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in a community, crimes multiply when or that conduct. Aim, therefore, to dithere is no certain administration of just- minish the amount of parental governice; so in a family, an immense increase ment as fast as you can substitute for it in of transgressions results from a hesitating your child's mind that self-government or irregular infliction of penalties. A arising from a foresight of results. In weak mother, who perpetually threatens infancy a considerable amount of absoluand rarely performs--who makes rules in tism is necessary. A three-year old urchin haste and repents of them at leisure-who playing with an open razor, can not be treats the same offense now with severity allowed to learn by the discipline of conand now with leniency, according as the sequences; for the consequences may, in passing humor dictates, is laying up such a case, be too serious. But as intelmiseries both for herself and her children. ligence increases, the number of instances She is making herself contemptible in calling for peremptory interference may their eyes; she is setting them an example be, and should be, diminished; with the of uncontrolled feelings; she is encourag- view of gradually ending them as maing them to transgress by the prospect of turity is approached. All periods of probable impunity; she is entailing end- transition are dangerous; and the most less squabbles and accompanying damage dangerous is the transition from the to her own temper and the tempers of her restraint of the family circle to the nonlittle ones ; she is reducing their minds to restraint of the world. Hence the ima moral chaos, which after years of bitter portance of pursuing the policy we advoexperience will with difficulty bring into cate; which, alike by cultivating a child's order. Better even a barbarous form of faculty of self-restraint, by continually in. domestic government carried out consist- creasing the degree in which it is left to ently, than a humane one inconsistently its self-restraint, and by so bringing it, carried out. Again we say, avoid coërcive step by step, to a state of unaided selfmeasures whenever it is possible to do so; restraint, obliterates the ordinary sudden but when you find despotism really neces- and hazardous change from externally. sary, be despotic in good earnest. governed youth to internally-governed
Bear constantly in mind the truth that maturity. Let the history of your the aim of your discipline should be to domestic rule typify, in little, the history produce a self-governing being; not to of our political rule: at the outset, autoproduce a being to be governed by others. cratic control, where control is really Were your children fated to pass their needful; by and by an incipient constitulives as slaves, you could not too much tionalism, in which the liberty of the accustom them to slavery during their subject gains some express recognition ; childhood; but as they are by and by to successive extensions of this liberty of the be free men, with no one to control their subject; gradually ending in parental daily conduct, you can not too much ac- abdication. custom them to self-control while they Do not regret the exhibition of conare still under your eye. This it is which siderable self-will on the part of your makes the system of discipline by natural children. It is the correlative of that diconsequences, so especially appropriate to minished coërciveness so conspicuous in the social state which we in England have modern education. The greater tendency now reached. Under early, tyrannical to assert freedom of action on the one forms of society, when one of the chief side, corresponds to the smaller tendency evils the citizen had to fear was the anger to tyrannize on the other. They both of his superiors, it was well that during indicate an approach to the system of childhood parental vengeance should be a discipline we contend for, under which predominant means of government. But children will be more and more led to now that the citizen has little to fear from rule themselves by the experience of natany one-now that the good or evil which ural consequences; and they are both the he experiences throughout life is mainly accompaniments of our more advanced that which in the nature of things results social state. The independent English from his own conduct, it is desirable that boy is the father of the independent from his first years he should begin to English man; and you can not have the learn, experimentally, the good or evil last without the first. German teachers consequences which naturally follow this say that they had rather manage a dozen
German boys than one English one. has been established from the beginning, Shall we, therefore, wish that our boys becomes doubly difficult when a wrong had the manageableness of the German state of feeling has to be set right. Not ones, and with it the submissiveness and only will you have constantly to analyze political serfdom of adult Germans? Or the motives of your children, but you will shall we not rather tolerate in our boys have to analyze your own motives—to those feelings which make them free men, discriminate between those internal sugand modify our methods accordingly? gestions springing from a true parental
