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From the Leisure Hour,

TERRIBLE PHENOMENA OF EART IIQUAKES.

To man, nature affords no symptoms of while many of the lower animals renounce the approach of an earthquake, even of their customary habits, and display unthe most destructive description, in time mistakable apprehension of some alarm. to put him on his guard, and enable him ing though unknown incident being at beforehand to consult the means of safety hand. Rats, mice, moles, snakes, and lizIt is true that where there are active vol-ards abandon the holes and cavities in the canoes, and they sulk for a season, or ground in which they dwell, and run cease to smoke as usual, a convulsion in about with evident trepidation. Some of the vicinity may be predicted with toler- the higher species also, especially goats, able certainty. But the day and hour of hogs, cats, and dogs, with horses and catits occurrence is a profound secret; and tle in a lesser degree, seem to scent the the event is often warded off by the craters coming earthquake, and exhibit remarkaresuming their activity. Down to almost ble restlessness. the latest moment prior to the dread Various interesting facts have been event, which will slay its thousands, con- noted in relation to the demeanor of anivert their houses into sepulchers, and mals prior to a great convulsion. It was demolish the marts of commerce, the halls towards noon, beneath a clear and almost of justice, and the temples of religion, cloudless sky, with the sea-breeze freshly both heaven and earth appear as on days blowing, that the cities of Conception and destined to pass peacefully or gladsomely Talcahuana, on the coast of South-Ameriaway. It was on Old Saints' Day, which ca, were desolated in the year 1835. At broke with a serene sky and a fine easter- ten o'clock, two hours before their ruin, ly breeze in the early morning, when the the inhabitants remarked with surprise, as churches were thronged with congrega- altogether unusual, large flights of seations, that Lisbon was smitten to the dust. fowl passing from the coast towards the On the afternoon of a similar festival, be- interior; and the dogs at Talcahuana neath a calm and cloudless sky, Caraccas abandoned the town before the sbock perished, while the moon hung her bril- which leveled its buildings was felt. Not liant lamp over the ruined city at even an animal, it is believed, was in the place tide, and the night of the torrid zone set when the destruction came. In 1805, in with peculiar loveliness. If long calms, previous to an earthquake experienced at oppressive heats, and prevalent fogs have Naples, which took place in the night, but been the observed antecedents of many was most severely felt in the provinces, catastrophes, it is certain that the events the oxen and cows began to bellow; the are merely coïncident, and not physically sheep and goats bleated strangely; the connected, since such states of the atmo- dogs howled terribly; and the horses fassphere often occur without being followed tened in their stalls leaped up, endeavorby terrible phenomena, while earthquakes ing to break their halters which attached have as frequently transpired during gales them to the mangers. Rabbits and moles of wind, under the brightest skies, and were seen to leave their burrows; birds when heavy rains have been pouring rose as if scared from the places on which down.

they had alighted ; and reptiles left in As the solemn crisis approaches, human clear day-light their subterraneous retreats. intelligence seems inferior to brute saga- Some faithful dogs, a few minutes before city. Men buy and sell, eat and drink, the first shock, awoke their sleeping masmarry and are given in marriage, on the ters by barking, and pulling them, as if eve of a change which will nullify con- anxious to warn them of impending dantracts, and terminate the engagements of ger; and several persons were thus enalife to the busiest plotters for the future ; bled to save themselves. On the recent occasion, all the dogs in the neighbor-ture and intensity indescribably terrific hood of Vallo howled before the people that of water, wind, thunder, discharge were sensible of their danger. To account of cannon, and the blasting of rocks, apfor these circumstances, it is conjectured peared combined. Giving a short warnthat, prior to actual disturbance, noxious ing by a distant murmur, it gradually gases and other exhalations are emitted increased in intensity for some seconds, from the interior of the earth through when at length, becoming louder than crannies and pores of the surface, invisible thunder, and somewhat similar to the rush to the eye, which distress and alarm ani- of the hurricane, it suddenly changed, and mals gitted with acute organs of smell. a noise, resembling that of a blasting rock This seems to be the true explanation, thrice repeated, followed, which again died for it is undoubted that gases of various away like distant thunder.” These notes descriptions are thus set free, both while of explosion have occasionally been heard earthquakes are in process and antecedent- over a vast extent of country, where no ly. In 1827, when the valley of Rio Mag. shock whatever has been perceived, and dalena was shaken, large quantities of at the same instant as at the sites of catascarbonic acid gas escaped from some trophe. In such cases, it is clear that the crevices, which killed a considerable sound could not have been propagated by number of burrowing animals as well as the air, since a proportionate time is rereptiles. It has likewise been frequently quired for its transmission by that medium observed that the surface of the sea or of a to distant places. Neither could the soriver, has exhibited the appearance of ebul- norous waves have been conducted by the lition, owing probably to the disengage- surface of the earth; for though solid ment of gas or air from the bottom. In a bodies are much better conductors of report from the Syndic of Salandro, one sound than air, yet time is still demanded of the communes which suffered severely for the transport. It seems an inevitable from the recent scourge, it is stated that conclusion, that the sounds must have for nearly a month, about two miles from originated at such an immense depth bethe town, a gas was observed to issue low the surface of the earth, as to be from a water-course, which ceased alto- nearly equidistant from all the places where gether about a week after the first shock they were heard. of the earthquake.

