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pear insuperable difficulties and objections in admitting that the death and resurrection of the witnesses is a past event. But if it be not past, then the necessary consequence is that it must be future. This subject has been considered in a more diffuse manner than many others, as it is universally admitted to be an event of the highest importance to the Christian church."-Gauntlett, pp. 160-163.

Apocalyptic visions. But our limits forbid further enlargement on this subject. We must refer our readers to Mr. Gauntlett's Exposition.

To Mr. Davison's full and im

not to be considered physically, but politically. It does not follow that they will be all literally killed, but only that they will be silenced, persecuted, and crushed. ......Again, the same learned and able commentator says, that, admitting the general death of the witnesses, all the portant abstract of the whole subfaithful witnesses of Christ from Europe, Asia, Africa, America, must be collected ject of prophecy we should have into the chief province of the Roman em- been glad, in ampler limits, to have pire, there to suffer a moral and political done far greater justice than we death.....But, in the first place [the oppo- shall now be able to afford. It is a nents] may not admit that the broad street must mean a single province of the Roman work of much originality, depth of empire: and secondly, they consider the thought, and scriptural investigation : whole prophecy as confined to the western but we can now principally view it empire, and therefore, during the death of only under one aspect, as it confirms the witnesses there, the Gospel in America, Africa, the East Indies, and other and illustrates much of what has been parts of Asia, may be increasing and flou- alluded to in the preceding pages, rishing, and hastening to its meridian glo- of the double sense and advancing ries." Other reasons follow on to the fulfilment of prophetic records. Mr. conclusion, that," on the whole, there ap- Davison's comprehensive plan, however, embraces a general view of the uses of prophecy, as an evidence of our holy faith, and as a most important conveyance for the great lessons of religion and morality; which, he teaches us to observe, are always mixed up with the vihave obtained their full force and sions of futurity, and never could vivacity by any other method. After this, it proceeds to a very full and valuable summary of the prophetic records, from the Creation to Christ, given with a more especial view to their progressive development of the great doctrine of redemption. In this part we are glad to find he has co-operated with Mr. Faber, in disabusing the public mind with regard to some of the many crudities and self-contradictions in Bishop Warburton's imposing, but imperfect, work on the Divine Legation of Moses. He might perhaps have improved his summary, if he had, with Mr. Faber, given the book of Job a more prominent place in his prophetic arrangements. -Finally, he has interspersed certain dissertations, on the Moral Use of Prophecy given on Pagan Subjects; on the Prescience of God manifested in his Predictions, as reconcilable with the free Agency of Man; and on the Inspiration of Prophecy, as illustrated by a comparison of pre

We should have subjoined to this extract another, in page 244, contained in a note, expressive of Mr. Gauntlett's decided opinion, in agreement with Mede, though formed prior to his "having had that gigantic expositor in his possession," that the effusion of the seventh vial of wrath alone takes place under the seventh trumpet; the effusion of the six preceding vials having taken place under the sixth trumpet;-an opinion contraryto Mr.Faber,and most others, who consider the seventh trumpet as inclusive of the seven vials, just as the seventh seal has been supposed to be of the seven trumpets. The bearing of this upon the preceding extract, and its effect in placing the death of the witnesses immediately before the third woetrumpet, not yet supposed, in Mr. Gauntlett's view, to have sounded,

will be obvious to assorters of the • A very clear illustration and confirmation of the Apocalyptie hieroglyphics, in speaking of "the first resurrection," and others "not then living again," in a political, not physical sense.

diction and event in the three great Christian prophecies, the establishment of Christianity, the dispersion of the Jews, and the reign of Antichrist; and in three other series, embracing the fate of certain Pagan kingdoms, the decendants of Ishmael, and the four great empires. To such a mass of matter and of remark it would require much space to do full justice. Mr. Davison has indeed scarcely done full justice to his own ideas. It might, perhaps, have been well to have thrown the whole of his disquisitory matter into preliminary dissertations, and perhaps omitted altogether the disquisition on Divine Prescience, which but loosely hangs on a dissertation upon express prophecies; and to have either added the New Testament prophecies, at which he has

