« PreviousContinue »
the Ootmankbail and Ranazai tribes, the many corps with which he has served whom he attacked in their valleys, des- in the three quarters of the globe, with troying the fortified village of Pranghur, but little intermission, during the past and finally routing the enemy with great fifty years. It was only in 1849 that he slaughter at Isakote, where they muster- was made a K.C.B., for his Indian sered 8000 strong. vices, as we have said; and it was only in June, 1854, that he was promoted to the rank of Major-General. In the fol
Colonelcy of the 67th Foot, and in 1855 promoted to the honor of a Knight Grand Cross of the Bath. In 1856 he attained the rank of Lieutenant-General, and on his return to England was presented with the freedom of the City of London, and created an honorary D.C.L. of Oxford, in recognition of his Crimean services. Sir Colin Campbell has also been recently appointed one of the military Aids-deCamp to Her Majesty, and has exchanged the 67th for the Colonelcy of another and more lucrative regiment.
When he returned to England, in the summer of 1853, it was with his fame already established as a general of consum-lowing October he was nominated to the mate ability; but, owing to the absence of aristocratic connections, his promotion had been but slow. He had become Lieutenant in 1809, just a year after receiving his first commission, and had risen to the rank of captain in 1813, before the close of the Peninsular war; but it was not till 1825 that he obtained his majority, (by purchase,) and in 1832 we find him having reached the lofty rank of Lieutenant-Colonel by the same means; his Colonelcy he obtained without purchase, just ten years later, namely, in 1842. His command as Brigadier in India being only temporary, the outbreak of the Russian war, in the early part of the year 1854, found him, at the age of sixty-two, a colonel still. It was high time, however, that he should become a field officer. So, too, appear to have thought the authorities at the Horse Guards, who could not, without great impropriety, wholly pass over or ignore his merits in favor of their cherished aristocrats their Greys and Ponsonbys, and Pagets and Somersets. Accordingly, while his merits would have entitled him long ago to the command of a division, he consented to accept the command of the Highland Brigade, which, with the Brigade of the Guards, formed the Division of the Duke of Cambridge. His gallantry at the battle of the Alma at the head of his beloved Highlanders, and his zeal, ability, and cool intrepidity throughout the rest of the Crimean campaign, in which he was content to serve under officers as much his inferiors as they were his juniors, were faithfully recorded at the time, and do not need to be repeated here.
The testimony of Lord Gough to Sir Colin Campbell's character in India has already been stated; and, those qualities which he singles out for special mention, his "steady coolness and military precision," added to a constant care for the troops under his command, have gained for him in the very highest degree the confidence, admiration, and affection of
Our readers will not fail to remember, that at the commencement of the recent mutiny in India, Her Majesty's late Government were fatally slow to acknowledge and to believe the actual extent of the danger of that portion of our Empire, owing to the incapacity of the aristocrats, who were placed by the Horse Guards in the highest posts of command over the Company's able and experienced officers. As usual, an Anson and a Somerset were the fortunate holders of these high posts. The one had seen some active service, though only at reviews in Hyde Park, and as a "whipper-in" to the Whigs in the lobbies of St. Stephen's; the other had seen a little at the Cape, but resolved on sitting still at his ease at Poonah, whilst regiment after regiment was break. ing forth into mutiny. The deaths of General Anson, and of his temporary successor, General Barnard, (a very different sort of man,) offered an opportunity for the Ministry to send out to India a man of Indian fame and experience; and for once they chose the person to whom public opinion pointed as "the right man for the right place." At twenty-four hours' notice Sir Colin Campbell left London for the East, caught up the Indian mail at Marseilles, and reached Calcutta, the her. ald of his own appointment. His readiness and activity surprised none who knew him, and it raised the hopes of our countrymen both here and in the East. Our readers, whilst perusing from week to week the details of Sir Colin Camp
