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political life, for which he had been indus
triously training himself, by becoming This celebrated orator, statesman, and private secretary to the Marquis of Rockphilosopher was born at Dublin, January ingham, when first Lord of the Treasury in 1st, 1730. It has been much questioned 1765, and at the same time entering Parwhether he was from the beginning what liament as representative of Wendover. is termed a political adventurer without At the conclusion of this ministry he means of livelihood to keep him independ- commenced that long opposition to its ent, or entered on life with a considera- successors, which became memorable from ble fortune. His family were said to be the tone of philosophical and constitutionhigh and ancient, but his enemies, who al wisdom with which he pleaded what, were many and bitter, treated this as a after all, was in reality the restoration of common national boast of all Irishmen, his own party connections to power. On and spoke of Burke as a sort of barbarian, the reëstablishment of the Rockingham who had come from a wild tribe to fight administration in 1783, he was made Payhis way on in civilized life by the fierce master-general. His subsequent career is unscrupulous habits in which he had been entwined with the history of the period. brought up. His early education, how. Its main features are his share in the ever, was derived in the calm seclusion of prosecution of Warren Hastings, and that a Quaker seminary at Ballitore in Kildare, stern denunciation of the revolutionary where he probably acquired much of the progress of France, which caused his drasolemn reflective character which tem- matic quarrel with Fox and his other old pered his natural ardor. He studied, but political friends. He made a large connot with any known distinction, at Trinity tribution to the parliamentary oratory of College, Dublin, where he took his mas- his day, and his speeches were remarkater's degree in 1751. He was destined ble for their richness of language and for the bar, and entered the Middle Tem- abundance of imagery. He died on July ple, but legal studies seem to have had no 8, 1797. charm for him. His abilities must have been seen in 1752, for it is known that
PASCAL PAOLI. there was then a proposal to choose him Professor of Logic in the University of This distinguished Corsican, the fellowGlasgow, though he does not appear to countryman of Napoleon I., was born in have been, as David Hume was, an Corsica in 1726. His native island had avowed candidate. His first literary long been under the oppressive dominawork, called "A Vindication of Natural tion of the Genoese, which the Corsicans Society" - a close imitation of Boling- made repeated efforts to shake off. broke, was published in 1756. Immedi- was raised to the headship of the liberatately afterwards appeared his well-known ing party in 1755. He organized a reguessay on the Sublime and Beautiful. Its lar civil and military government, and for originality of thought, and luxuriant flow thirteen years carried on the war of indeof words and ideas, at once arrested at- pendence against the Genoese with untention; and whatever may be thought of varying spirit, and with general success. the leading principles, so well ridiculed by In 1768, the year in which Napoleon was Payne Knight, and others, the literary born, the Genoese sold their right of sovemerits of the work entitled it to its high reignty over Corsica to France. The reputation. In 1757 he published his ac- French endeavored to induce Paoli to count of the settlements in America, and recognize their dominion and adopt their shortly afterwards coöperated with Dods- interests, by lavish offers of rank and moley in the “ Annual Register.” In 1763 ney. But Paoli rejected all their bribes, his ability as a political partisan obtained and made a gallant though unsuccessful for him à pension of £300 a year on the resistance to the troops which they poured Irish establishment, and the event was into Corsica. After the French conquest rendered remarkable by the indig- was completed, Paoli took refuge in Engnation with which Burke repelled the land, where he was received with merited claims which the gentleman known “as respect. The British government settled single speech Hamilton,” made on his po- a pension on him, and he passed many litical allegiance, on the plea of having ob- years in honored friendship with Burke, tained for him this pension. He entered Johnson, and other distinguished English
men of the age. When the war of the he had collected for his “History of MuFrench Revolution commenced, Paoli sic.” • In 1771 he published his Musical headed an expedition to Corsica, by which Tour,” a work of which his friend Dr. it was sought to detach that island from Johnson said when he wrote his account France, and unite it to the British domin- of the Hebrides: “I had that clever dog ion. This attempt, after some temporary Dr. Burney's tour in my eye.” In 1776 successes, ultimately failed. Paoli re- the first volume of the “History of Music” turned to England, where he passed the was published, the second appeared in remainder of his life in tranquillity. He 1782, and the third and fourth in 1789. died in 1807. He deserved the eulogium In this year Edmund Burke procured him which the English historian Lord Mahon the situation of organist at Chelsea Colhas pronounced on him, of being "a brave lege. In 1796 he published his life of and skillful soldier, and an upright and Metastasio. He also contributed the disinterested statesman." He was also a principal articles on music to Reese's Enwarm and sincere friend; his literary ac- cyclopedia. His other literary works quirements were considerable; and he were: “An Essay towards a History of was a man of spotless integrity and pure Comets,” “A Plan of a Public Musical morals in private life.
