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ble chapter to their more particular con- The climates of the sea, discussed in sideration, and their connection with the Lieutenant Maury's fifteenth chapter, difmonsoons and other winds which prevail in fer greatly from those of the land. At different parts of the globe. The results sea, March is the coldest and September at which he has arrived are exhibited in the warmest month; whereas, on land, a Chart of the Winds and their routes February is the coldest, and August the in every part of the ocean—the North- warmest. The reason of this is obvious. East Trades—the South-East Trades—the After winter, the solid dry land receives South-East and South-West Monsoons- more heat from the sun in the day than it the North-East and South-West Mon- radiates at night, and hence it accumulates soons—the prevailing Westerly Winds, till it reaches its maximum in August. It and the routes and average passage of is otherwise, however, with the sea. In ships (in days) bound to different ports it the surplus of summer heat is stored up in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific to alleviate the severity of winter, and its Oceans. The Monsoons are those winds waters increase in warmth for a month which blow during one half of the year after the solid earth has begun to cool. from one direction, and during the other On account of the great quantity of seahalf from nearly an opposite direction. surface raised to a high temperature on These winds are generally formed from the north side of the Equator, compared trade-winds. When “a trade-wind is with that on the south side, the summer turned from its regular course, from one in the Northern is hotter than in the quadrant to another, or drawn in by over- Southern Hemisphere. In the Atlantic heated districts, it is regarded as a mon- this is undoubtedly the case; but in the soon."
When the monsoons have blown Pacific observations are not sufficiently for five months, and become settled, both numerous to enable us to compare the they and the trade-winds which they re- temperatures of the two hemispheres in place are called monsoons. M. Dove con- which it lies. siders the S. W. monsoon as the S. E. If we consider the ocean as a mass of trade-wind; and Lieutenant Jansen, that water influenced only by heat and cold, it the N.W. monsoon is a similar deflection is obvious that it must be subject to cerof the N.E, trade-wind. The monsoons tain surface movements different from are produced by the over-heated regions those currents of which we have treated. in Africa, Asia, and America; and their An object, such as a floating bottle, set occurrence may always be known from adrift at the Equator, and uninfluenced the time when it is the hottest season in by the winds, would be carried to the these localities.
fixed ice near the Poles, and would travel The phenomena called the Changing back by the same influences to the warm of the Monsoons, is beautifully described waters at the Equator. Lieutenant Maury by Lieutenant Jansen, and quoted by our has given an interesting map to illustrate author. Gusts of wind arise, and are fol. the circulation of the ocean under the sole lowed by calms. Thunder-storms occur influences of heat and cold, and to indiday and night. Water-spouts, often 200 cate the routes by which the heated yards high and 20 feet wide, but some waters of the Torrid Zone escape to the times 700 yards high and 50 yards wide, regions of cold, and “the great channelare formed by clouds descending in a tun- ways” by which the same waters return nel form, and appearing to lap the water again to the Equator. According to the with their black mouths. When the wind best information which Lieutenant Maury prevents their formation, wind or air. has obtained, the velocity of these heated spouts, more dangerous than water-spouts, and cooled currents is, at an average, only shoot up like an arrow, and the sea makes four knots a day, and rather less than vain attempts to keep them back. Lashed more. The immense body of warm waters into fury, the sea marks with foam the in the middle of the Pacific and Indian path of the conflicting elements, and roars Oceans, which give birth to the drift curwith the noise of its water-spouts.* rents, are regarded by our author as the womb of the sea, teeming with organic the sunshine, the clouds without rain, the life, so thickly distributed as to give day and night, with their heating and ra“crimson, brown, black, or white colors diating processes, are the cogs and notchto the waters which bear it." These col- ed wheels which compose it, and which, ored patches often extend as far as the amid all the jarrings of the elements, preeye can reach. One of these white spaces, serve in harmony the exquisite adapta23 miles long, resembled a plain covered tions of the ocean.* with snow. Its water was crowded with There is no branch of the Geography luminous worms and insects, some of the of the Sea more interesting to the reader, “serpents” being six inches long. Other or more important to the mariner, than patches that are pink-colored contain well that which treats of the rotary storms, and defined animalcules. The color of the the hurricanes of the ocean. Our author Red Sea is derived from a delicate kind treats of them in a very imperfect manner, of seaweed, and that of the Yellow Sea and in a very brief chapter. It consists from a similar cause.
