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the abstract merit of Bacon's theories, it are now more numerous but of less cer. would appear that the only kind of teach- tain utility. There is a danger lest they ing which the sublime art of discovery ad- become exhibition-theaters for persons of mits of, is teaching by example, and not an inferior stamp, or be resorted to for by precept; and that there are in any and mere purposes of display. We are overevery age but a few persons who possess whelmed by publications in the form of that happy constitution of mind which “ Transactions,” in which the same desire enables them to profit by such teaching for notoriety induces authors to diffuse Rules are of use in the humbler and more over the greatest possible number of pages mechanical grade of subjects, but utterly the few topics of real importance on which unavailing in the highest. Nature herself they may have been so fortunate as to creates discoverers: they can not bequeath touch; while they swell the bulk of their that sacred possession. Had it been performances by details of experiments otherwise, the half-century which succeed which had no issue. The corroding tooth ed Newton's appearance in the world of of time deals hardly by these monuments science ought to have been the most pro- of egotism and vanity. They are soon lific of any age. But it was in most re- hopelessly buried under their own accuspects the reverse. The intellect of New- mulations. It is not enough that science ton seems to have absorbed for a season, has been subdivided until men struggle in the genius of humanity. The trophies of vain to follow the progress of any but one his successors were gained in following or two of its ramifications. The turgid his footsteps ; not slavishly indeed, but in bulk of some contributions and the affecta liberal and discerning spirit. And when ed abstruseness of others impose an ever after another period of years science be increasing barrier in the way of acquiring gan to revive and to assume new and ori- information. The admitted negligence of ginal forms, the cycle of discovery was men of science to inform themselves of renewed much upon the same principles what has been done by others even in deas those on which Galileo had acted two partments akin to their own, is not so centuries before.
much an individual as a generic fault. It Many persons are probably impressed arises from the intense concentration of with the idea that the discoveries of our every one on his own little field of labor, own day exceed, both in importance and from which he hopes to reap an extravain number, those of any former period of gant harvest of profit and fame. Forgetthe world's history. But this is not alto- ting how little attention or interest he gether correct. Indeed, if we confine our bestows on the productions of those by attention to the most recent times, it is whom he is surrounded, he is profoundly certainly erroneous. The facts of science occupied by the persuasion that all eyes -often, no doubt, very beautiful and im- and thoughts are turned upon himself. It portant facts — are brought to light in is an isolation injurious to the character, greater profusion than formerly. At all and short-sighted with reference to its own events, they are set more conspicuously ends. before the public eye. The laborers are To estimate the history of science cormore numerous, and are animated by a rectly, and to enable us to compare the keener thirst than in older times for imme- results of one period with those of andiate reward in reputation, in station, or other, we must never forget that in this as in wealth. The scramble for a share in in every other great work and profession, the applause which arises out of some real powers and endowments of very various though perhaps not very important ob- degrees of rarity and value are ever takservation or improvement, is often amus- ing a share more or less subordinate in ing to bystanders. But the crowd of the production of important and enduring eager competitors in such contests is so results. A deficiency of laboring hands large that few are left to fill the position or of superintending and controlling heads, of spectators or of judges in the giddy would equally render the undertaking race for distinction. Even the facilities abortive. which exist for making and publishing To take the first comparison which ofliterary efforts are not without drawbacks. fers itself, the task of constructing a science Societies and academies, which in the ear- resembles that of building a house. We ly times of scientific progress gave need- have first quarrymen, then laborers and ed support to the young spirit of inquiry, l excavators, then bricklayers and stonemasons, then adroit workmen who alone | are tempted to compare our own with bycan execute the more delicate and import- gone ages to the disparagement of the ant parts of the fabric. Above all, we latter, let us balance truly the relative vahave the master-mason and the architect, lue of discoveries. Mere industry goes whose view and plan must embrace the far in the humbler task of collecting facts, fitness of the whole structure. So in less far in combining them into laws of science there is work for all hands more observation, and still a shorter way in or less skilled ; and he is usually the most educing great and comprehensive laws fit to occupy the higher posts who has which bind together different parts of the risen from the ranks, and who has experi- same or different subjects. As to great mentally acquainted himself with the na- theories, one or two in a century is an amture of the work to be done in each and ple allowance. If we include only the every, even the humblest department. greatest generalizations, we can hardly Those are not our greatest men who have assign more than one such to the Galilean striven to sit ever apart in the abstract age-namely, the discovery of the laws of exercise of contemplation. Not a few of motion, with their application to establish those whom we call great have toiled for the Copernican theory of the world ; and a considerable part of their active lives one also, that of gravitation, as the trophy at the drudgery of numerical computa- of the Newtonian period. Since that tion, and the monotonous labor of alge time the undulatory doctrine of light is braic developments such as are required perhaps the only theory worthy of a place in the theories of physical astronomy. beside those just mentioned, and of it the Such labors are not to be regarded as foundations were already laid in the eightdegrading, but as a part of man's appoint- eenth century. It is perhaps in the naed course on earth, tending in its degree ture of things that extensive generalizato noble ends, and even acting as an an- tions should become rarer as science adtidote to the consuming effect of profound vances; at all events they bear no prothought, and of the highest exercises of portion whatever to the measure of activthe inventive faculty.