School," "An Account (written for the
Crotch, the Infant Musician,” “ A Memoir
of the Musical Festival in Honor of Han
del, which was held in Westminster Abbey This celebrated man in the musical in 1785.” In the year 1806 Mr. Wyndworld was born at Shrewsbury in 1726, ham procured for him a pension from govand partly educated at the free school ernment of £300, from which period he there, and partly at the public school in gave up his intellectual labors. He died Chester. His first music master was Mr. on the 15th of April, 1815. Dr. Burney Baker, organist at Chester; he received was twice married, and left by his first further instructions from James Burney, wife two sons and four daughters, and by his elder half-brother, organist at Shrews- his second one daughter. His eldest bury, and he was three years under the daughter, already mentioned, was cele tuition of Dr. Arne. In 1749 he was ap- brated as a musician. His second daughpointed organist of a church in London, ter, Madame D'Arblay, is known from her in which year he was introduced to Mrs. novels, “ Cecilia,” “ Evelina," “ Camilla,” Cibber, through whom, besides making and the “Wanderer,” which works comthe personal acquaintance of the literary menced a new era in light literature. His and scientific men, the artists, actors, and eldest son, James, sailed round the world wits of the time, he was induced to com- with Captain Cook, and afterwards compose for Drury Lane Theater three musi- manded the Bristol, fifty guns, in the cal dramas,“ Alfred," "Robin Hood,” and East-Indies. His second son was the “Queen Mab.” After this period, being learned Charles Burney, LL.D. Dr. Burin ill-health, he went to Lynn Regis in ney was on terms of intimacy and friendNorfolk, where for nine years he occu- ship with all the eminent men of his day. pied himself in collecting materials for his In all the relations of life, his character is great “ History of Music,” at the same described as exemplary, while his manners time filling the situation of organist, with were peculiarly easy, spirited, and gentlea salary of £100 per annum. In 1760, manly. recovered in health, he returned to London, where he soon procured full employ
DR. THOMAS WARTON. ment and gained a high reputation in his profession, and where his eldest daughter, He was the son of a clergyman, who then only eight years old, attracted much was professor of poetry at Oxford, and attention as a performer on the harpsi- afterwards a vicar in Hampshire. He chord. In 1769 the College of Oxford was born in 1728, and died in 1790. He conferred upon him the honorary degree held the professorship of poetry for ten of Doctor in Music. In the following year years in Trinity College, Oxford, from he set out on his travels with the object 1757, and in 1785 he was appointed poet of visiting the great continental libraries, laureate and Camden professor of history. that he might add to the stores of matter He wrote a good deal of poetry. But his valuable efforts were made in the criti- | and authorship now became perforce his cism of Early English Literature. His only means of livelihood. He drudged great work “The History of English Poe for the Monthly and Critical Reviews, try,” appeared in three successive vol. and for other periodicals; and compiled umes, in 1774, 1778, and 1781. He lived his well-written “ Histories of Greece and to write only a small portion of the fourth Rome,” and his “History of the Earth volume, and the work closes abruptly and Animated Nature.” It was in the near the beginning of Elizabeth's reign. intervals of such toils that he produced
those original works, which made him
both in prose and verse, one of the classOLIVER GOLDSMITH.