Earthquakes furnish the most striking Though subterranean sounds are not examples with which we are acquainted invariably heard in connection with earth of the production of stupendous effects in quakes, they usually form part of the phe very brief intervals. The most fatal nomena attending the crisis, and some shocks are often the shortest, and are times antedating it by a few minutes or over almost in an instant. In less than six seconds. They vary greatly in tone, and seconds the thriving city of Conception are not always in accordance with the was in ruins, with the earth rapidly opencharacter of the event, for a slight tremor ing and shutting in all directions, and of the ground has sometimes been accom- smothering clouds of dust rising from the panied with a clamor far exceeding that prostrate buildings, which, when they of the disruptive death-dealing blow. The cleared away, revealed the survivors of sounds may be grouped in two general the calamity, pale and trembling, ghastly classes. The one is a rushing or whizzing and sepulchral in aspect, as if the graves noise, as if occasioned by a strong wind, had given up their dead. Caraccas was or the rapid flow of distant waters, or the leveled to the ground by three shocks, conflagration of a large extent of heather. each of which did not last for more than The other has an explosive note, and, ac- three or four seconds, and all of them occording to its intensity, is variously com- curred within less than a minute. The pared to the rumble and rattle of carriages, utmost duration popularly assigned to the the clank of iron chains violently shaken in earthquakes of Jamaica, 1692, and Calaunderground caverns, the blast of a quar- bria, 1783, amounted to three and two ry, the discharge of small arms and parks minutes. Yet in this space of time the of artillery, and the loudest thunder of surface of a large extent of country was tropical storms. The great shock at Com- so completely altered, that hardly a tract rie in Perthshire, on the night of the 23d could be found retaining its former apof October, 1841, was accompanied, says pearance entire. But the length of the the parish minister, “ with a noise, in na- intervals in these cases has doubtless been overrated, for moments appear as minutes | its surface tremble, totter, and fall. The when people are in an agony of terror and senses are completely bewildered by the apprehension. The effects of these mighty strange awfulness of the scene. The operations of nature comprise the perma- power of thinking and acting at all is alnent displacement of land, either by ele most paralyzed by its suddenness, as well vation or subsidence; the dislodgment as by the apparent hopelessness of escape. of masses of rock; the opening of exten- A South-American once observed to sive fissures in the ground, both horizon- Captain Basil Hall, that earthquakes must tally disposed and radiating from a center, be felt to be understood, referring as some of which close again, while others much to their peculiarity as to their terriare stable; with the discharge of hot bleness. “Before,” said he, “we hear water, steam, mud, sand, flame, and col- the sound, or, at least, are fully conscious umns of smoke from the surface. But the of hearing it, we are made sensible, I do immediate destruction of human life is of not know how, that something uncommon course the most fearful item, and the dis- is going to happen; every thing seems to tress of the survivors, owing to the deso- change color; our thonghts are chained lation of their homes, the loss of kindred, immovably down; the whole world apthe paralysis of daily labor, and their own pears to be in disorder ; all nature looks wild panic. At Lisbon, in 1755, not less different to what it was wont to do: and than 60,000 persons are supposed to have we feel quite subdued and overwhelmed perished; in Calabria, in 1783, perhaps by some invisible power beyond human 100,000 ; and still more extensively fatal control or comprehension. Then comes were the awful shocks which ravaged the the terrible sound distinctly heard ; and crowded cities of Asia Minor and Syria, immediately the solid earth is all in moin the reigns of the emperors Justinian tion, waving to and fro like the surface and Tiberius. It has, therefore, been of the sea. Depend upon it, a severe justly remarked by Humboldt, that there earthquake is enough to shake the firmest is no force known to exist, not even the mind. Custom enables us to restrain the murderous inventions of our own race, expression of alarm; but no custom can contrived for each other's extirpation, by teach any one to witness such earthquakes which, in the short period of a few seconds without the deepest emotions of terror.” or minutes, such a number of persons can It is generally practicable, in volcanic be killed as by an earthquake.