*The subject of the Divine prescience would of itself fill a volume. Mr. Davison has failed of telling us how those writers who deny to God the knowledge of future contingent events, reconcile the very idea of prophecy with such a denial. It seems to us, that the most obvious postulate to be demanded by a commentator on prophecy is, that God is perfectly capable of doing what he essentially professes his own capacity of doing in every prediction he delivers. As to the guilt or the worth of actions done by men and foreseen by God, that seems to be an equally clear demand upon the reader of the prophetic writings: and if we are to proceed further, into practical questions on predestination, it will be well for all sides to bear in mind the unanswerable dogma of the great Butler, that if men's actions are predestined, the consequence of them in reward or punishment is predestined likewise. In all these ultimate questions, on which we, who are of yesterday, know nothing, it is necessary for the deepest reasoners to stop somewhere. "Whatsoever is done in the earth, God doth it himself." On this ground, one man goes to the length of giving to God all the merit of what is good, and all the blame of what is bad. Another man, stopping short of the latter, gives to God only the merit of what is good. A third, stopping still shorter, gives to God neither the blame of the bad nor the merit of the good. The reason in each case may be philoscphical; but, after all, the grand scriptural doctrine remains, quite clear of all doubt and uncertainty, for the guidance and admonition of men;" So, then, every one must give account of himself to God."

CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 284.

only partially professed to arrive in the present work, or else to have drawn his concluding instances for the inspiration of prophecy from those Old Testament predictions which his summary included. This, however, we only suggest with hesitation to the highly respectable author, whose work merits, and will repay, the attention of every theological student.

In reference to our own more immediate subject, could we have our wish of the present author and his work, we should be most happy to see the grand summary outline completed in something like the following order: -First, the Scriptural predictions, if any, actually and absolutely independent of all reference to the Messiah and the affairs of his church; their delivery and fulfilment being respectively brought to bear, upon principles previously laid down, on the nature, the use, and the inspiration of prophecy. Next, the Scriptural predictions concerning the affairs of the church, illustrated in the same manner. This last department we should then prescribe to be further divided, into predictions referring simply to the state and policy, the rise and fall of the Jewish empire, from Abraham downward to its last but not final dispersion. And then, uninterruptedly the grand series of predictions, from the opening to the close of the sacred volume, respecting the Redeemer and the church of the redeemed; the progressive development of the first coming of the Messiah, and establishment of his kingdom upon earth; the general principles of that kingdom; their gradual manifestation through successive ages, more especially during the predicted times of antiChristian apostasy; their fuller expansion, upon the destruction of Antichrist, the recal of the Jews, and the settlement of Jew and Gentile in one Millennial church; and their absolute and complete perfection in the eternal kingdom of Christ and of God.-Much of this,

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in other forms, will already be found in Mr. Davison's valuable volume: and we shall conclude with two or three extracts illustrative of the great principle, in reference to the Messiah's kingdom, of the double sense of prophecy, its inchoate and its final accomplishment. Of the enlarged views of Mr. Davison on the subject of the earliest prophecies, the following passage will afford sufficient evidence.

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"I assume it as a principle, which indeed has been sufficiently established upon Scripture evidence, and vindicated by learned divines, that we are to consider the selection and appointment of a separate people to have been made for the custody and transmission of the Divine promises of that more general nature. It is not affirmed that the sense of Scripture, on this head, directs us to think that such was the only purpose to be served by the selection and appointment of the Jewish people; or that other great and material ends were not thereby promoted: but that the leading and most comprehensive design of the appointment was to introduce the Gospel, by connecting and preserving the several revelations of God, till they merged in the last, to which the whole Jewish economy is declared to have been subservient: the Law, being described as an elementary teacher to bring inen to Christ,' in respect of the imperfect knowledge of the Gospel, and the preparatory discipline for it, which it contained; or as being the shadow of the good things to come:' and the Prophets, who were sent to that separated people, having it as an eminent part of their mission to bear witness to Christ,' and announce his religion. For the benefit and privilege of the Israelite consisted in this, chiefly because to him were committed the oracles of God;' and those oracles were a perpetual witness of the better dispensation. So that the hopes of the ancient believer may be said to have been always in a state of pilgrimage, travelling onward through successive periods of revelation, and finding no rest, till they had crossed the barrier flood, which divided the Law and the Gospel, the first dispensation and the second." Davison, pp. 91, 92.

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His caution will be no less demonstrated by what follows.