ics of English literature. In 1761 he
wrote, while in confinement for debt, his We have room only for a brief outline inimitable “Vicar of Wakefield;" and of this man of genius.' Goldsmith was the soon afterwards appeared “The Citizen of son of an Irish curate. He was born in the World.” “The Traveler,” which had the county of Longford in 1728. Lissoy, been partly written abroad, and the beauin his native parish of Formey, is said to tiful ballad of “The Hermit,” were pubhave been the original of his “Sweet Au- lished in 1765. The former of these burn." The assistance of an uncle ena- poems gave him great and deserved fame as bled him in 1744 to enter at Trinity Col-la descriptive poet, which was increased in lege, Dublin, where he was idle and ex- 1769 by the publication of “The Deserted travagant, and probably ill-used. He is Village.” He became yet more popular said to have applied unsuccessfully for or- as a play-writer. His comedy of "The dination, and to have been for some time Good-Natured Man,” which was acted a family tutor. He threw away in a in 1768, did not succeed greatly on the gaming-house the money which his uncle stage, but was highly esteemed by Jobnhad given him to aid in his study of law; son and other critics; and “She Stoops to but the same kind relative enabled him to Conquer,” appeared in 1773, was received become a student of medicine in Edin- with universal applause. The author surburgh, where he spent two years from vived this brilliant success but a short the close of 1752, afterwards passing a time, and profited very little by the year at Leyden. He next took a pedes- wealth was now accruing to him. Industrian tour of twelve months on the conti- trious through necessity, he was indolent nent, traveling as far as the north of by temperament: he was careless and Italy; and before or after this he was an improvident in money matters, equally usher in a school. Both of these experi- ready to squander his painfully-earned ences he has described in his famous novel. gains at the gaming-table, or to spend In 1756 he came to London. He at- them in charity. Gentle, amiable, and tempted medical practice in a humble good-hearted, he was also irresolute, vain, way, with small knowledge and no suc- and capricious; and, while Johnson and cess; and, on subrnitting to examination his other literary friends did not estimate at the College of Surgeons, to qualify him highly enough his fine genius, his conduct for an appointment abroad, he was re- gave them much excuse for treating him, jected as insufficiently informed. He had as they did, like a favorite and petted already been writing for the booksellers; child. He died 1774.
LITERARY MISCELLANI E S.
BIOGRAPHY OF Elisha KENT KANE. By WILLIAM | eloquent and powerful sermons of modern times.
Elder. Philadelphia : Childs & Peterson. New. It forms an impressive appeal to public men, both York: Sheldon, Blakeman, & Co. 1858. Pp. 416. in England and in this country, to follow his illusWith a portrait.
trious example of Christian principle and action.
We are gratified to learn that a larger and more The lamented subject of this well-written bio- complete biography will be prepared and published, graphy, was a remarkable man. The world has ere long, of this eminent man. seen comparatively few like him ; so pure in character, so ripe in judgment, so rich in scientific attain-BIBLIOTHECA SACRA AND BIBLICAL REPOSITORY, ment, of such unbending integrity, moral firmness,
EDWARDS A. PAR and SAMUEL H. TAYLOR, and self-reliance in the difficult and trying scenes of
Editors. Andover, Mass.: Warren F. Draper, his eventful life. His name, his character, and his
Publisher. renowned achievements, amid the savage climes and snows of an Arctic winter, and its ice-bound
We have received the April number of this very coasts, form a chapter of surpassing interest in the able Quarterly, devoted to Sacred Literature and embalmed for perpetual remembrance in the hearts Theology. There are few if any periodicals of this of his countrymen. Dr. Elder has well performed stamp in the world which equal this in the talent
and learning with which its pages have been en. his part in the preparation of this invaluable bio. riched in past years. It is a great storehouse of graphy. It is one of those books which may well valuable thought, and its regular issues come loaded claim a place in the library of young men, for its with the affluence of religious wealth. It is an honor rich developments of principles and personal worth, and for the salutary influence which its careful pe to enrich its pages.
to the country and to the men whose talent contribute rusal can hardly fail to effect. It is one of those books, which do not need commendation ; but only
MRS. STEPHENS' ILLUSTRATED NEw MONTHLY, to remind the reading public of its existence in order to secure its extensive perusal. We knew Dr. Kane, The May Number is on our table, with its rich vaand felt the warm grasp of his hand in a last farewell riety of articles in prose and poetry, and graphic illuson the deck of the steamer but a moment before it trations, attractive, interesting, and instructive, inbore him away from our shores forever.