eruptions, to retreat to a safe distance The impression made upon the mind by from the stones and ashes hurled from the a violent shock is described by all who crater, and easy to avoid personal danger have experienced it as very peculiar, as from the crawling current of burning lava. well as inconceivably terrific. Accus- Even when cultivated fields, vineyards, tomed from early life to contrast the mo- and homesteads are threatened by the bility of water to the immobility of land, fiery flood, it is often possible by artificial we regard these qualities as constant at- means to divert it into waste places and tributes, and grow up with the idea of barren grounds. Rarely also are the having in the latter a firm foundation of a greatest water-floods so sudden in their sure resting-place, whether going out or rise as to involve loss of life upon an coming in, seated by the fireside, pacing extensive scale. But the probability of the street, traveling on the road, or slum- escape is incomparably less when the bering in the grave. All plans, engage- ground we trample on is in commotion, ments, journeys, and amusements are the sites of cities give way, and the area based upon the presumption of the soil of a kingdom is convulsed. In whatever keeping steadily in its place, whether direction flight is directed, the mind gathpiled in hills, scooped into valleys, or ers no comforting hope of security, for the spread out in plains ; and of the seas, the very earth may open and engulf those who rivers, and the atmosphere being the only escaped from the crash of their dwellings. unstable elements around us. But these The night of the late earthquake was customary modes of thinking and acting one of intense terror to the Neapolitans, are instantly shown to be delusive when and not unnaturally, for the action of the the ground heaves, waves, and eddies, as subterranean agency was felt to such a if suddenly rendered fluid, and the earth degree, as to justify the apprehension in reels “ to and fro like a drunkard,” while the most sober minds of the city being the most substantial works of man npon doomed to destruction before the morning dawned. Crowds rushed into all the open from enlightened and sacred influences, squares in every description of toilette, when revolution, pestilence, famine, the many in their night-dresses, others with sword, or the earthquake is at work! a sheet over their shoulders, and some in Man, in such circumstances, exhibits himgay attire, fresh from the concert or the self either enslaved to false and absurd ball

. On one spot a mattress was seen codes of thought, or thoroughly licentious with young children sleeping upon it. The with reference to all rule, and accordingly, wealthy had their carriages brought out, acts the part of a dolt or of a fiend. in which they found shelter. The middle We have said nothing as yet respecting classes walked up and down, or mingled the physical cause of these dreadful visitawith the lower orders around great fires tions. It has given rise to much vague of wood, which were kindled at intervals and opposite speculation; and a deep cloud of fifty yards. Thousands signalized their of mystery still hangs over it. But no superstition by loudly invoking the pro- reasonable doubt can be entertained that tection of the Madonna, and throngs fol- earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hot lowed the images of St. Ann and St. springs, and the greater development of Antonio, singing litanies, as the priests heat as we penetrate below the surface, carried them in procession. Strangers to are closely related phenomena. Though the source of true peace, yet anxious to falling far short of being demonstrative, have their apprehensions calmed, an idle they strongly indicate the existence of an rumor that the blood of St. Januarius had abyss of combustion in the interior of our boiled, was converted into an article of planet, nearer to the exterior at some faith ; and multitudes walked after the points than others, as the shell is probably vial containing the cheat, írying to extract not of uniform thickness. In conuection some comfort from the glass bottle, as it with this central heat, the elastic vapors was paraded by knavish ecclesiastics. may be supposed to originate, which, But in the midst of terror and ignorant under accumulation, find vent through the devotion, the chances of this life were not volcanic craters, or, where no such natural neglected by the people, who flocked to safety-valves are at hand, force a passage the lottery-offices the next day, eager to for themselves to the atmosphere, through secure favorable numbers; and audacious the overlying crust of the globe, convulscrime walked cheek by jowl with blind ing and rending asunder the roof of their superstition through the streets of Naples, prison-house. One thing is at least cerfor bands of ruffians entered the abandoned tain, that the force is prepared, is not far homes of the rich to plunder them of pro- off, and is often in sensible action, adapted perty. The same contrasts were observed to accomplish the foretold doom of the at the destruction of Lisbon and Carrac. material universe with which we are con

While many survivors assembled, nected, or the earth and its atmosphere. and passed through the desolate streets "The day of the Lord will come as a thief singing funeral hymns, others took to in the night, in the which the heavens robbing the persons of the dead, and shall melt with fervent heat; the earth stripping their habitations of the valuables also, and the works that are therein shall in them. Alas! for human nature, apart be burned up.”

