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the Ootmankbail and Ranazai tribes, the many corps with wbich he has served whom he attacked in their valleys, des- in the three quarters of the globe, with troying the fortified village of Pranghur, but little intermission, during the past and finally routing the enemy with great fifty years. It was only in 1849 that he slaughter at Isakote, where they muster- was made a K.C.B., for his Indian sered 8000 strong.
vices, as we have said ; and it was only When he returned to England, in the in June, 1854, that he was promoted to summer of 1853, it was with his fame al- the rank of Major-General. In the folready established as a general of consum- lowing October he was nominated to the mate ability; but, owing to the absence Colonelcy of the 67th Foot, and in 1855 of aristocratic connections, his promotion promoted to the honor of a Knight Grand bad been but slow. He had become Cross of the Bath. In 1856 he attained Lieutenant in 1809, just a year after the rank of Lieutenant-General, and on receiving his first commission, and had his return to England was presented with risen to the rank of captain in 1813, be the freedom of the City of London, and fore the close of the Peninsular war; but created an honorary D.C.L. of Oxford, it was not till 1825 that he obtained bis in recognition of his Crimean services. majority, (by purchase,) and in 1832 we Sir Colin Campbell has also been recently find him having reached the lofty rank of appointed one of the military Aids-deLieutenant-Colonel by the same means; Camp to Her Majesty, and has exchanglis Colonelcy he obtained without pur- ed the 67th for the Colonelcy of another chase, just ten years later, namely, in and more lucrative regiment. 1842. His command as Brigadier in In- Our readers will not fail to remember, dia being only temporary, the outbreak that at the commencement of the recent of the Russian war, in the early part of mutiny in India, Her Majesty's late Govthe year 1854, found him, at the age of ernment were fatally slow to acknowledge sixty-two, a colonel still. It was high time, and to believe the actual extent of the however, that he should become a field danger of that portion of our Empire, officer. So, too, appear to have thought owing to the incapacity of the aristocrats, the authorities at the Horse Guards, who who were placed by the Horse Guards in could not, without great impropriety, the highest posts of command over the wholly pass over or ignore his merits in Company's able and experienced officers. favor of their cherished aristocrats As usual, an Anson and a Somerset were their Greys and Ponsonbys, and Pagets the fortunate holders of these high posts. and Somersets. Accordingly, while his The one had seen some active service, merits would have entitled him long ago though only at reviews in Hyde Park, to the command of a division, he con- and as a "whipper-in” to the Whigs in sented to accept the command of the the lobbies of St. Stephen's; the other Highland Brigade, which, with the Bri. had seen a little at the Cape, but resolvgade of the Guards, formed the Division of ed on sitting still at his ease at Poonah, the Duke of Cambridge. His gallantry whilst regiment after regiment was break at the battle of the Alma at the head of ing forth into mutiny. The deaths of Genhis beloved Highlanders, and his zeal, eral Anson, and of his temporary successor, ability, and cool intrepidity throughout General Barnard, (a very different sort of the rest of the Crimean campaign, in man,) offered an opportunity for the Minwhich he was content to serve under istry to send out to India a man of Indian officers as much his inferiors as they fame and experience; and for once they were his juniors, were faithfully recorded chose the person to whom public opinat the time, and do not need to be re- ion pointed as “the right man for the peated here.