I have been the more anxious to state precisely the twofold character of prophecy in respect of its subjects, and to fix the sense in which we ought to understand the proper subserviency of the whole of it to the attestation of the Christian faith, on several accounts. First, By this parti

tion of the subjects of prophecy, we shall simplify our view of its structure, and be carried to a truer idea of the use and intent of its several chapters of prediction, as they may hereafter come to be examined. Secondly, we shall exclude a mistaken principle which has infinitely warped the interpretation of it, in the hands of persons of an excellent piety, but an illinstructed judgment; the principle of endeavouring to expound almost every prophecy, either immediately, or typically, in a Christian sense. This mode of explication, after all arts and temperaments have been applied to it, fails; and the credit of Divine prophecy loses by the detected unskilfulness of the interpreter. Christian church; and the reproof of it The error is one of an early origin in the followed; for it was soon observed to do disservice to the cause of truth; the adulterated interpretation of the Old Testament prophecies, which did not express any thing of Christ, or his religion, throwing doubt and suspicion upon the genuine cies which unquestionably relate to the sense of those which did. The propheGospel are numerous, full, and explicit; and they require no support from equivocal or forced expositions to be put upon others. There are also mixt or typical prophecies, which combine the Christian with some other analogous subject. But, besides both of these, there are portions of prophecy which must be granted to stop short in their proper Jewish, or other limited subject, without any sense or application beyond it. Thirdly, we shall perceive at the same time, how unnecessary it is to the honour of the Gospel, to have recourse to that mistaken principle; since, after all, it is most true, that the Holy Jesus is the Lord of the Prophets : for they spoke by his Spirit, and all that they spoke was but in subserviency to him. For when they ministered to the First dispensation, which had its appendant services of prophecy, yet that dispensation and all its evidences are subordinate to his, and thereby Moses and Elias are witnesses and servants to his proper glory.

"Lastly, I observe that the twofold design of the Divine economy was never divided, but there is an unity in it through

out.

It was not the divergent course of two unconnected and independent dispensations; but there was a temporary disposition of things made in the one to prepare the way for the second and greater; that which comprehends in it the constant design of the counsels of God towards man; that which had been the first disclosed, and was often confirmed; and which having been variously prefigured in the veil of types, or expressed in the clearer delineations of prediction, was finally brought to light by Him who is the Author and Finisher of our faith,' and of the faith of all who have known him by the several communications of pro

phecy from the beginning." Davison, pp. 93-95.

Our next quotation will overleap many an ample page of prophetic history and disquisition, to give a specimen of Mr. Davison's consistent use of his own principles.

"As an example of this symbolical prediction, founded upon the present scene of things, consider the following oracle of Zechariah. The prophet had been commanded to take silver and gold, and make crowns, and set them, or set one of them, upon the head of Joshua, the son of Josedeck, the high-priest, and then to deliver this prophecy. Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts, saying, Behold the man, whose name is the Branch, and he shall grow up out of this place, (or, there shall be a growth out of his place,) and he shall build the Temple of the Lord even he shall build the Temple of the Lord, and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne, and he shall be a priest upon his throne, and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.' And the crown shall be for a memorial in the Temple of the Lord. And they that are afar off shall come and build in the Temple of the Lord, and ye shall know that the Lord of hosts hath sent me unto you. And this shall come to pass, if ye will diligently obey the voice of the Lord your God.'

"This oracle, I think, will justify and sustain the character I have assigned to it. Its mystic form, its sublime and emphatic spirit, its promise of glory, its union of the priesthood and the throne, its appointed memorial of the crown to be laid up in the Temple of the Lord, its assemblage of builders from afar, absolutely refuse to be confined to the literal idea of the present work of the Jewish restoration. But since the form of the prophecy is assimilated to that primary idea of the Jewish

restoration, in their national increase, their priesthood and their temple, the whole principle of the prophecy meets us in the face, first in its ground of analogy, and next in its proper extent, an extent wherein it leaves the inferior subject, from which it springs, far behind. In truth, there is both reason, and sublimity, in prophecy; and we shall scarcely understand it, unless we are prepared to follow it in both. Its sublimity is, that it often soars, as here, far above the scene from which it takes its rise. Its reason is, that it still hovers over the scene of things from which it rose. It takes the visible, or the temporal subject, as the opμnrnpion (if I may borrow the word) of its enlarged revelation; and yet by that subject it governs its course. In this method of it, I believe that men of plain unsophisticated reason find it perfectly intelligible; and that it is only the false fastidiousness of an artificial

learning which puts the scruple into our perceptions either of its consistency, or its sense. But when we consider that this structure of prophecy, founded on a proximate visible subject, had the advantage, both in the aptitude of the representation, and in the inmediate pledge, of the future truth; a sounder learning may dispose us to admit it, and that with confidence, whenever the prophetic text, or mystic vision, is impatient for the larger scope, and the conspicuous characters of the symbols and the fact, concur in identifying the revelation." Davison, pp. 338–340.

