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usual logic, is totally unsupported by proof, and his apostles. It would collect and we content ourselves with denying it; exhibit their testimony, incidental, and giving, however, the very good reason for often indirect, but ample and incontroverour denial, that the assertion is deroga- tible, to the Old Testament Scriptures, tory to our Saviour's character.
and especially to the books of Moses ; Another of Mr. Powell's assertions is, showing that He, whose word constitutes that in the Sermon on the Mount, our the highest test of truth, ascribes to those Lord, taking the Decalogue as his text, books exactly the character they claim enlarged upon it, "giving new precepts for themselves — of being the faithful expressly in addition to it, not as unfold-records of express verbal communications ing any thing already contained or implied from Jehovah. If any one denies the in it, but expressly contrasting his own authority of our Lord's own teaching teaching with what was said of old.”” over our faith and conscience, we have no (The italics, as in our previous quotations, common ground with such a person on are the author's own.) We give this which to argue the question. The inquiry merely as a specimen of the author's in- would then advance to consider the actual sight into Scripture and soundness of judg. contents of Judaism, as a system of reliment, not deeming it worth while to reply gious truth thus authenticated; and to to it here. Our ungracious task must ascertain, still in the light of Christ's close. The conclusion of the whole work, teaching, how far the doctrines and ethics of course is, that Gentile Christians have of the New Testament are identical with nothing to do with Judaism (except it be the Old. In ethics it would take as its to quote the Old Testament, as St. Paul key the declaration of St. John, that “sin used to do in writing to the Jews, just in is (avouía) nonconformity to law;" and of the same way, Mr. Powell teaches us, as he St. Paul, that “love is the fulfilling of the quoted Greek plays to his Grecian hear. law.” With these it would compare the ers ;) that Puritanism rests upon an irra- declaration of our Saviour, (slurred over tional confusion of ideas; and lastly and by Professor Powell in a most helpless, foremost, that the grand Puritan institu- unsatisfactory manner, p. 121,) that “ On tion of the Sabbath is a baseless supersti- these two commandments”-love to God tion, forth with to be discarded by the en- and love to man“ hang all the law and lightened age of which the Savilian Pro- the prophets." It would show, that under fessor of Geometry is an enlightened re- great modifications of language and cir. presentative.
cumstance, there is the most perfect idenThe title of the book carries its own tity between the fundamental idea of condemnation. It implies the denial of holiness in the Old and in the New Tesmanifest heroic fact; ignorance of one of taments. In both, the perfection of human the main characters of the divine admin- virtue is exhibited under the twofold asistration, to which unity is not less essen-pect of obedience to divine law and liketial than progress; and inability to ness to divine character, while the law, distinguish between the forms of the Old even in its severest manifestations, is Dispensation which were transient, and its shown to be love, and to have its foundaspiritual truths, which are permanent. It tion not in an arbitrary divine will, but would be a noble task to expound, in its in an immutable divine nature. Examin. fullness of evidence, and in a form suited ing the bearing of these fixed principles of to the present day, the great truth which morality upon the facts of God's recorded this title impugns -- the spiritual identity dealings with his people and with their eneof the religion of the Bible from Genesis mies, we should find that those terrific but to the Revelation, the unbroken unity of righteous judgments, which Mr. Powell the divine dealings and revelations, and ventures to describe as “ bloody atrocithe consequent unity of the Church of ties,” were based on precisely the same God in all ages. Such an inquiry would principles as those judicial and military not begin by studying the Old Testament punishments without which human gov in its own light, which is nothing better ernment could not exist ; and as the final than fumbling at the lock while the key punishment of sin, which the New Testalies close at hand. It would start, as the ment so clearly foretells. Passing from Christian moralist and theologian always the nature, demands, and penalties of law, must start in reality, and ought to start to the great theme of Christian theology avowedly, froin the teachings of our Lord - the restoration of the transgressor to favor and to holiness, the religious system the leaven of Judaism ; the Jewish nation, of the Old Testament would be shown to in its last decay, ruled nominally by the be, under much superficial dissimilarity, law of Moses, really by the “traditions » essentially one with that of the Gospel which had “made the Word of God of In both, man's position is that of a con- none effect.” It would show the reason demned transgressor and a fallen creature of the separation of the Jewish nation, In both, repentance, faith, the influence of and the manner in which they were divine truth, and the grace of the Holy trained to be the teachers of mankind. It Spirit, occupy the same relative places; would trace the principle of social religion and the atonement of Christ, as the New through the various forms of the family, Testament plainly teaches, was at once the theocratic commonwealth, the kingthe real ground of the forgiveness of sins dom, the hierarchy, to its perfect develunder the Old Dispensation, and the sub- opment in the New Testament idea of a stance signified by its shadows. The dif- perfectly and purely spiritual church. ference between the two Dispensations
The result of such a complete, profound, lies only in the mode of teaching these and reverent inquiry would be to show truths, especially in the substitution of that a living unity of spiritual truth perliteral statement for symbolic exhibition, vades the whole Bible; that all which of historic narrative for prophetic promise; was really essential in Judaism survives and in the far greater clearness, conse- in the better system which it foreshad. quently, with which the theory of salvation owed, and that the change from the one is set forth in the Gospel. Lastly, such to the other was but such a change as an inquiry would consider the bearings of when the many-tinted petals fall away for the two Dispensations upon society, na- the fruit to ripen. “Christianity without tions, and the whole human race; which Judaism” is an abstract idea, not an hisbranch of this great argument would in- torical reality. Even as an idea, it is clude the theory of the Church. It would maimed and incomplete. It is a tree describe the condition, and the causes of without a root, a fruit without a bud, a the condition, in which Christianity found stream with no fountain, manhood withthe world—the Gentile nations under the out childhood, summer without spring, combined rule of philosophy, superstition, day without dawn. and infidelity, yet largely pervaded by
From Blackwood's Magazine.
