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good points of his character, and threw showing how far a great man like Scott the worst into the shade. The story of could misrepresent for artistic and other his escape has always been popular. purposes the character of Cromwell. If Children and grown-up people read it with we must have fiction, let us also have ficequal attention. Oak-apple day is still titious characters who shall become real kept up by schoolboys. Rival villages to us in proportion as they are truthfully contend for the scenes of different adven- and naturally delineated; for if novelists tures. Scott has made the tale the ground once become historians, we shall soon have work of one of his novels; and there is historians novelists. scarcely an historical romance which is And now at last for our tale. In the not forever alluding to old haunted cas- beginning of August, 1651, Charles II. tles and priests' hiding-places where marched from Scotland into England. He Charles II., rightly or wrongly, is sup- seems to have thought that the English posed to have been concealed. His route would speedily at his presence forget the might to this day be traced by the tradi- oppressions of his father and the Startions which may be still gathered at the Chamber - that they would forget, too, different places along the road where he the verse, which they seemed at that mostopped. “And yet Charles was far from ment to know better than any other, a hero; and the center of every story which told them “to put not their faith in should have something heroic and ideal in princes." There was far more of Quixotit. Still, even in this tale of his flight, ism than chivalry in the enterprise. there is many a curious anecdote, many Charles had succeeded but indifferently a noble trait exhibited in quarters where in Scotland, where his strength lay; and it might be least expected. The old gray he thought to be victorious in England, houses are many of them still standing where he could hardly count upon a man. where Charles bid, the old traditions are Manifestoes were published, offering parstill in the mouths of men, and we should don to all the rebels, with the exception like to say something of them before they of some of the leaders, who would subpass away forever.

mit, and promising further, “a lasting We would, however, here protest peace settled with religion and righteousagainst the novels we have just been ness;" but manifestoes are easily published, speaking of. Teaching history by such and the English just then did not seem to means is not teaching history at all, but think them necessarily true, even though only the theories and views which certain published by a king. The Scotch army, writers may choose to adopt. Not even inferior to Cromwell's in number, made Sir Walter Scott's great name can give up for their numerical weakness by harshcredit to the custom. Chatham may er discipline. Apple-stealing was punished learn history from Shakspeare, but not with death; what punishment was allotted every reader is Chatham, nor every writer to graver offenses we are not told.* At Shakspeare. What we want to know is Warrington the first encounter of any imnot what certain people who once actu- portance took place, where Lambert and ally lived and played important parts on Harrison had concentrated some 7000 this earth, from which we, their descend- men. The bridge over the river had ants, are now reaping the results for been partially broken down, but Charles good or evil, might or might not do under in person, leading his troops over planks certain circumstances existing only in the hastily thrown from pier to pier, gallantly writer's mind, but what they actually did led the way. Harrison and Lambert redo in the circumstances in which they treated, in pursuance of Cromwell's orders. were placed. The use of history is not to On the 22d the Royalist army reached make men sympathize with this or that Worcester, civitas et in bello et in pace party, but to make men sympathize with semper fidelis, with its walls in ruin, but whatever is good and noble in any party. with a very loyal mayor. The hostile garSetting aside the presumption of putting rison fled, and Charles, abandoning his our poor words into the mouths of great intention of going on to London from the men, there must be always a dangerous tendency to darken or to ennoble certain characters for the exigencies of the

plot; ford edition of Lord Clarendon's "State Papers.”

* " Prisoner's Letter from Chester:" in the Ox. and in spite the beauties of "Wood- The object was of course to conciliate the English as stock," it is to us a most painful tale, I much as possible along the road.

fatigued state of his army, ordered the the next night, Charles perceiving himself walls to be immediately repaired.* For to be gradually surrounded by a net-work the next two or three days the King oc- of soldiery, determined on a night-attack; cupied himself with royal ceremonies, and and some 1200 to 1500 men, under Genehis Scotch soldiers occupied themselves ral Middleton, wearing their shirts over with quarreling with an eminent divine of their armor to recognize each other in the the city, a Mr. Crosby, who, in his ultra- darkness, attacked Cromwell's head. loyalism, had unduly exalted the King to quarters at Red Hill. But a Puritan in the headship of the Church. Meanwhile, the city, one Guise, a tailor, had given inthe Earl of Derby was defeated in Lanca- formation of the project, and the Royalists shire by Lilburn, and was forced to seek were defeated with loss. Poor Guise refuge at Boscobel House, on the borders suffered the next day for his information, of Shropshire and Staffordshire; from He saved his friends' lives, but lost his whence, having recovered from his wounds, own. The Republicans, however, did not he joined the King at Worcester. On forget his services : Parliament soon afterthe 26th, Charles held a review of his wards voted his widow £200 in money, forces on the Pitchcroft, a large meadow and an annuity of £200. During the next on the banks of the Severn; and on the three or four days Cromwell poured in same day, in London, the Lord Mayor strong reinforcements to Powick, on the publicly burnt by the hands of the com- river Teme, which, together with the mon hangman Charles's manifesto, and in Severn, separated his troops on the west its place issued another, wherein Charles side from the city, and was now guarded Stuart is ominously spoken of as a traitor by the Royalist Montgomery. The third and a public enemy. Cromwell, too, was of September saw Charles on the Cathenow fast approaching. The county mili- dral tower, watching the movements of tias had, on his way, all flocked round the enemy. The Lord General had dehis standard, and on the 28th he was tached a thousand men to cross the Sewith some thirty thousand men before vern by means of pontoons, at a place Worcester, taking up his position at called Bunsbill