Lastly, always remember that to edu- solicitude, and those which spring from cate rightly is not a simple and easy your own selfishness, from your love of thing, but a complex and extremely diffi- ease, from your lust of dominion. And cult thing: the hardest task which then, more trying still, you will have not devolves upon adult life. The rough and only to detect, but to curb these baser ready style of domestic government is impulses. In brief, you will have to indeed practicable by the meanest and carry on your own higher education at most uncultivated intellects. Slaps and the same time that you are educating your sharp words are penalties that suggest children. Intellectually you must cultithemselves alike to the least reclaimed vate to good purpose that most complex barbarian and the most stolid peasant. of subjects—human nature and its laws, Even brutes can use this method of disci- as exhibited in your children, in yourself, pline; as you may see in the growl and and in the world. Morally, you must half-bite with which a bitch will check a keep in constant exercise your higher too-exigeant puppy. But if you would feelings, and restrain your lower. It is a carry out with success a rational and truth yet remaining to be recognized, that civilized system, you must be prepared the last stage in the mental development for considerablemental exertion — for of each man and woman is to be reached some study, some ingenuity, some pa- only through the proper discharge of the tience, some self-control. You will have parental duties. And when this truth is habitually to trace the consequences of recognized, it will be seen how admirable conduct—to consider what are the results is the ordination in virtue of which human which in adult life follow certain kinds of beings are led by their strongest affections acts; and then you will have to devise to subject themselves to a discipline which methods by which parallel results shall be they would else elude. entailed on the parallel acts of your While some will probably regard this children. You will daily be called upon conception of education as it should be, to analyze the motives of juvenile conduct: with doubt and discouragement, others you must distinguish between acts that will, we think, perceive in the exalted are really good, and those which, though ideal which it involves, evidence of its externally simulating them, proceed from truth. That it can not be realized by the inferior impulses; while you must be impulsive, the unsympathetic, and the ever on your guard against the cruel short-sighted, but demands the higher mistake not unfrequently made, of translat- attributes of human nature, they will see ing neutral acts into transgressions, or as to be evidence of its fitness for the more cribing worse feelings than were enter-advanced states of humanity. Though it tained. You must more or less modify calls for much labor and self-sacrifice, your method to suit the disposition of they will see that it promises an abundeach child; and must be prepared to ant return of happiness, immediate and make further modifications as each child's remote. They will see that while in its disposition enters on a new phase. Your injurious effects on both parent and child faith will often be taxed to maintain the a bad system is twice cursed, a good requisite perseverance in a course which system is twice blessed—it blésses him seems to produce little or no effect. Es that trains and him that's trained. pecially if you are dealing with children It will be seen that we have said nowho have been wrongly treated, you must thing in this paper about the transcenbe prepared for a lengthened trial of pa- dental distinction between right and tience before succeeding with better wrong, of which wise men know
so little, methods; seeing that that which is not and children nothing. All thinkers are easy even where a right state of feeling agreed that we may find the criterion of
right in the effect of actions, if we do not | field, though a very important one. Our find the rule there; and that is sufficient readers may supplement our thoughts in for the purpose we have had in view. any way they please; we are only conNor have we introduced the religious cerned that they should be accepted as element. We have confined our inquirers far as they go. to a nearer, and a much more neglected
From the Westminster Review.
RECOLLECTIONS OF SHELLEY AND BYRON.*
MR. TRELAWNY has done well in giving ciently influential and judicious to have this manly and carelessly written little delayed the publication of “ Queen Mab” volume to the world : it will at least re- for ten years, Shelley's lot might have vive the personal memory of two English- been far different. How could he reasonmen who, though long dead, can never be ably expect forbearance from a society altogether of the past. Without telling whose creed, by a portion of it sincerely much of either with which we were not venerated, he so recklessly outraged ? previously acquainted, the information The wisest man feels himself to be an incommunicated is the result of intimate fant if he attempts to understand the personal knowledge, and, gathered during doctrine of Original Sin ; and yet it was the intervals of a familiar acquaintance, this problem that the youthful and inex. comes out with such freshness and vigor, perienced Shelley dared to grapple in his that it possesses nearly all the merit of poem, in a spirit of unparalleled rashness novelty, and the striking features of cha- and presumption. racter are
are brought forward in much Mr. Trelawny was for some time, as is stronger relief, than in the tame and well known, the companion of Byron and wearisome biography of which one at least Shelley during their voluntary exile in was the victim. It is the least enviable Italy. Too manly and too honest to beappanage of genius that it perpetuates by lieve in the justice of the tremendous caits own lustre those faults and weaknesses lumnies which drove Shelley from Engwhich repose in the graves of meaner land, and deprived him of his children, he men; the biographer, even though a was yet, like all who ever came to perfriend, can not ignore these ; and while sonal knowledge of Shelley, astonished to he avoids giving them undue prominence, find what manner of man was this of can not forget that truth has its claims, as whom all who did not know him spoke so well as genius.