ity in the mechanical departments or to In no calling is the chance of promotion the quantity of accumulated facts. All fairer than in the cultivation of science. that we know of heat, of electricity, or of A man is estimated by the amount and chemistry, does not amount to a compregoodness of the work he does, not by the hensive theory of any one of those subpossession of adventitious advantages. jects capable of explaining their intricate And as the posts which it offers are too and remarkable phenomena. But in defew and ill-requited to be coveted by tecting these phenomena and their primercenary persons, so every one has an mary relations to one another, our age has even chance of attaining the position as a performed its part well. It discoverer to which his talents and perse- an essential part of the law of progress in verance entitle him. By far the larger knowledge, that increasing toil is necesnumber of those who thus engage in the sary at each remove of the partition which prosecution of science must, by the ordi- separates the known from the unknown nary laws of humanity, be contented with that more hands must be employed at a moderate degree of success. Brilliant each successive stage of discovery-and or important faots rarely fall to the lot of that as the pride of man is flattered by any one by mere chance or good fortune; the enlargement of the realm which he great theories, never. Up to to a certain calls his own, less and less is achieved by order of consequence, facts come pouring individual prowess, and the more is he inin upon us in this generation : but we are debted for success to the preparatory lanot inundated by important discoveries. bors of those who went before, and to the Great theories are as rare now as in the assistance of his contemporaries. first ages of modern progress. When we
J. D. FORBES.
appears to be
From the United Service Magazine.
TI E MONARCIS
D E L'H 1.
The annals of the World, with its luxuries of the Mogul emperors, was the countless revolutions, have perhaps, af repeated mark for attack and plunder. forded no more strange and marvelous On the occasion of its capture and pillage history than is unfolded to us in the by the Persian adventurer and king, Nachanging dynasties of Hindostan, that vast dir Schah, in 1720, one hundred thousand Asiatic empire, which, for the last hun- souls perished; and Mohammed, the then dred years, succumbing province by pro- emperor, was glad to purchase peace by vince to the gradual advance of British bestowing the hand of his daughter, tosway, has in the barbarous brutality of gether with the rich Indian provinces lythe late outbreak comparable to noth- ing on the borders of Persia, on the man ing but the death-struggle of some wild whom he had rashly designated “the Perand ferocious animal-demonstrated the sian shepherd and freebooter.” It was inevitable necessity of strengthening and into the hands also of Nadir Schah, that securing the rule which it has now so sav- the famous diamond, the priceless Koh-iagely and yet so vainly striven to shake noor, passed on the occasion of the sack off
. By this rule, liberally and judicious- of Delhi; but so inviolably was the secret ly administered, it can alone be freed of the concealment of this jewel kept by from that religious and moral darkness-- the emperor, that the conqueror only acthe natural offspring of intolerant hea- quired it through stratagem. He ascerthenism and monstrous idolatry - indif- tained that Mohammed carried it bidden ference to which, has been so marked a in the folds of his head-dress, and on the feature in the narrow and mercantile spirit occasion of a banquet proposed to the which has actuated the Company's policy Emperor to exchange turbans; etiquette from the very date of its foundation. prevented the unlucky monarch from re
There is an association of splendor es fusing, and thus the possession of the pecially connected with the sway of the mountain of light,” passed forever from imperial Moguls; traditions of their Tar- the ownership of the Moguls. tar ancestor, the mighty Tamerlane - of It seems scarcely credible that a race of their founder Baber of his descendant, monarchs should thus have deteriorated the powerful, unscrupulous Aurungzebé --that the lineal descendant of Baber, of -traditions of their enormous wealth, of the man whose genius devised and estabthe cruelties, jealousies, slaughter, and vio- lished so vast a sovereignty, should belation of all natural ties, in the fierce come the miserable and despised criminal struggle for Indian rule, are familiar to —to use no milder term-whose wretched
most of us. We regard with horror and fragment of existence is only spared in • detestation, the atrocious barbarities un compliance with, perhaps, an ordinarily
der which our countrymen in India have correct, but, in this case, unwise and missuffered, but they find but too many par-directed clemency. Shah Akbar, the man allels in the chronicles of the empire. The who has lately borne, by virtue of his auaccession of each new monarch, was thority, so prominent a part in the atromarked by the holocaust of thousands of cious proceedings of the mutineers at Delvictims, whether in the ranks of the con hi, can lay no claim to the pity which tending armies who supported the pre- might, with justice, be accorded to his tensions of conflicting sons and brothers, unhappy predecessor and father, Shah or in the indiscriminate butchery of those Aulum, since, from the time of his acceswho might be supposed hostile to the new sion in 1806 to what was then less than sovereign.