* Lieutenant Jansen has observed a current in the Atlantic, and extends from the Cape in a direct line air as remarkable as that of the Gulf Stream in the to the Equator. The homeward-bound Indiaman
This atmospherical gulf stream, as Lieutenant avails himself of it, as the European-bound American Maury calls it, is in the south-east trade-winds of the I does of the Gulf Stream.
chiefly of a long extract from Lieutenant Under the head of Drift Currents, Jansen's work, in which no reference is Lieutenant Maury describes a commotion made to the valuable labors of the late in the water, called “Tide Rips,” reveal. Mr. Redfieldt of New York, of Professor ing a conflict of tides or currents. They James Espy of Washington, or of our are generally found near the equatorial distinguished countryman, Sir William calms, starting up without any wind, and Reid. The typhoons or white squalls of moving along at the rate of 60 miles an the China seas are furious gales of wind, hour with a roaring noise, “as if they arising from disturbances of the atmo. would dash over the frail bark, helplessly spherical equilibrium generated among flapping its sails against the masts.” To the arid plains of Asia. Their influence other unexplained movements of the sea, extends to the China seas, which are in. the name of Bores and Eagres has been cluded in the region of the monsoons of given. The Bores of India, of the Bay of the Indian Ocean; and during the changes Fundy, and of the Amazon, are the most of these monsoons the typhoons and white remarkable. They are tremulous tidal squalls prevail. waves, which roll in periodically from the The Cyclones of the Indian Ocean, or the sea, engulfing deer, horse, and other Mauritius hurricanes, take place during wild beasts that frequent the beach. The the contest between the trade-wind and name Eagre is given to the Bore of Tsien- monsoon force, at the changing of the Tang river. It attains its greatest mag- monsoon, and when neither force has nitude opposite to the city of Hangchau, gained the ascendency. At this period of one of the busiest in Asia; and when it the year the winds seem to rage with a appears, it is announced with loud shouts fury that would break
very fountfrom the sailors, drowned in its noise of thunder. All work comes to a stand. A wall like one of chalk, or rather a cataract, * On his Chart exhibiting the sea-drift our author 4 or 5 miles across and 30 feet high, ad- bas also marked the most favorite places of resort vances with a velocity of 25 miles an hour. for the right whale and the sperm whale
, the former It passes up the river in an instant with cold water fish being more edible than those of
occurring in cold, and the latter in warm water. diminishing velocity, occasionally reach
warm water, we see on the Chart the places which ing a point 80 miles from the city. The are most favored with good fish markets. "In the rise and fall of the wave is sometimes 40 course of these investigations," says Lieutenant feet at Hang-chau, and it is supposed to Zone is to the right whale as a sea of fire through
Maury, “the discovery was made that the Torrid be produced by a peculiar configuration which he can not pass; that the right whale of the of the river and its estuary.
Northern Hemisphere and that of the Southern are After describing these movements, and two different animals, and that the sperm whale has others equally inexplicable, our author never been known to double the Cape of Good Hope
-He doubles Cape Horn." rather fancifully regards them as “the In the Drift and Whalo Chart our author has pulsation of the great sea-heart, which marked a large space between New Zealand and the may perhaps assist in giving circulation to southern part of America as a desolate region, in which its waters through the immense system of mariners find few signs of life in sea or air. The aqueous veins and arteries that run be- meridian of 120° west longitude, and the parallel of
45° south latitude, pass through its middlo point. tween the equatorial and polar regions."