ITALY-OF THE ARTS THE CRADLE AND THE GRAVE.
Art was cradled in the sunny south-flocks to pasture in the plain—to gambol in those latitudes where man found himself on the mountain-side - to rest beneath in Eden—where God gave forth his reve- the shadow of a rock, or beside a shadowy lations - where heaven itself seems to stream. In the south, existence becomes touch the earth, clothe all things in beauty, art; and yet that art is nature. What and promise all high delight. The lan- wonder, then, that man should burst into guage of the earth seemed poetry, and the song and dance—that his tongue should work and the pastime of man broke forth use itself to metaphor—that the house for into art. The same sun which made the his dwelling, and the temple for his worearth fertile in fruits made the imagina- ship, should be dedicated to beauty? We tion of man florid in flowers; sunshine have stood in the temple-citadel of Athens laughed within his heart; the blue sky when the sunshine danced upon the disoverhead became the canopy to his tant sea, and moulded by light and shade thoughts, wbich he led as a shepherd his the marble mountains into massive sculp ture. We have seen the same temple. | Nations perish-art decays; yet these mount glow in the sunset sky-faint into sunset splendors, fleeting as they are with twilight-and again stand forth to com- the passing moment, are of all earth's mand the plain, when the moon rose above passing shows the most unchanging. The the hills, and all was of so much beauty sunset of this present hour is such a one that, even in nation's overthrow, nature as that when tirst the Campanile of Torstill lingered fondly in the chosen haunts cello knolled the knell of parting day. It -weaving for her own delight a poetry, has often struck us with wonder that the and making out of daily life a beauteous land of Italy, after so great calamity and art. In the further south, the sunny im- suffering, remains so far unebanged. agination of the Arab pointed the arch, Mountain districts there are, it is true, and reared the dome. The romance of which are widely tossed and tortured as the "Arabian Nights," cast into stone, be- by tempests-symbols of the mob riot, came, when night was ended, like the and of that turbulent sea of troubles written words, an "entertainment ” suit- which raged in the city life of the middle ed for the day. Imagination took a ages. Such bandit nature threw itself heavenward flight in the minaret, and impetuously into art in the savage picfancy, in its subtlety, wove arabesques tures of Salvator Rosa. For the most for mosque or hareem, where the Arab, part, however, the land of Italy reposés waiting upon Destiny, called on the in tranquil loveliness, as if gladness, and " name of God, the Compassionate, the not sorrow, had been the current of exMerciful,” or where the victim of south- istence. To this, hour the pictures of ern voluptuousness, art, became his minister Claude live before the eye-the clear blue to enjoyment. Thus, in Egypt, the tropic sky-the tender distance—the wide plain sun, taking no delight in desert sands, or valley, fertile with wine and oil—the wandered in search of a kindred fertility, river flowing gently through the midstand found in the genius of man an oasis and the gracefully-bending ilex giving to which blossomed in the lotus and the lily. the foreground the repose of shade, in
But it is specially in Italy that art has which the peasant and his flocks find reseemed to us indigenous to the soil. The fuge from the heat of day. Claude, too, dying glory has not yet wholly faded might have been but yesterday to tbis from the sky. It is true the sun has set, shore of Baiæ, so gently does the sea clouds gather on the hills, and night set- ripple on the sand-so tender and so pure tles in the plain ; but the glory of the day is the far distance—so wholly do love and is still remembered, and the twilight hour beauty still hold possession of the landscape. which now steals so gently over all things, Thus does the traveler find, whether by mellows the turbulence of active life into sunset or by noonday—in the valley, by tenderness, as we watch over the expir- the sea, or by the mountain-side — how ing moments of one too beautiful to live. art in Italy arose into spontaneous birth. The lover of nature or art will do well The genius of the people too is temnever to miss a