bell's successes in the neighborhood of Lucknow and Cawnpore, will not need, or require at our hands, a repetition of one half of the gallant deeds achieved by him up to the present time; to do so, would be simply to reprint the dispatches and letters of the special and chance correspondents who have related the events with a truthful simplicity and fidelity which has put the entire community au courant with the outline of the entire campaign. At the last date, Sir Colin Campbell was preparing for the formal invasion and reconquest of Oude, on a grand scale, and was adopting measures which, if well seconded and sustained by those on whom he has mainly to rely, will, no doubt, shortly be rewarded by the re-settlement of the province on a permanent footing. To use the words of a cotemporary: "When Sir Colin Campbell arrived at Calcutta he found a scene of confusion which was in many respects the unavoidable result of the outbreak. The records of the War Department were at Simla; the principal officers were scattered through the disturbed provinces or serving before Delhi. The desultory and isolated struggles which
were proceeding in different parts of the country had naturally relaxed the bond of military obedience, so that the army had to be organized as a whole from a number of disconnected fragments. The reinforcements as they arrived had to be fitted into their places; detached forces were to be brought into subordination to the general plan; and the different branches of the service required to learn the practice of harmonious coöperation. All these duties and many others of the same kind fell on the Commander-in-Chief when his attention might have been sufficiently engaged in the formation of his plans for the campaign, and when his own presence was soon to be urgently required at the seat of war. A vigorous purpose and a straightforward character have enabled him to meet these accumulated difficulties with considerable success. According to the most trustworthy accounts, the discipline of the army is daily becoming stricter, the subordinate officers are gradually learning their true position, and the troops have acquired that confidence in their leader which is necessary for the performance of all great military achievements."
From Colburn's New Monthly Magazine.
MOUNT HEKLA AND ITS EIGHTEEN ERUPTIONS,
FROM A VISIT TO ICELAND IN 1857.
ONLY a fourth part of Iceland is sitnated under 1000 feet above the level of the sea, and the uninhabited portion of the island, therefore, may be estimated at almost three fourths of its entire area. The great volcanic line of mountains extends, with Hekla nearly at one end, and Krabla at the other, across the country from the south-west to the north-east, and thus intersects the other principal mountain range which runs from the north-west to the south-east.
The whole of the south-easterly part of the island, in which the glaciers-Skrid Jökler-descend down to the valleys, is composed of great ice and lava fields,
which in only a few places admit of narrow passages, so to speak, and the most part of which is unknown. In this wildest portion of Iceland are situated some of its highest mountains-namely, Orofajökul,* Snæfell, Storhöfdi, and Birnudal
*Oræfajökul is said to be the southern portion of the great chain of mountains which has SkaptaSkapta-jökul took place in 1783. The lava which A terrible eruption of jökul on its western side. poured down the sides of the mountain is computed
to have covered tracts of land to the extent of five
hundred square miles, continuing as it did to flow for almost three months, accompanied by showers of ashes, volcanic sand, and sulphur, and also by terrific noises in the volcano. In general, this mountain is covered with glittering snow.
Of all these hills, only two of which, Herdubreid and Rimar, are situated in the north, the volcano named Hekla-by the lower orders called Hekkenfeld-has acquired the widest celebrity, because, amidst all the still active volcanoes of Iceland, it has had the most frequent eruptions. From this volcano, whose summit is almost always enveloped in a drapery of clouds, there have been altogether eighteen eruptions known in the history of Iceland.
The first eruption of Mount Hekla of which we have any authentic information, took place in the year A.D. 1104, and, on account of the immense shower of ashes which issued from the mountain, the following winter was called "the Fall of Sand winter."
The second eruption was in 1157, and was marked by great darkness, caused by the sand and ashes which were scattered over the most distant parts of the island. The third eruption occurred in 1206, and was accompanied by an unusually severe winter and great scarcity of food.
The fourth eruption, in 1222, like the preceding one, was attended by dreadful cold and dearth; and, in addition, by an epidemic among man and beast. During this eruption a submarine volcano suddenly arose near Reykjanes, which, for the following eighteen years, continued to exhibit, from time to time, volcanic phe
With the fifth outbreak, in 1294, there was a violent earthquake, during which many people perished, several houses were overthrown, and the ground was rent asunder in various places.