right place.” At twenty-four hours' noThe testimony of Lord Gough to Sir tice Sir Colin Campbell left London for Colin Campbell's character in India has the East, caught up the Indian mail at already been stated; and those qualities Marseilles, and reached Calcutta, the her. which he singles out for special mention, ald of his own appointment. His readihis “steady coolness and military preci- ness and activity surprised none who sion,” added to a constant care for the knew him, and it raised the hopes of our troops under his command, have gained countrymen both here and in the East. for him in the very highest degree the Our readers, whilst perusing from week confidence, admiration, and affection of to week the details of Sir Colin Campbell's successes in the neighborhood of were proceeding in different parts of the Lucknow and Cawnpore, will not need, country had naturally relaxed the bond or require at our hands, a repetition of of military obedience, so that the army one half of the gallant deeds achieved by had to be organized as a whole from a him up to the present time; to do so, number of disconnected fragments. The would be simply to reprint the dispatches reïnforcements as they arrived had to be and letters of the special and chance cor- fitted into their places; detached forces respondents who have related the events were to be brought into subordination to with a truthful simplicity and fidelity the general plan; and the different branchwhich has put the entire community au es of the service required to learn the courant with the outline of the entire practice of harmonious coöperation. All campaign. At the last date, Sir Colin these duties and many others of the same Campbell was preparing for the formal kind fell on the Commander-in-Chief when invasion and reconquest of Oude, on a his attention might have been sufficiently grand scale, and was adopting measures engaged in the formation of his plans for which, if well seconded and sustained by the campaign, and when his own presence those on whom he has mainly to rely, was soon to be urgently required at the will, no doubt, shortly be rewarded by seat of war. A vigorous purpose and a the re-settlement of the province on a straightforward character have enabled permanent footing. To use the words of him to meet these accumulated difficulties a cotemporary: "When Sir Colin Camp- with considerable success. According to bell arrived at Calcutta he found a scene the most trustworthy accounts, the disciof confusion which was in many respects pline of the army is daily becoming strictthe unavoidable result of the outbreak. er, the subordinate officers are gradually The records of the War Department learning their true position, and the troops were at Simla ; the principal officers have acquired that confidence in their were scattered through the disturbed leader which is necessary for the performprovinces or serving before Delhi. The ance of all great military achievements.” desultory and isolated struggles which
From Colburn's New Monthly Magazine.
MOUNT II EKLA AND ITS EIGHTEEN ERUPTIONS,
FROM A VISIT TO ICELAND IN 1857.
Only a fourth part of Iceland is sit- which in only a few places admit of narnated under 1000 feet above the level of row passages, so to speak, and the most the sea, and the uninhabited portion of part of which is unknown. In this wildest the island, therefore, may be estimated at portion of Iceland are situated some of almost three fourths of its entire area. its highest mountains — namely, OræfaThe great volcanic line of mountains ex- jökul, * Snæfell, Storhöfdi, and Birnudaltends, with Hekla nearly at one end, and Krabla at the other, across the country * Oræfajökul is said to be the southern portion of from the south-west to the north-east, and the great chain of mountains which has Skaptathus intersects the other principal moun- Skapta-jökul took place in 1783. The lava which
jökul on its western side. A terrible eruption of tain range which runs from the north-west poured down the sides of the mountain is computed to the south-east.
to have covered tracts of land to the extent of five The whole of the south-easterly part of hundred square miles, continuing as it did to flow the island, in which the glaciers-Skrid- for almost three months, accompanied by showers Jökler-descend down to the valleys, is rific noises in the volcano. In general
, this moun
of ashes, volcanic sand, and sulphur, and also by tercomposed of great ice and lava fields, tain is covered with glittering snow.
stindr. Throughout the northern part of fearful, both in violence and duration, that the island the hills are lower, and, with has ever been known. It went on for the exception of two lofty mountains in nearly twelve months, accompanied by the north-west peninsula, the whole of the earthquakes, extreme cold, and universal northern half of the island presents but illness. At the moment of the outbreak, small glaciers, and not a great many of the mountain seemed to be almost rent in these.
two, huge blocks of rock were ejected The highest mountains in Iceland are : with the clouds of ashes, and glowing Srcefajökul,* whose highest peak is 6241feet above the sea-level. scoriæ set fire to the roofs of the
farm-houses in the vicinity, while the Eyjafjalla-jökul, Jlerdubreid,
darkness of night enveloped the whole
region around, so that for two days peoBirnudalstindr,
ple could not find their way on shore, nor Rimar,
could the fishermen venture to put out Of all these hills, only two of which, their boats to sea. Herdubreid and Rimar, are situated in
The seventh eruption, in 1341, was. the north, the volcano named Hekla-by marked by fearful rumbling noises, and the lower orders called Hekkenfeld-has such a heavy fall of ashes that many of acquired the widest celebrity, because, the inhabitants of Skalholt, the nearest amidst all the still active volcanoes of Ice- town or village, fled from their homes. land, it has had the most frequent erup- Three other volcanoes, namely, Herdutions. From this volcano, whose summit breid, Hnappadals-jökul, and Raudukamis almost always enveloped in a drapery bar, broke out about the same time. of clouds, there have been altogether Hekla's eighth eruption took place in cighteen eruptions known in the history the winter of 1389, and its ninth in 1436. of Iceland.