ill. We see him as Mr. Trelawny saw We recognize Shelley in these sketches him, more than thirty years since, in the as he appeared in his works—the gentle, following scene : guileless, noble soul who persisted in putting himself wrong with the world, and tall thin stripling held out both his hands; and
"Swiftly gliding in, blushing like a girl, a who rashly and fearlessly launched his in- although I could hardly believe, as I looked at dignant sarcasm at the cant and bigotry his flushed, feminine, and artless face, that it and selfishness of society, without indi- could be the poet, I returned his warm pressure. cating any rational plan for its regenera- After the ordinary greetings and courtesies, he tion. Had he possessed a friend suffi- sat down and listened. I was silent from as
tonishment; was it possible this mild-looking,
beardless boy could be the veritable monster at * Recollections of the Last Days of Shelley and war with all the world ? excommunicated by Byron. By E. J. Trelawny. London : Edward the fathers of the Church, deprived of his civil Moxon. 1858.
rights by a grim Lord Chancellor, discarded by
every member of his family, and denounced by age to evince publicly. Shelley's toy the rival sages of our literature as the founder skiff
, the Don Juan, in which they emof a Satanic school? I could not believe it; it baaked with inauspicious omens on that must be a hoax. He was habited like a boy, in black jacket and trowsers
, which he seemed to melancholy evening, does not appear to have outgrown, or his tailor, as is the custom, have been capsized during the gale, nothad shamefully stinted him in his 'sizings.?”
Genoese mate of the Bolivar about the His wife's personal appearance, née superfluous gaff-topsail; but from her Godwin, the authoress of" Frankenstein,” damaged condition, when afterwards is sketched on the same occasion : weighed by the exertions of Captain “The most striking feature in her face was Italian speronare
Roberts, was probably run down by some
scudding before the English standard of woman's height, very fair gale. and light-haired, witty, social, and animated in
Shelley stands far higher in the opinions the society of friends, though mournful in soli- of his countrymen now than when his tude; like Shelley, though in a minor degree, gentle spirit and ardent love of truth she had the power of expressing her thoughts were quenched forever in the waves of the in varied and appropriate words, derived from Mediterranean. It is not necessary to familiarity with the works of our vigorous old vindicate his character from calumnies writers. Neither of them used obsolete or for which are long forgotten ; but if there are eign words."
any who, not knowing, yet care to know, The artless and natural character of how gentle, how generous, how accomShelley endeared him to the few who had plished, and how unselfish' he was, it is the privilege of personal knowledge; and, written in this late testimony of one who as appears from these sketches, contrasted knew him well, and knowing him well in very favorably with the artificial manner life, had the hard task assigned him of and undisguised egotism of Byron-but communicating his premature death to in truth the latter was only himself when the despairing widow. in the stillness of night he was engaged in Shelley formed a correct and candid escomposition, and absorbed into forgetful- timate of his own writings when he said : ness of his physical deficiencies and his “ They are little else than visions which chronic starvation,
impersonate my own apprehensions of the Mr. Trelawny gives a more minute and beautiful and just they are dreams of circumstantial detail than has previously what ought to be, or may be.” He read appeared, of the miserable circumstances too much, was altogether too much imattending the death of Shelley and of his bued with the ideas of others. His were companion Mr. Williams. The letter the azure and vermilion clouds that float which the latter had dispatched to his in insubstantial beauty through the atmowife on the previous day, informing her sphere of an Alpine sunrise, rather than and Mrs. Shelley of their proposed return the enduring creation of grandeur, to the home in the Gulf of Spezzia, where strength, and beauty which we recognize both ladies were anxiously expecting their in a great poem. husbands, who had been unexpectedly de After Shelley's death, Byron moved tained in Leghorn, is surely, breathing as from Pisa to Albaro, near Genoa, where it does the warmest affection, destined to he occupied the Casa Saluzzi; but the be so sadly quenched, the most touching loss of one whom he must have looked on document ever preserved from oblivion. as a friend, and respected for the nobleThe condition of the two bodies, when ness of his nature, together with the thrown ashore after many days, was such failure of the Liberal, which could hardly as to make incremation the most eligible succeed under the auspices of two such means of disposing of the remains; and editors as Hunt and himself, made him this proceeding was conducted in both dissatisfied with an inactive existence, cases—for they were not burned together and he looked round for some field, not --with great care by Mr. Trelawny, in an of enterprise, but excitement. He was iron furnace constructed on purpose. quite unfit constitutionally to encounter Lord Byron may have given way to some real fatigue or privation; he had courage, apparent levity on the occasion ; but it no doubt ; contempt of life, and tameless was but to conceal an emotion hé deeply pride; but possessed neither the physical felt, but which he lacked the moral cour- nor mental robustness to see in well-plan
ned, and long-sustained action a career of then, as before ours now, when we look distinction or usefulness. After much on Naples : wavering, he determined to revisit Greece, and bought a vessel to convey himself
" It is as though the fiends prevailed and his lares to the land which was to
Against the seraphs they assailed,
And fixed on heavenly thrones should dwell witness his own dissolution, and thus to
The freed inheritors of hell derive from him another of its many So fair the scene, so formed for joy, claims to classic interest. The choice of So cursed the tyrants that destroy." his vessel seems to have been decided more by motives of economy than from “The poet had an antipathy to every thing any regard to its nautical capabilities, scientific; maps and charts offended him. ... and when its defects were indicated by a
Buildings the most ancient or modern he was
as indifferent to as he was to painting, sculpmore critical judgment than his own, he
ture, or music. But all natural objects, or was consoled by the reflection that he had che got it a bargain.