In the year 1300, Hekla's sixth eruption took place, and it was one of the most
* See "Den Danske Stats Statistik." By Adolph Frederic Bergsoe. Published in Copenhagen, 1851.
fearful, both in violence and duration, that has ever been known. It went on for nearly twelve months, accompanied by earthquakes, extreme cold, and universal illness. At the moment of the outbreak, the mountain seemed to be almost rent in two, huge blocks of rock were ejected with the clouds of ashes, and glowing Scoriæ set fire to the roofs of the solitary farm-houses in the vicinity, while the darkness of night enveloped the whole region around, so that for two days people could not find their way on shore, nor could the fishermen venture to put out their boats to sea.
The seventh eruption, in 1341, was. marked by fearful rumbling noises, and such a heavy fall of ashes that many of the inhabitants of Skalholt, the nearest town or village, fled from their homes. Three other volcanoes, namely, Herdubreid, Hnappadals-jökul, and Raudukambar, broke out about the same time.
Hekla's eighth eruption took place in the winter of 1389, and its ninth in 1436. Its tenth eruption, in the month of July, 1510, was accompanied by an earthquake, and burning stones were ejected to a distance of several miles. The volcanoes of Herdubreid and Trölladyngja, in the north, were also in eruption at the same period.
In the year 1554 flames issued from the mountain ridge which runs north-east from Hekla; and there appeared three columns of fire, which stretched high up in the air, and evidently emanated from three dif ferent craters. This is reckoned as Hekla's eleventh outbreak.
The twelfth, in 1578, was one of its least important eruptions, but that of 1597, the thirteenth, had all the usual accompaniments of subterranean noises, showers of ashes, and an earthquake, during which a Geysir disappeared in one place, and a warm spring, which is still extant, sprang up in another.
During the fourteenth eruption, in 1619, there was a great deal of thunder; and in the fifteenth, which commenced in May, 1636, and lasted till the following winter, fire was observed to issue at the same time from thirteen different places in the mountain.
There was a frightful eruption, the sixteenth, in the winter of 1693; several places in the neighborhood were laid waste; the whole island was covered with ashes; and not only did much sickness prevail among human beings and the
brute creation, but the very sea-birds died | surrounded the craters, for four craters by thousands. were found on the summit of Hekla after its last eruption.*
The seventeenth eruption happened in 1766. The streams of lava reached to a great distance; red-hot stones were ejected from the craters; an earthquake was felt in the adjacent Westmann Islands; and the ashes, which had fallen in thick masses on the coast south of Hekla, lay so deep on the ground that they came up to the knee of a tall man.
After seventy-nine years of repose-the longest ever known-this terrible volcano again became active, and on the 2d of September, 1845, its eighteenth and last state of eruption commenced, and continued, with more or less violence, until the April of 1846, when it gradually ceased its discharge of lava, scoriæ, flames, and vapor, and patches of snow once more rested on the cooled layers of lava that
Some authorities attribute a much greater number of eruptions to Hekla, but in these calculations, the outbreaks following each other closely, or consecutively, are included, though they should rather be looked on as acts in the same drama, to speak figuratively.
I was extremely anxious to explore Hekla and its immediate environs myself but, greatly to my disappointment, I found that a visit to this far-famed volcano was altogether incompatible with my friend's arrangements, and therefore I had to forego this anticipated pleasurable toil, and to be contented with seeing some of the other wonders of this truly astonishing island.
SINCE the revival of science in the fifteenth century, and in a still greater degree since the study of the internal structure of the earth and its organic remains in the nineteenth, it has often been asserted that scientific discoveries contradict Bible descriptions of natural phenomena. This assumed contrariety between the declarations of the material creation and the revealed truths of God, has been employed by the skeptic as an argument against the authenticity of the Holy Scriptures, and by a certain class of theologians as a proof of the folly of physical research, the insufficiency of the human reason, and the wickedness of the human heart. In our own day the dispute between the enemies and friends of the Bible, founded on this purely hypothetical assertion, has become the more violent
* Scripture and Science not at Variance: with Remarks on the Historical Character, Plenary Inspiration, and Surpassing Importance of the Earlier Chapters of Genesis. By John H. Pratt, M.A., Archdeacon of Calcutta. London: Hatchard. 1858.