THE DIAMOND MOUNTAINS.-At fifteen oxen, which they drive to the top, and, days' journey beyond Bizenegalia, to having cut them into pieces, cast the wards the north, there is a mountain warm and bleeding fragments upon the called Albenigaras, surrounded by pools summit of the other mountain, by means of water which swarm with venomous of machines which they construct for that animals, and the mountain itself is infested purpose. The diamonds stick to these with serpents. This mountain produces pieces of flesh. Then come vultures and diamonds. The ingenuity of man, not eagles flying to the spot, which, seizing having been able to find any mode of the meat for their food, fly away with it approaching the mountain, has, however, to places where they may be safe from discovered a way of getting at the dia- the serpents. To these places the men monds produced on it. There is another afterwards come, and collect the diamountain near it, a little higher. Here, monds which have fallen from the flesh.at a certain period of the year, men bring Travels in India.

LIEUTENANT-GENERAL SIR COLIN CAMPBELL, G.C.B.

Sir Colin CAMPBELL, whose name is so in the 60th Rifles; and in 1823 we find familiar to the ears of our readers as Gen- him acting as Brigade Major of the troops eral in command of the British forces in engaged in quelling the insurrection in India, is an officer of whose career the Demerara. In the expedition to China, people of England have good reason to in 1842, Sir Colin Campbell commanded feel proud. He is not of aristocratic pa- the 98th Regiment, and took an active rentage; at least, it is generally believed part in the capture of Chin-kiang-fou, and that his father and mother, (though the the subsequent operations near Nankin. former was doubtless a cadet of the Scot- Nor is he without Indian experience. tish clan of that name,) were living some Throughout the Punjaub campaigns of half a century ago in narrow circumstan- 1848-49, he commanded the third divi. ces at Glasgow, where Sir Colin himself sion of the army under Lord Gough, and was born, in the year 1792. He entered distinguished himself more particularly in the army in 1808, being gazetted on the the affair at Ramnuggur, the passage of 26th of May in that year to an Ensigncy the Chenab, the affair at Sadoolapore, in the 9th Foot, with which regiment he and at the battle of Chillianwallah, (where served in the expedition to Portugal, and he was wounded,) and at Goojerat, where in the unfortunate descent upon Walcheren. the Sikhs were finally crushed. At Chil

Before the conclusion of the Peninsular lianwallah, his valor as a Brigadier Gencampaigns, whilst serving in the 9th Foot, eral was so conspicuous, that Lord Gough, he had seen some hard tighting at Vimie in his dispatch, declares that “with his ra. He also took part in the advance and steady coolness and military precison, for retreat of the army under Sir John Moore, which he is so remarkable, the Brigadier and in the battle of Corunna, and also in carried every thing before him.” Nor is the battle of Barrossa and the defense of the commemoration of his services conTarifa. In the latter end of 1812 he was fined to Lord Gough's dispatch; it is attached to the army of Ballasteros, and placed on permanent record in the minwas present at several affairs. Amongst utes sent home by the Governor-General, others, he took part in the expedition for Lord Hardinge. relieving Tarragona, and in the affair for In 1851 and the following year, whilst relieving the posts in the valley of Mala- Brigadier-General commanding the Peshga; was present at Osma and Vittoria; awur districts, he was constantly engagat the siege of San Sebastian, where he ed in operations against the hill tribes received two severe wounds whilst lead- surrounding the valley, including the ing the column of attack; and at the pass- forcing of the Kohat Pass under the late age of the Bidassoa, where he was again se- Sir Charles J. Napier, and the repeated verely wounded by a musket-shot, which affairs with the Momunds, who finally passed through his right thigh. It is not, made terms after their defeat at Punj however, in the Peninsula, or even in Eu- Pao by a small detachment of cavalry rope alone, that Sir Colin Campbell has and horse artillery under Sir Colin Campseen active service; on the contrary, bell's immediate command, the combined there is not, perhaps, a single officer in tribes numbering upwards of 8000 men. the army whose gallantry has been more In 1849 he was created a K.C.B., and reubiquitously displayed, just as, from the ceived the thanks of Parliament and of first, there has been none whose reputa- the East-India Company for his conduct tion has stood higher as a soldier or as a at Goojerat. In 1852 we find him engaged disciplinarian.

in the forcing of the Kohat Pass, under Sir In 1814-15 he saw some active service Charles Napier, and also in command of in America, whilst holding a commission | 3000 men sent on an expedition against

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