+ Mr. Redfield's name is only once referred to in In the machinery which governs the sea, I a note. VOL. XLIV.-NO. IV.
ains of the deep.”* The West-India hur- | and published various important works on ricanes take place when the monsoons are the storms of the West-Indies and the at their height. The trade-wind and coasts of the United States.* Colonel monsoon forces now pull in opposite di- Cappert had, so early as 1801, attempted rections, and most powerful revulsions of to show, that the hurricanes of the East the atmosphere are required to restore were great whirlwinds; and he merely the equilibrium of the atmosphere. The hinted at the idea, that they had a prohurricanes in the North Atlantic Ocean gressive motion. Mr. Redfield, whose take place during the African monsoons, position on the Atlantic coast, gave him and those of the South Indian Ocean in the finest opportunities of observing these the opposite season of the year, during phenomena, came to the conclusion, that the prevalence of the north-west monsoons the hurricanes of the West-Indies were, of the East Indian Archipelago. This eo- like those of the Indian seas, great whirlincidence of hurricanes with monsoons is winds, and that the whole of the revolvsupposed by Jansen to indicate that the one ing mass of atmosphere advanced with a disturbance is the cause of the other. In progressive motion from south-west to the rotatory storms north of the Equator, north-east; and hence he draws the conthe motion is from the right hand to the clusion, that the direction of the wind at a left; and in those to the south of the particular place, forms no part of the Equator, from the left hand to the right, essential character of the storm, and is, like the hands of a watch. Judging from in all cases, compounded of both the rotathe Storm and Rain Charts of the Atlantic, tive and progressive velocities of the storm, the half of the earth's atmosphere which in the mean ratio of these velocities. In covers the Northern Hemisphere is in a the further prosecution of this subject, he much less stable condition than that which was led to the important result, that the covers the Southern. “There are, as a great circuits of wind, of which the traderule, more rains, more gales of wind, more winds form an integral part, are nearly calms, more fogs, and more thunder and uniform in all the great oceanic basins, lightning, in the North than in the South and that the course of these circuits, and Atlantic.”
of their stormy gyration, is, in the SouthWe regret that our limits will not per- Ern Hemisphere, in a cOUNTER DIRECTION mit us to give an account of the researches to those in the NORTHERN one, producing of the authors we have already mentioned, a corresponding difference in the general on the subject of the Cyclones or Rota- phases of storms and winds in the two tory Storms. So early as 1838, Sir Wil. Hemispheres. I liam Reid suggested to the East-India Our distinguished countryman, Sir WilCompany that they should take steps to liam Reid, was led to study this subject, trace the storm-tracks in the Indian seas. in consequence of being employed at BarThe suggestion was adopted; and all the badoes to reëstablish the Government officers of the Company, civil and mili- buildings blown down by the hurricane tary, were instructed to send their obser- of 1831, in which 1477 persons perished vations to Mr. Piddington at Calcutta, in the short space of seven hours. Imhimself an able seaman, who undertook pressed with the conviction that Mr. Redthe task of collecting them, and publish-field's views were correct, he endeavored ing the results. After communicating to verify them, not only by projections on numerous memoirs on the subject to the a large scale, of the facts given by the “ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Ben- American author, but by facts taken from gal,” he published an abstract of the whole the logs of British ships furnished to him in his valuable work, entitled “The Sailor's Horn-Book of the Law of Storms in all parts of the World.” The late Mr. W. * Seo Silliman's Journal vols. xx. and xxi., Blunt's C. Redfield, of New York, had previously
• American Coast Pilot," 12th edition, pp. 626-629; devoted much time to the same subject, and I'he United States Naval Magazine.
t"On the Winds and Monsoops." 1801.