Its tenth eruption, in the month of July, The first eruption of Mount Hekla of 1510, was accompanied by an earthquake, which we have any authentic information, and burning stones were ejected to a distook place in the year A.D. 1104, and, on tance of several miles. The volcanoes of account of the immense shower of ashes Herdubreid and Trölladyngja, in the north, which issued from the mountain, the fol- were also in eruption at the same period. lowing winter was called “the Fall of In the year 1554 flames issued from the Sand winter."
mountain ridge which runs north-east from The second eruption was in 1157, and Hekla; and there appeared three columns was marked by great darkness, caused by of fire, which stretched high up in the air, the sand and ashes which were scattered and evidently emanated from three difover the most distant parts of the island.
ferent craters. This is reckoned as HekThe third eruption occurred in 1206, la's eleventh outbreak. and was accompanied by an unusually
The twelfth, in 1578, was one of its severe winter and great scarcity of food. least important eruptions, but that of
The fourth eruption, in 1222, like the 1597, the thirteenth, had all the usual
in the fifteenth, which commenced in
There was a frightful eruption, the six-
waste; the whole island was covered * See "Den Danske Stats Statistik.” By Adolph with ashes; and not only did, much sickFrederic Bergsoe. Published in Copenhagen, 1851. ness prevail among human beings and the
brute creation, but the very sea-birds died surrounded the craters, for four craters by thousands.
were found on the summit of Hekla after The seventeenth eruption happened in its last eruption.* 1766. The streams of lava reached to a Some authorities attribute a much great distance; red-hot stones were ejected greater number of eruptions to Hekla, from the craters; an earthquake was felt but in these calculations, the outbreaks in the adjacent Westmann Islands; and following each other closely, or consecuthe ashes, which had fallen in thick masses tively, are included, though they should on the coast south of Hekla, lay so deep rather be looked on as acts in the same on the ground that they came up to the drama, to speak figuratively. knee of a tall man.
I was extremely anxious to explore After seventy-nine years of repose—the Hekla and its immediate environs myself; longest ever known—this terrible volcano but, greatly to my disappointment, I found again became active, and on the 2d of that a visit to this far-famed volcano was September, 1845, its eighteenth and last altogether incompatible with my friend's state of eruption commenced, and con- arrangements, and therefore I had to tinued, with more or less violence, until forego this anticipated pleasurable toil, the April of 1846, when it gradually ceased and to be contented with seeing some of its discharge of lava, scoriæ, flames, and the other wonders of this truly astonishing vapor, and patches of snow once more island. rested on the cooled layers of lava that
SINCE the revival of science in the fif- from the dogmatism of science in the teenth century, and in a still greater de- enunciation of its deductions and doctrines, gree since the study of the internal struc- the freedom of interpretation demanded ture of the earth and its organic remains by critics, and the opposition of illiterate in the nineteenth, it has often been as- Christians to all novel readings and new serted that scientific discoveries contra- interpretations of the Word. While a dict Bible descriptions of natural phenom- class of bold, reckless, irreverent minds,
This assumed contrariety between would throw away the Mosaic narrative the declarations of the material creation of the creation, and the brief history of and the revealed truths of God, has been the antedeluvian world, as an old wife's employed by the skeptic as an argument tale, or at best as a myth, another class of against the authenticity of the Holy minds, dreading opposition, trembling for Scriptures, and by a certain class of theo- that wbich they believe to be sacred as logians as a proof of the folly of physical well as true, resist investigation, and deresearch, the insufficiency of the human nounce all who acknowledge the just reason, and the wickedness of the human rights and authority of scientific research heart. In our own day the dispute be- as enemies to the faith, and skeptics in tween the enemies and friends of the disguise. This spirit of opposition to the Bible, founded on this purely hypothetical Bible on the one hand, and to scientific assertion, has become the more violent research on the other, between the two ventured to become mediators between tradicts revelation and a dogma of the them, and by doubts, conjectures, and Church. Copernicns escaped the persecrude hypotheses, believe they have re- cution he feared – for death claimed him moved difficulties and reconciled reason as his victim — before bigotry could lay and revelation. At such a time, when hands on him ; but they fell heavily enough neither the acknowledged rashness of one on some of his successors. Persecution class of competitors, nor the cowardice of did its best to destroy the scientific truth the other, restrains inquiry, but doubts because it was opposed to the false transare encouraged by the fears of the believer lation; and then having failed in its oband the boldness of the skeptical spirit, ject as it must ever - the theologian such a work as the one before us is not turned to the Mosaic narrative in the out of season.