the shadow of a nominal sovereignty, his The imperial city of Delhi especially, conduct has been marked by the weakest with its great treasures, its palaces and folly and, as regards his protectors, the jeweled thrones, and all the sumptuous British, by the grossest ingratitude and
VOL XLIV.-NO. I.
The power of the Mogul em- Mahrattas, at the head of whom he pire had so utterly fallen into abeyance, marched against that city. In this conand the members of the Imperial family junction of affairs, Meer Jaffier, the pusil
so little regarded or considered lanimous Rajah of Bengal, (raised to that since the period of Anglo-Indian govern- dignity by Lord Clive, would willingly ment, that we have but little record of have purchased peace with the new empetheir individuality; the struggles of Aulum ror, a suggestion negatived decisively by II., first as Shah Zada, or hereditary his patron, who answered the Governor of prince, and afterwards as Emperor of the Patna's application for assistance in these Moguls, against the rebellious vassals of words : “Come to no terms, defend your the diadem of Delhi, and, at one time, city to the last; rest assured that the Eng. against the British owners of the vast ter- lish are staunch friends, and that they never ritories of Hindostan, certainly bring him desert a cause in which they have once conspicuously forward on the stage of In- taken a part.” dian action ; but it is a prominence accord- Owing to the impetuosity of the Mogul's ed rather to his traditionary position than troops, and the temerity of Ramnaraim, to any actual influence exercised by his Governor of Bahar, an engagement took proceedings on the politics of his native place outside the walls of the city, in land. It may, perhaps, serve to account which the Sepoys were routed, and most for the meager details which we are en- of the few English who supported them abled to gather concerning the life of the cut to pieces. There can be little doubt present King of Delhi, if we give a brief that had Shah Aulum followed up his adsketch of the career of his father, and vantage, Patna must have fallen into his shortly trace, during what can hardly be hands; he delayed, however, until it was termed the administration of Shah Aulum, too late; for, on the arrival of Col. Calli. the vicissitudes in which he was made the and, with some English, and Meeran, at miserable sport of ill-fortune.
the head of 15,000 natives, his troops Alee Gohur, the oldest son of Alum were routed, and he himself compelled to Gheer II., succeeded to the ill-omened fly to Bahar. The ardor with which the Mogul sovereignty in 1760, by the title of pursuit was conducted, left Patna again in Aulum II. on the assassination of his fath. a defenseless state, and Aulum having reer. His reign opened upon a foregone turned to his besieging position, the fate history of revolt and slaughter, in which of the city became most critical, when no less than three of Aurungzebe's de Captain Knox arrived with a small detachscendants were simultaneously put for- ment of 200 Europeans, a battalion of Se. ward and supported by native princes, all poys, and 300 cavalry; and with this professing fealty to the Imperial house. small force completely routed the Empe. The disastrous battle of Panniput - con- ror's army of 12,000 men. Even after spicuous for its carnage even amongst In- this defeat, a possibility yet presented itdian conflicts - was what decided in a self for Aulum to attack the province of great measure the fate of India. In it the Bahar advantageously, in consequence of turbulent and warlike Mahrattas, who at the death of Meeran, the leader of the that time had overrun nearly the entire hostile troops, the loss of their commandterritory of Hindostan, were completely er occasioning the disbanding of the nadefeated, scarcely a remnant being left of tive soldiery. an army numbering 140,000 cavalry, The species of guerilla warfare occawhilst the prisoners alone amounted to sioned by Aulum's incursions, little suited 22,000. Abmed Shah, the powerful Doo- the views of the English ; the expense inranee, to whom Aulum II. owed his victo- curred by the necessity of maintaining an ry and throne, having established him at army to oppose him, was a continual drain Delhi, returned to Kabul, leaving him to on their finances; and on the cessation of contend alone with his distracted empire. the rains in 1761, Major Carnac marched
The first attempt of the Emperor to re- to Gyah Maunpore, where the Emperor pair his fallen fortunes, was directed was then stationed. The endeavors of against Patna; his army, allured by the the unfortunate monarch to increase his prestige even now attaching to the impe- forces were unsuccessful, and he again, in rial state, numbered between 50,000 and the figurative language of the Oriental 60,0 men, including men of all races and historian, "stretched the feet of trepidareligions, Afghans, Ghauts, Rohillas and tion on the boundless plains of despond