sunset, especially in Italy. pered by the aspect of this land in which In Italy the setting of the sun is express they live. Brilliant as the sky, yet tuive of her sunken condition. The length- multuous as the mountain storm, their life ening shadows, the rising mists, the con- has the beauty of romance with its vicisfusion of distinct shapes and outlines in situdes and plots. Their land a poem, the coming darkness — these, with the they themselves a picture—they live less beauty of that vesper hour, the hour of for the duties of life than to decorate prayer and love, are all symbolic of Italy creation. Their costume is that of the in her loveliness and decline. Then the stage; their pose and bearing that of the traveler feels how Italy became the cradle studio. To this people art is no effort, of the arts. In Venice he has been gaz- and what in other lands is a forced proing on the golden glories of Veronese in duct, in Italy is thus seen as a spontaneous the Doge's Palace; and at sunset he growth and outburst. It is true that the mounts the Campanile of St. Mark—sees rire which once burned with so much the lagoons a molten fire—the snows of splendor is now in its expiring ashes; that the distant Alps flushed with hectic red; the entire nation is fallen and in all points and in this triumph of color he finds the degraded, and their art itself, once the origin of that Venetian art which clothed greatest of revivals, has in these days the earth and man in rainbow glory. reached its last decadence. It is true that impulse, passion, and imagination, which y or religious impulse - and, accordingly, are the soul and very eloquence of art, not indigenous to the soil, they are but now fallen into diseased excess, at once petted and pampered exotics of a mere incapacitate this people for self-control dilettante taste. For the north the artand national government, and give to their epoch is dawning, but not yet come, and present art the pretension of youthful the sun which has set in Italy may yet presumption, the extravagance of frenzy, find its meridian in our land. Before that and the faltering feebleness of debilitated day can open, many things, however, age. Yet the ruling passion is strong in must be reversed : the very climate death; and the arts, though fallen in changed. In the south, the sun which common with the nation, still live in the renders nature prolific makes the imaginalife and aspiration of the people. Im- tion pictorial : but in the north, man, agination, vagrant and fugitive though it instead of basking in the sun, plods be, still bursts into metaphor, loses itself through the snow; intellect and energy in visions, and pictures a bright ideal now aid him, when by imagination he must that the reality is no more. In order to perish. The fire of fancy is of little avail understand art and Italy in their great when he stands in pressing need of fuel ness, it is necessary now to see them in for his body. In the south, both man and their fall; to see impulse and poetry, the nature are, as we have seen, intent on the plastic and the pictorial faculties, gambol making of pictures. In the north it is the in the free play of infancy or garrulous tailor which makes the man, and for all in the imbecility of age—to see them in art-purposes, even a poet is spoilt. Men their spontaneous outbursts unfettered by as they go about this great world-and, judgment, unconscious of decay. It is what is still more sad, women, too—with needful even thus to see them in humilia- all their adornings, are no longer pictures ; tion in order to judge of their days of the artist verily does not know what to power, when the artist poured out his do with them on canvas, and for their very soul upon the canvas, and burst into own fame with posterity it is well that eloquence that entranced the world. Thus they should not seek perpetuity in marble. does the student understand how Italy Thus do we see that the south especially, became the cradle of the arts; how the when contrasted with the north, is the same people, now so feebly sensitive to cradle of art; that Italy, wherein the arts beauty, found, when strong, free, and sprang, as it were, into spontaneous birth, prosperous, that architecture, sculpture, is the only land wherein can be now tracand painting, were native to their hearts, ed the laws which govern their developand indigenous to their country.