viting for itself and its literary merits invitations to
ladies' parlors and ladies' society all over the country, A BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF SIR HENRY HAVELOCK, The ladies' treasury of fashions, needle-work, and
K.C.B. By the Rev. WILLIAM BROCK. New- home art is well filled in the letter-press and in the York: Robert Carter & Brothers. 1858. Pp. 305. engraved illustrations of the various forms of fashion With a portrait.
and taste which that great mistress of ladies' robes, The reading public, especially the Christian public, alias Madame Fashion, is continually contriving for are under obligations to the Carters, for thus prompt
all her votaries. ly issuing from their press, this interesting biographical sketch of so renowned a man, a great man, a WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR'S LETTER.-SIR: In good man, a brave man, and the Christian hero of your paper of yesterday, March 15, I find my name British India. Peace principles have been advocat- mentioned by Mr. Allsop as offering a sum of money ed with great eloquence and power within a few for the assassination of the Emperor Napoleon. years at the annual sessions of the Peace Congresses Never have I countenanced any assassination whatin Europe, and called sternly in question the lawful. soever. Assassination I consider as the basest of ness of war. But the late terrific struggles in India crimes-tyrannicide as the sublimest of virtues, it to arrest the storm of violence and outrage, of rapine being self-immolation for a man's native country. and wholesale slaughter of innocent women and Beyond that country it would be murder. It strikes children, from the blood-thirsty cruelties of Pagan him down who hath subverted its laws and stands barbarism, would seem to vindicate, with irresistible above them on their ruins. Now, whoever is above eloquence, the lawfulness of war. For such a them is out of them; in one word an outlaw. purpose the world can not help looking with The Emperor Napoleon is the most legitimate admiration upon the career of such a man as Have- sovran in the universe, having been chosen by a lock, leading embattled hosts to the rescue of inno- greater number of suffrages than ever was one cent women and children. His character, his Christ before; whereas the wretched and infamous Gov. ian principles, his devoted and earnest piety serve ernment which he overthrew annulled those which ovly to enhance the feeling of admiration in the itself had recently called forth and consecrated. It public mind. If there is any power in Christian was not he who planned and executed the invasion principles, any force and influence in the example of the Roman State, the sister Republic, coming by of a Christian hero, then the character and career of stealth in the garb of amity, and perpetrating an asunflinching: unbending integrity and fidelity in the sassination a hundred-fold more extensive than the discharge of his duties to his God and his country, Parisian. No, it was not be; it was those small, restlots General Havelock, have uttered one of the most less, wriggling creatures which showed their head
out of their burrows in the crevices of the old Republic. | average in the five years 1824–8, and 957,894 an
It was politicians like Lamartine and Changarnier-nually on an average in the years 1850–4. Iu 1854 · first-rato in chatter, second-rate in literature, third- the births were 923,461 out of a population of
rate in public confidence. These people had abjured 36,155,682 in France, and 634,405 out of 18,618,760 all ambition, all enroachment, all interference with in England and Wales. Thus, in France, to 1000 the territory or government of other nations; yet of the population, 26 children were born; in England attempted to wrest Savoy from Sardinia.
and Wales the same population gave birth to 34 So far am I from desiring the overthrow of Napo- children in the year 1854.—The Registrar-General's leon, I should regret the loss to Europe of the most Returns. energetic and sagacious potentate that ever governed any portion of it
, excepting the great Protector and EIGNIFICATION OF LADIES' NAMES. - Mary, Maria, the great Stadtholder. To England tho loss would Marie, (French) siguify exalted. According to some, be peculiarly deplorable, since we may rely on him, Mary means lady of the sea. Martha, interpreted, and on him only, for the continuance of peace. is bitterness; Isabel signifies lovely; Julia and Juliet,