ency.” But now, wearied out with re- formidable and warlike of the Indian peated failures, unable to rely upon his tribes, and occupied a vast territory in own insolent subjects and allies, fearing the center of Hindostan, comprising the little from the Mahrattas after their late ancient sovereignties of Baglana and Beoverthrow at Panniput, and imagining japore, together with the provinces of that he might confide in his chief support- Berar, Bundelcund, Malwa, Candeish, and er, the Dooranee, Ahmed Shah, who had Goojerat; of this territory Poonah was effected the restoration of some tranquil- the capital city. The Mahrattas themlity after the late revolution at Delhi, selves first became a nation in the reign Aulum willingly listened to the overtures of Aurungzebe, when descending from of peace sent to him through Schitab the western hills, they pillaged successRoy, the brave Governor of Patna. Three fully their wealthy neighbors of the plain. or four years elapsed before this treaty Soon with accumulating possessions, digwas finally arranged, during which Aulum nities and titles arose amongst them; the again ventured on war against the con- descendants of freebooters became mighty querors, was again defeated, and gladly rajahs, whilst the Peishwa, chief minister submitted to the terms proposed by the of the Sevajee, possessed all the state and Company.
power of a monarch. Three of their chiefs, It is at this point of bis history that Tukajee Holkar, Madhajee Scindia, and Shah Aulum first experienced something Kishu Visagee, full of the desire to repair like peace and respite from the vicissi- the disasters of Pandiput, and avenge tudes that had hitherto alone marked his themselves on the Rohillas, whose aid to career. The British Governor, delegated Shah Ahmed had been the leading cause by the East-India Company, assigned to of his success, took up a position in the him the province of Allahabad, inclusive neighborhood of Futtahpore, and with a of the district of Corah, yielding a reve- body of 300,000 horse overran the neighnue of twenty lakhs of rupees, together boring provinces. They conceived that with an additional annual income of an- it would greatly facilitate the accomplishother twenty-six lakhs, in order to enable ment of their object, could they succeed him adequately to maintain an imperial in placing Shah Aulum on the throne of state. By way of acknowledgment, the Delhi - investing their proceedings by Emperor made over to the Company the that means with imperial authority. Aufertile provinces of Bengal, Bahar, and lum, unable to resist the alluring prospect, Orissa, on the 12th of August, 1765. The ratified a secret treaty, in which he ceded city of Allahabad was chosen for the Im- Corah and Allahabad to the Mahratta perial residence: and here, could Aulum princes; and before taking any active but have turned a deaf ear to evil coun- measures, applied to the British Governselors - could he have appreciated the ment for a recognition of his intention to safety of the countenance and protection resume his father's state and title. This vouchsafed to him, he might have been was, of course, refused: the British declarspared the years of misery that followed. ing themselves irresponsible for any conIt had ever been the secret object and de- sequences resulting from the Emperor's sire of his life to reässume the ancient withdrawal from their protection, warning state of the Mogul emperors, to enter the him, also, against trusting to the treachcapital of his ancestors as their descendant erous Mahrattas, whose disaffection had and successor. This desire had been uni- so often proved pernicious to the Mogul formly and politically repressed by the dynasty. The bait, however, was too English. No steps towards its attainment attractive, and in May, 1771, Aulum could, therefore, be taken with their sanc- marched from Allahabad, at the head of tion. Before detailing the circumstances 16,000 men. The first circumstance from attending upon the Moguls proceedings which he might have augured what awaited in this matter, it will be well to glance at him, was the appearance on the road to the allies by whose aid he had sought the Delhi of an ambassador from the Mahratfulfillment of his project.
ta chiefs, requiring from him grants and Mention has already been made of the concessions amounting in value to ten battle of Panniput, in which the Mahrat- lakhs of rupees. Hesitation was useless; tas suffered such overwhelming loss. the Emperor complied, and entered Delhi, They might at the period of which we are on December 15, 1771, with as much writing be considered one of the most magnificence as his resources permitted.