ment and accelerate their decline. Between the north and the south of Having thus spoken of Italy as a soil Europe how great is the contrast. In the fertile in art, we shall devote the remainsouth, art is a continuance and prolonga- der of this essay to those early days when tion of the daily life, in form doubtless Christian art first struggled into birth. inore subtle and ornate, a realization, The cradling of Christian art in Italy has however, of life's ideal rather than its always been to us a subject of mysterious actual reversal. In the north, on the interest, dimly to trace how it obscurely contrary, art comes more as a reaction rose out of darkness and persecution. At than as a natural function, an escape from the outset, we find that the first Christian an existence of anxious toil, a kind of days were without art at all, as if too fairy fancy-fashioned land in which the near the glorious reality itself-the premind may lose its habitual consciousness sence and the aspect of Christ and the and take on a condition foreign to itself. Apostles—to stand in need of the symbol In the south, art is the outburst of an and the shadow. But as the outward overflowing impulse, and the work thus reality died from the remembrance of warmly glowing from the artist-soul, in believers, and their religion receded into the minds of others arouses the same the invisible regions of faith and hope, the ardor. The picture receives homage in Church naturally sought to preserve some the church, becomes part of the religion, record of the great revelation which had and is interwoven with the worship. In been actually seen and enacted upon earth. the north, on the other hand, the arts are This revelation had come, not as a shadowy not owned by the church; are not the vision of angels appearing in a dream ardent outburst of any national, popular, not as a small voice issuing from a cloud, or as thunder proclaiming the law given their higher and more abstract strivings from a mount; but it was the revelation in those art-creations where purity of soul of the Godhead in a visible person and was made visible to the eye through the an actual life. Christ and his Apostles beauty of form. Thus did Christian art walked year after year openly among men, set itself the task of giving to the angels taught upon the Mount, fed the multitudes, their beauty and blessedness; to the comhealed the sick, raised the dead, and thus, pany of the Apostles, the fellowship of if we may be permitted the expression, the Prophets, the army of Martyrs, their reduced to pictorial demonstration truths dignity, inspiration, and fortitude; and which had otherwise remained the vague thus having made heaven glorious, the objects of faith. And all these pictures, Christian architect built upon earth a Christ as he stood by the grave of Laza- Church worthy of the worship of that rus, as he entered Jerusalem in triumph, God whom the heavens could not contain. as he rose from the dead, and ascended This being of Christian art the vocation, into heaven - pictures which in their we look, as we have said, to its first birth reality had brought salvation to men, and cradling in Italy with a mysterious were day by day growing more obscure interest. in the mind's vision, till the last man who Truly its birth was dark with mystery, who had seen these things was laid in the for it took its origin among tombs. The grave, and Christianity, losing its hold blood of the martyrs was the seed of upon
senses, henceforth took its stand | Christian art no less than of the church. in the region of faith. How gladly would In the darkness of the catacombs, the the early believer, in his persecution and sanctuaries of refuge, art took its first suffering, have hung round his neck some precarious rise; a strange birth-place for slight memorial sketch of the Christ who a thing of beauty these endless underhad died for him! How fondly would ground streets, winding and stretching the Church have treasured any outline, hither and thither, almost too narrow for however hasty, of Christ as he was trans- walking abreast, and almost too low for figured on the Mount, or when he lay in walking upright. On either side graves, agony in the garden! But these aids mostly opened and rified, three rows in being denied, the Christian artist, ere succession, one above the other-small long, sought to supply their need. How children's graves crowded in, filling vacant mighty was the task! To bring forth spaces-bones crumbling, and damp, and Christ once again before the eyes of men cold, scattered about; then, at intervals, -to enable him to walk the earth and this house of death converted into a house teach among the people—to lead him on of God—the grave and charnel-house a his way to Calvary, or show him as he shrine! The church itself a grave, cold, rose to glory. It was perhaps inevitable damp, the light of day shut out, the altar that the early Church should neglect and a grave, the very walls graves. The life ignore the arts which had been subservient of these early believers had become so to paganism; but the needs of human wretched, and dark, and tormented, that nature were too strong to be suppressed. death might well be looked on as a refuge The multitude in all ages, countries, and and rest, and to live and worship among religions, have demanded an outward the dead was to make companionship with form and symbol of their faith; and a future happier than the present tempestChristianity, as soon as it had claimed to life. To live thus in the midst of darkbe a world's religion, falling under the ness, in vast sepulchres, with the flickering same law, necessarily joined alliance with lamp suspended as a ray dimly shining in the arts. The invisible truths of the new an unknown future, rather than rendering religion demanded some outward form of the present life visible—to kneel to evenbeauty which might be loved-of grand- ing prayer, the sunset marking not the eur which might be venerated. Written hour, to lie down at night in a charnelor spoken words were too shadowy and house; to rise again to morning prayer, vaguc. The multitude required not only the darkness of the night still shadowing to hear of heaven, but to see it. And the day, thus praying to the God of even the more gifted minds, who in their death rather than of life and light; watchings might look upon the heavenly thus to live and die was indeed to make glory, see the vision of angels, or earth the martyrs' blood the seed of the the abode of saints, would yet find aid to Church.