witnessed, there is reason to fear that they will too much confound it with the errors, superstitions, and corruptions, with which they have unfortunately seen it associated, and thus be led to reject it as unworthy of their belief and acceptance. Such has been the result which has attended similar revolutionary movements in Europe; and such is likely to be the result in Spanish America, without a vigorous and seasonable effort to prevent it.
In this point of view, the most important measure is undoubtedly the general circulation of the holy Scriptures, as contemplated by the British and Foreign Bible Society; from which the happiest effects may be fairly anticipated. But next to the holy Scriptures, the exposition of Christian truth by works of acknowledged excellence, is perhaps the most important means that can be employed. And this is the design of the present society, which proposes to print in the Spanish language,