Personally I never had intimacy or connection soft-haired; Gertrude, all truth; Eleanor, all fruitwith democratic strangers; I detest and abominate ful; Ellen-originally the Greek Helen-signities democracy, the destroyer of republics. The political alluring, though according to the Greek authors, it system requires an immovable center. Queen Eliza- means one who pities. The interpretation of Carobeth, in a speech before Parliament, called the Gov. line is regal; that' of Charlotte, is a Queen; Elizaernment our Commonwealth." In my opinion, beth and Eliza signify true; Clara, bright or clear. the wisest was the Venetian, where gentlemen who eyed; Agnes, chaste; Amanda, amiable; Laura. had honor to lose and nothing to gain, were the laurel; Edith, joyous; Olivia, peace; Phæbe, light rulers, and wise heads directed strong arms without of life; Grace, favor; Sarah, or Sally, a princess; oscillation. I never take the trouble to defend my Sophia, wisdom; Amelia, Amy, beloved ; Matilda, opinions, but I will repeat them, as I have often a noble maid ; Pauline, little one; Margaret, a done. Again, I declare that whoever slays unjustly pearl; Rebecca, plump; Hannah, Anne, Ann, and is justly slain. Would Algernon Sidney, or the stiil Nancy, all of which are of the same original name, greater Milton, controvert this axiom ? Are the interpreted, mean grace or kind. Jane signifies writers who pertinaciously oppose them wiser or dignity; Ida, the morning star; Lucy, brightness of more virtuous than they? Let me never be con- aspect; Louisa, or Louise, one who protects; Emma, founded either with the enemies or the partisans of tender; Catherine, pure; Frances, or Fanny, frank Napoleon. Frequently, and for many years, I en. or free; Lydia, severe; Minerva, chaste.-Ladies' joyed his conversation, and I heartily wish him a Nole Book long life and a long succession. He knows enough of me to be convinced that I care little for rank, for SAILING OF DR. LIVINGSTONE'S EXPEDITION power, or for popularity, and that it is quite enough The north-westerly gales which prevented the sailfor me to be, as retired and obscure as any man in ing of the screw steamer Pearl on Monday and England.
yesterday abated this morning, and at fifteen minMarch 16. WALTER SAVAGE LANDOR. utes past one she took her departure for Sierra Leone,
whence she will sail for the Cape, and thence for MARRIAGES IN ENGLAND AND FRANCE.—It is a the Zambese River, up which she will steam as far remarkable fact that, exclusive of the metropolitan as her draught of water will permit her. The little cities in England and France, nearly the same pro- launch will then be unshipped and will commerce portion. 34 in every 100, of the men who marry do her part of the enterprise. Besides Dr. and Mrs. not write their name in signing the marriage regis- Liviugstone, the Pearl lias on board their little son, ter; the exact proportion of the ignorant men in Mr. Livingstone, ( brother to the Dr., and assistantFrance is 33.70; in England it is rather more, or commander,) Capt. Bedingfield, R.N., Government 33.93 in 100. The French women are even less surveyor and nautical commander of the expedition; versed in writing than English women; for of Dr. Kirk, Edinburgh, the botanist and medical French women 55 in 100 did not write their names; officer; Mr. Thornton, the geologist; Mr. Rae, the of English women 48 did not write their names, but engineer of the launch; and Mr. F. Baines, artist made their marks. But the proportions are deplor- of the expedition, all of whom have signed articles ably bigh, and show how much has to be done to under Government for two years' service. Mr. J. convey the first rudiments of instruction to the great Laird and a few other friends accompanied Dr. Livbody of the people in two of the most enlightened ingstone on board, and bade him a cheering "God nations of the world As the returns for France, speed !" before the vessel sailed. There seems to through some accident, do not include the facts for be a complete and agreeable change in the weather, Paris in the department of the Seine, I have ex- and there is every reason to hope that the Pearl will cluded the marriages in London from the English have a favorable run down the Channel.—Liverpool returns, as in the capitals the numbers who can letter, March 10. write are disproportionately great. The temporary decrease of the population of France has naturally FUEL.-Until the time of Edward II. London attracted attention, as it has occurred for the first used only wood for fuel, drawn from the neighboring time, M. Leygot states in the last fifty-four years. forests. In this reign, however, coal began to be In considering its causes, the dimivial ing number imported from Newcastle ; and the effects of the of births, to which I have before adverted in my smoke speedily showing themselves, Parliament, in reports, has attracted attention, and given rise to 1316, petitioned the king to prohibit its use in Loncontroversy. It is, undoubtedly, a remarkable fact, don, on the ground of its being a public nuisance. that while the births in England go on rapidly Whereupon he ordered all who burnt sea-borne coal increasing, the births of French children are not to be mulcted, and on a second offense, to have increasing, but are actually decreasing; 981,614 their furnaces demolished. — Things not Generally children were annually born (alive) in France on an Known.