# The English reader who has not had access to
Mr. Redfield's works, will find a pretty full abstract * In one of these hurricanes, accompanied by hail, of their contents in a review of them entitled, “ On in the South Indian Ocean, in 25° south latitude, the Statistics and Philosophy of Storms," written by several of the crew were made blind, others had the author of this article, and published in the their faces cut open, and those who were in the rig- Edinburgh Review for January 1839, vol. lxviii., pp. ging had their clothes torn off.
by the Admiralty. By thus grouping the of the ocean. Some of the most glorious various phenomena of numerous storms, trials of speed and prowess that the world he convinced himself of their rotatory ever witnessed among ships that 'walk and progressive character, and arrived at the waters,' have taken place over it. the conclusion, that they derive their de- Here the modern clipper-ship—the noblest structive power from their rotatory force, work that has ever come from the hands and that the storms south of the equator of man-has been sent, guided by the revolve in a contrary direction-namely, lights of science, to contend with the elefrom left to right—to that which they ments, to outstrip steam, and astonish the take in the Northern Hemisphere. These world.
These world. The most celebrated ship-race views seem to have been generally adopted that has ever been seen, came off upon by meteorologists, with the exception of this course in the autumn of 1852, when Professor Espy, who maintains that, in the four splendid new clipper-ships put to sea hurricanes supposed to be rotatory, the from New-York, bound for California. winds blow to a certain point, and that They were ably commanded. . . . Like the idea of the rotation and translation steeds that know their riders, they were of great bodies of air is inconsistent with handled with the most exquisite skill and the observed phenomena. Dr. Hare, and judgment. Each being put upon her metour able countryman, Mr. Russell of tle from the start, was driven under the Kilwhiss,* have adopted the same opinion; seaman's whip and spur at full speed over and several meteorologists who had em- a course that it would take them three braced the rotatory theory, have evinced long months to run." Lieutenant Maury a disposition to abandon it.
has given a minute and interesting account Having shown his readers how the of this race, detailing all the adverse and winds blow and the currents run in all favorable events which occurred in the parts of the sea, Lieutenant Maury ex- voyage of each ship; and he concludes it hibits, in an interesting chart, the principal with the following observation : “Here routes across the ocean; the great end are three ships, sailing on different days, and aim of all his researches being the bound over a trackless waste of ocean for shortening of passages, and the improve some 15,000 miles or more, and dependment of navigation. The routes are ing alone on the fickle winds of heaven, marked by the figures of vessels, upon as they are called, to waft them along; which are engraven the average passage yet, like travelers on the land, bound upon in days, and which are crossed by lines the same journey, they pass and repass, that show whether the prevailing direc- fall in witħ and recognize each other by tion of the wind be adverse or fair. The the way; and, what perhaps is still more winds and currents which are met with in remarkable, is the fact, that these ships these routes are so well understood, that should, throughout that great distance, vessels sailing, with the same destination, and under the wonderful vicissitudes of on different days of the week, may count climates, winds, and currents which they upon coming up and meeting one another encountered, have been so skillfully naviat different parts of their route. If two gated, that, in looking back at their ships, for example, sail from New-York to management, I do not find a single occaCalifornia, the one a week after the other, sion on which they could have been betthe faster of the two will make up the ter handled.” other; and they will cross each other's In concluding this interesting chapter, paths many times, the tracks of the two our author mentions a remarkable fact, vessels being sometimes so nearly the illustrative of the accuracy of the knowsame, that, when projected on the chart, ledge which we now possess concerning they would appear almost coïncident. the
force, set, and direction both of winds The route from New York to California and currents. He had calculated the is 15,000 miles in length. “ It is,” says detour which these three vessels would Lieutenant Maury, "the great race-course have to make, on account of adverse
winds, between New-York and their place *" North-America—its Agriculture and Climate." of crossing the Equator. The whole disBy Robert Russell, Kilwhiss. Edinburgh, 1857. tance was, according to his computation, The eighteenth chapter of this excellent work, entitled, “ Climate of North-America," and illustrated
4115 miles. One of the ships reached the with numerous diagrams, will be read with the Equator after sailing 4077 miles, and the deepest interest by every meteorologist.