The same line of observation follows, upon the celebrated and mysterious prophecy concerning Zerubbabel, in Haggai ii. 21—23; where Mr. Davison strongly repels the single secondary application of that noble passage to Zerubbabel, and concludes:

"But, in all this, why is Zerubbabel so distinguished in the prophecy, when it looks so far beyond him? Why is he characterized as the signet of God? He is so distinguished as being the representative of Christ; and his fitness to be that representative is most evident. Of his line and seed was Christ born into the world. When God, therefore, restored his people, and reinstated them in their covenant, and their land again, by this prophecy he designated Zerubbabel, and set his choice upon him, as the signet of his hand and purpose, in whom some work of his providence and mercy should be accomplished; but the time and period of that future work was to be measured by the circle of the new heavens and the new earth,' and therefore it was to be in the ulterior system of God, after the great change of things, in the new, the Christian dispensation." Davison, p. 363.

The progress, and still future hopes, of the Christian dispensation, come properly under a further head

namely, Predictions concerning Christianity-from which we gather a still progressive view of Mr. Davison's conceptions respecting the advancing and the inchoate fulfilment of Christian prophecies.

Our last short notice will carry us as far as Mr. Davison has hitherto carried us in our desired progress toward the ulterior stages of prophetic delivery and fulfilment. It respects the future restoration of the Jewish nation.

"We have cause from the Scripture oracles to expect that this people will one day be restored, under the covenant of the Gospel, to a happier and more honourable

state; and perhaps also to a public reestablishment in their own land. But this last event, their national restoration, is a point in which we wait for a clearer information of the prophetic sense. Mean while, so much is certain, that, till their conversion to the Christian faith, prophecy, like the cherubim with the flaming sword, guards the entrance of Canaan, and forbids them the approach." Davison, p. 453.

We shall conclude with not a word of our own, but with a weighty practical admonition of Mr. Da vison's, on the subject of Christian Missions.

"One point, however, is certain and equally important, viz. that the Christian

church, when it comes to recognize more truly the obligation imposed upon it by the original command of its Founder, Go teach all nations,' a command, which, having never been recalled or abrogated, can never be obsolete, will awaken another energy of its apostolic office and character, than has been witnessed in many later ages, in this most noble work of piety and charity combined; and thereby begin to discharge an inalienable duty, in furthering the clear design of the Gospel, and perhaps also the consummation of prophecy. Whether belief shall be universal, we know not: but as to the duty of making an universal tender and communication of the Christian faith, it is too clear to be denied, and too sacred to be innocently neglected." Davison, p. 431.

LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE, &c. &c.

GREAT BRITAIN. PREPARING for publication:-A Display of the Manufacturing and Mechanic Arts of the Kingdom, by Dr. Birkbeck;Poems, by Mrs. Hemans.

In the press :-Sermons preached in the Island of Barbadoes, by the Rev. W. Shrewsbury, late Missionary in that island; -Twelve Sermons by the Rev. George Hodson, M. A. ;-The Life and Correspondence of the Antiquary Dugdale; Sketches of Rio de la Plata.

An interesting collection of manuscripts, under the title of Johnsoniana, was recently sold by auction, with the library of the late Mr. Boswell. Among the articles were the original plan of Johnson's Dictionary, in the writing of an amanuensis, with copious interlineations by the author, 81. The original draft of the same, entirely in Johnson's hand, 17. The original MS. of Pope's Life, 167. A Diary inscribed "Easter 1766," registering his selfexamination and preparation by prayer and fasting for the holy Sacrament, Ill. The portrait painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds for Boswell, was sold for 761.

In consequence of the recent discovery of the Miltonian and other valuable manuscripts in the State-Paper office, his Majesty has appointed a commission to examine the documents in that repository, with a view to print the most important of them.

The magnitude of the local magnetic

attraction in steam-vessels, owing to the quantity of iron in their construction, has occasioned Government to employ Mr. Barlow to make experiments on the deviations of compasses thus exposed; and so accurately is the principle of local attraction now understood, that he was able, before beginning to observe the compass's bearings, to select a spot where the action of the iron was so exactly balanced as to leave a compass nearly as correct in its bearings as if no local attraction had been present.

Mr. C. Bell, the anatomist, has published several papers to prove that not only are our ideas formed by a comparison of the different signs presented to us through the senses; but that there is a power in the body, which, though not called a sense, is superior to all the senses, in the precision which it gives to our perceptions-bestowing on us ideas of distance, of space, of form and substance ;that the muscular frame, and the sense which we possess of the muscular frame in action, give us this power;-that, for example, the sense of vision in the eye is imperfect, until aided by muscular motion: as the sense of touch in the hand would inform us of nothing, without the motions of the hand;-that hardness, softness, smoothness, and angularity, are properties of matter, not known to us merely by the sense of touch, but by that sense, aided by the motions of the hand;and that the entire and complete exercise

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