first to point out, and the last to lose sight of." It was on the 13th of July, 1823, that -P. 187. [The italics are our own.] he sailed in the Hercules from Genoa with Mr. Trelawny, Count Gamba, and an Mr. Trelawny echoes an old remark Italian crew; slowly they stood eastward of Baron Macaulay's, (Warren Hastings,) up the Mediterranean, and so wretched which every one's experience will confirm, were the sailing qualities of the vessel, as to the effect of a sea voyage in testing that even with a fair wind the average temper and character, and says: “I never progress was but twenty miles a day. was on shipboard with a better companion They put into Leghorn, which they than Byron: he was generally cheerful, quitted for Cephalonia, on the 23d of gave no trouble, assumed no authority,
uttered no complaints, and did not inter
fere with the working of the ship; when “On coming near Lonza, a small islet converted into one of its many prisons by the
appealed to, he always answered : Do as Neapolitan government. I said to Byron: 1 you like.'” There was much enjoyment . There is a sight that would curdle the blood of life on board this dull sailer, the Herof a poet laureate.' 'If Southey were here,' he cules; and the voyage, if protracted, was answered, he would sing hosannahs to the under clear, warm skies, and in smooth Bourbons. Here kings and governors are only water. One scene narrated has a grimly the jailers and hangmen of the detestable Aus- I comic element: apropos to some remark, trian barbarians. What dolts and drivelers Byron exclaimed: “Women, you should the people are, to submit to such universal despotism! I should like to see from this our ark,
say: if we had a woman-kind on board, the world submerged, and all the rascals
she would set us all at loggerheads, and drowning on it like rats.' I put a pencil and make a mutiny; would she not, captain ?" paper into his hand, saying : Perpetuate your “I wish my old woman were here," recurses on tyranny,' etc. He readily took the plied the skipper ; "she would make you paper and set to work. I walked the deck, and as comfortable in my cabin at sea as your prevented his being disturbed. . . . After a lown wife would in her parlor on shore ? long spell he said : 'You think it is as easy to write poetry as to smoke a cigar- look, it's
: Byron started, and looked savage.
The only doggerel. Extemporizing verse is non- skipper want,
skipper went on unconscious, etc., etc. sense ; Poetry is a distinct faculty-it won't Byron had written an autobiography, come when called. You may as well whistle it seems, conceived in manly, straightfor a wind; a Pythoness was primed when put forward fashion-in a vigorous, fearless into the tripod. I must chew the cud before I style, and was apparently truthful as write. I have thought over most of my subjects regarded himself. It was subsequently for years before writing a line.' ...Give me
intrusted to Mr. Moore, as literary exetime-I can't forget the theme; but for this Greek business I should have been at Naples
cutor, and by him suppressed, following writing a fiftb canto of Childe Harold. the advice of others, it would seem. “I expressly to give vent to my detestation of the told Murray Lady Byron was to read the Austrian tyranny in Italy.""
manuscript if she wished it, and requested
she would add, omit, or make any comBut his own earlier lines might well ments she pleased, now, or when it was have recurred both to the poet and to his going through the press.” (P. 197.) biographer, for surely none could be more They reached Zante and Cephalonia at applicable to the scene before their eyes I last; and after an absence of eleven