other after sailing 4099 miles-the one within thirty-eight, and the other within | viction, we can not bring ourselves to sixteen miles of the computed distance. approve of the reiterated calls which the
author makes upon us to admire the wisSuch is a brief analysis of Lieutenant dom and beneficence of the Creator, in Maury's able and valuable work — the the currents of the ocean and of the air, foundation of a new science, which can and in the part which they play in the not fail to be cultivated with ardor, be- amelioration of climates, and in the other cause all nations, whether maritime or in- beneficent arrangements and adaptations land, have the deepest interest in its ad- which human interests demand. Sentivancement. It is no slight merit to have ments so just and noble, we can not but collected, as our author has done, the feel and admire. * The great globe and numerous and important facts which con- all that it inherits,” is a mechanism as stitute the “Geography of the Sea,” and complete as any of its individual organto have deduced from them general views isms; and the hurricanes, the thunderof the economy of the ocean, and prac- storms, the famines, and the pestilences, tical rules for its navigation ; but Lieu- at which humanity shudders, are as essentenant Maury is entitled to the higher tial parts of its mighty frame, as the praise of having organized, in the United nerves, and arteries, and muscles, of orStates, a numerous staff of observers, to ganic life. To know and to cherish this prosecute his favorite inquiries, and of great truth, is an acquisition of no ordihaving successfully appealed to the sym- nary value ; but it may be unwise to weakpathy and coöperation of the most import-en it by repetition, and still less wise to ant maritime communities.
insist upon our admiring speculative adapIn bringing under the notice of our tations, which, in the progress of science, readers works of such transcendent merit may turn out to be imaginary. as that of Lieutenant Maury, we are never In the character of our anthor's mind, disposed to view them with a critical eye, marked by strong religious convictions, and have seldom exercised the unenviable we discover the source of another imper and much abused privilege of our craft. fection in his work, to which we have felt Regarding the “Geography of the Sea,” some difficulty in referring. It is now, however, as a standard work, which must we think, almost universally admitted, pass through many editions, and receive and certainly by men of the soundest many corrections and additions from every faith, as well as by the most devoted besea-faring observer, we feel that we are, lievers in the verbal inspiration of the in some degree, conferring a favor on its sacred writings, that the Bible was not author, by a frank expression of the senti intended to teach us the truths of science. ments with which we have perused it. The geologist has sought in vain for geoAs a work on general physics, in which logical truth in the inspirations of Moses, new phenomena are to be referred to es. and the astronomer has equally failed to tablished laws, we are disposed to think discover in Scripture the facts and laws of that it requires some revision, both with his science. Our author, however, seems regard to its theoretical deductions, and to think otherwise, and has taken the opthe grouping of the facts which are supposite side, in the unfortunate controversy posed to authorize them. Lieutenant which still rages between the divine and Maury himself frequently tells us that his the philosopher. Even on the subject of views, on certain points, are merely pro- winds and waves, he quotes the authority visional, and adopted till some better ex-of the sacred page, and this so frequently, planation is obtained; but this process is that we can not produce a better antidote hardly compatible with the principles of to his views, and a better argument in the inductive philosophy, and we would support of our own, than by a simple quorather have facts without causes, than tation of the passages in which he appeals facts but provisionally explained.
to Scripture: In the structure and composition of the “The Bible,” says our author, “frework, too, there is considerable repetition, quently makes allusion to the laws of both of the facts and theories which it nature, their operation and effects. But contains. We find the same idea some-such allusions are often so wrapt in the times repeated in the same page, and fre- folds of the peculiar and graceful drapery quently in different parts of the volume; with which its language is occasionally and, though sharing in the religious con- clothed, that the meaning, though peep