from the dogmatism of science in the enunciation of its deductions and doctrines, the freedom of interpretation demanded by critics, and the opposition of illiterate Christians to all novel readings and new interpretations of the Word. While a class of bold, reckless, irreverent minds, would throw away the Mosaic narrative of the creation, and the brief history of the antedeluvian world, as an old wife's tale, or at best as a myth, another class of minds, dreading opposition, trembling for that which they believe to be sacred as well as true, resist investigation, and denounce all who acknowledge the just rights and authority of scientific research as enemies to the faith, and skeptics in disguise. This spirit of opposition to the Bible on the one hand, and to scientific research on the other, between the two extreme and antagonistic parties, some well-meaning persons of incompetent knowledge and defective judgment, have
* Hekla, og den Sidste Ugbrud. By J. C. Schythe.
ventured to become mediators between | tradicts revelation and a dogma of the them, and by doubts, conjectures, and Church. Copernicus escaped the persecrude hypotheses, believe they have re- cution he feared for death claimed him moved difficulties and reconciled reason as his victim before bigotry could lay and revelation. At such a time, when hands on him; but they fell heavily enough neither the acknowledged rashness of one on some of his successors. Persecution class of competitors, nor the cowardice of did its best to destroy the scientific truth the other, restrains inquiry, but doubts because it was opposed to the false transare encouraged by the fears of the believer lation; and then having failed in its oband the boldness of the skeptical spirit, ject - as it must ever the theologian such a work as the one before us is not turned to the Mosaic narrative in the out of season. original Scripture, and discovered that the word translated firmament, which conveys an image in harmony with the false scientific idea of a vault of transparent matter revolving round the earth, is a false translation, and that the word expanse is more appropriate. Thus did the discovery of a scientific truth correct a false conception of the meaning of Scripture, and a perfect harmony was estab lished between the divine word and work, in place of a false agreement.
The work to which we solicit the attention of our readers is written with elegance, talent, and, still better, with a competent knowledge of the subject, and excellent judgment. It recites facts, and arguments drawn from them, which should warn the skeptic against a hasty conclusion, and soften his prejudices. But the aim of the author is to inform the minds of those Christians who, though convinced of the authenticity of the Scriptures, are unable to meet those objections of the unbeliever which are founded on a presumed difference in the testimony of science and of the Bible, and to caution those men who, holding fast their faith in Christian revelation, are disposed to doubt the inspiration of the Mosaic history of the creation and the antediluvian world.
In the first part of the work the author reviews the history of former controversies, and shows, from their termination, how improbable it is that any contradiction will be discovered between science and Scripture. They have often supported and assisted each other, but have never come into antagonistic contact, though their attitude has been sometimes threatening. From this fact, Archdeacon Pratt deduces, and has a right to do so, that if an apparent discord should now, or at future time, be detected, there is no real want of harmony, and that perfect concord will be discovered when the science is better understood, or the Word more correctly explained.
In the prosecution of his object, the author first selects some instances of the correction of acknowledged interpretations of Scripture by scientific discovery. The history of astronomy supplies several instances of this. There was an apparent agreement between the false celestial mechanics of Ptolemy and a false translation in the Septuagint and Vulgate, but the science was corrected, and then there was a great outcry-the new astronomy con
Science was again said to be in antagonism to Scripture when it taught the spherical form of the earth, and the consequent existence of antipodes; and its opposition was thought to be still more violent when the earth was proved to have a diurnal rotation on its axis, and an annual revolution in the heavens. It is true the Scriptures do not contradict the fact of the rotundity of the earth, but they do not affirm it; and the absence of such a statement was assumed to be a negative proof of the want of agreement. But it does speak of the motion of the sun, of his rising and setting, of his "coming out of his chamber, and rejoicing as a strong man to run a race," and of the world being "established that it can not be moved." The men of that day, who were so terrified by an apparent contradiction between the discoveries of the astronomer and the literal expressions of Scripture, did not understand that the writers described appearances-that it was not the vocation of the inspired writers to teach science and give scientific definitions-that they spoke of things as they are seen, as we do now. We perceive, though they did not, how violent was the strain they gave to the words of revelation when they called the expanse a firmament, fixed the earth at rest in the center of the universe, and gave an independent motion to the sun.
Much as geology is dreaded by some timid Christians, who does not clearly perceive the value of truth when it comes