extreme and antagonistic parties, some * Scripture and Science not at Variance : with well-meaning persons of incompetent Remarks on the Historical Character, Plenary Inspi- knowledge and defective judgment, have ration, and Surpassing Importance of the Earlier Chapters of Genesis. By John H. Pratt, M.A., Archdeacon of Calcutta. London: Hatchard. 1858. * Hekla, og den Sidste Ugbrud. By J. C. Schythe.
original Scripture, and discovered that The work to which we solicit the at the word translated firmament, which tention of our readers is written with conveys an image in harmony with the elegance, talent, and, still better, with a false scientific idea of a vault of transpacompetent knowledge of the subject, and rent matter revolving round the earth, is excellent judgment. It recites facts, and a false translation, and that the word er. arguments drawn from them, which should panse is more appropriate. Thus did the warn the skeptic against a hasty conclu- discovery of a scientific truth correct a sion, and soften his prejudices. But the false conception of the meaning of Scripaim of the author is to inform the minds ture, and a perfect harmony was estab. of those Christians who, though convinced lished between the divine word and work, of the authenticity of the Scriptures, are in place of a false agreement. unable to meet those objections of the Science was again said to be in antagunbeliever which are founded on a pre-onism to Scripture when it taught the sumed difference in the testimony of sci- spherical form of the earth, and the conence and of the Bible, and to caution those sequent existence of antipodes; and its men who, holding fast their faith in Christ- opposition was thought to be still more ian revelation, are disposed to doubt the violent when the earth was proved to inspiration of the Mosaic history of the have a diurnal rotation on its axis, and an creation and the antediluvian world. annual revolution in the heavens. It is
In the first part of the work the author true the Scriptures do not contradict the reviews the history of former controver- fact of the rotundity of the earth, but they sies, and shows, from their termination, do not affirm it; and the absence of such how improbable it is that any contradic- a statement was assumed to be a negative tion will be discovered between science proof of the want of agreement. But it and Scripture. They have often supported does speak of the motion of the sun, of his and assisted each other, but have never rising and setting, of his coming out of come into antagonistic contact, though his chamber, and rejoicing as a strong their attitude has been sometimes threat- man to run a race,” and of the world beening. From this fact, Archdeacon Pratt ing “established that it can not be moved.” deduces, and has a right to do so, that if The men of that day, who were so terri. an apparent discord should now, or at fied by an apparent contradiction between future time, be detected, there is no real the discoveries of the astronomer and the want of harmony, and that perfect con- literal expressions of Scripture, did not cord will be discovered when the science understand that the writers described apis better understood, or the Word more cor- pearances that it was not the vocation of rectly explained.
the inspired writers to teach science and In the prosecution of his object, the give scientific definitions—that they spoke author first selects some instances of the of things as they are seen, as we do now. correction of acknowledged interpreta- We perceive, though they did not, how tions of Scripture by scientific discovery. violent was the strain they gave to the The history of astronomy supplies several words of revelation when they called the instances of this. There was an apparent expanse a firmament, fixed the earth at agreement between the false celestial me- rest in the center of the universe, and chanics of Ptolemy and a false translation gave an independent motion to the sun. in the Septuagint and Vulgate, but the Much as geology is dreaded by some science was corrected, and then there was timid Christians, who does not rly a great outcry - the new astronomy con-perceive the value of truth when it comes