, a little above its junction Perry Wood and Red Hill, eminences with the Teme, with a view to outlank commanding the city on the east side and Montgomery, whose force was now being nearly opposite to the Royal Fort. On attacked at Powick bridge. Charles hasthe same day Lambert had forced the tened to the scene of action. But, simul. passage of the Severn, at Upton, some taneously with this movement on the little way below Worcester, his men western side, the Fort Royal on the east “straddling across the parapet” of the of the city was attacked. Charles renearly broken-down bridge, and main- turned to head-quarters, leaving Major taining themselves in the tower of Upton Pitscottie, with three hundred HighlandChurch against Massey, who, being ers, to oppose the one thousand men at wounded, retreated across the Trent by Bunshill. The battle soon became general. Powick bridge into Worcester. Affairs Cromwell led on his men in person. In now looked hopeless for the Royalists. vain Pitscottie and his gallant three hunBut Englishmen, Royalists or Puritans, dred offered resistance. As soon as are not in the habit of despairing: so on Cromwell was over, he laid a bridge across

the Teme, close to its junction with the

Severn, over which Fleetwood's right * One of the original orders is still in the posses: detachment passed, whilst his left marched sion of Mr. Page, of Salwarpe, near Droitwich, and runs as follows:

on to Powick bridge to help in the en"CHARLES R.

gagement against Montgomery. The " You are hereby required to send out of your bridge was fiercely contested. Cromwell's parish thirty able men, to work at the fortifications men there now seeing that assistance was of this city, and in regarde of the necessity to be coming up, and that Montgomery would whereof you and they are not to faile, as you tend? be cut off in the rear, plunged boldly into our displeasure. Given at our Court at Worcester, the river. Montgomery, his ammunition the 24th of August, 1651.

being exhausted, was forced to retreat, "To the constables and tything men of Salwarpe. bravely fighting, though, at every hedge

" And you are to bring with you spades, shovels, and ditch, till driven across the Severn and pickaxes."

The postscript proves with what haste the order bridge into Worcester. was given,

So much for the battle on the western

side of the city. As soon as the Protec- streets hat in hand, begging them to stand tor saw that his troops would be victori- by him and fight like men; in vain did he ous, he hastily returned by his bridge implore them. At last, seeing all hope across the Severn to Red Hill

, and re- gone, all courage lost, he cried out : “I doubled the attack on the Royal Fort. had rather that you would shoot me, than Charles now marched out of his entrench- keep me alive to see the sad consequences ments, leading on his Highlanders and of this fatal day.” And now Cromwell's best infantry, supported by his English men were pouring into the city on all Cavaliers. Desperate was the struggle. sides. General Dalzell's brigade in St. The Puritans gave way, leaving their John's on the west side of the town, cannon; but they gave way only to come threw down their arms. Lord Rothes back stronger, asa wave retires to the ocean and Sir William Hamilton gallantly defor fresh strength. Charles's men fought fended the Castle Hill until fair terms of with all the valor of despair; their ammu- surrender could be obtained. Some of the nition was gone, but they still fought on English Cavaliers made a desperate resist, with the butt-ends of their muskets. Now ance in the Town Hall until they were was the time for Lesley to charge with his all cut to pieces or made prisoners; whilst cavalry; but he hung back. The Royal- Lord Cleveland, Major Carlis, and others, ists at last broke. Cromwell seized the rallied a handful of men and charged the guns in the Royal Fort, and played them enemy, "filling the streets with the bodies upon the fugitives. Through Sidbury of horses and men,” and thus securing the they fled in confusion into the town. An King's retreat. By six in the evening ammunition-wagon was overturned in the Charles had fled through St. Martin's gateway, and the King was forced to Gate; once more at Barbon's bridge, leap off his horse and hurry into the town just out of the town, he tried to rally his on foot, his pursuers close upon him.* men; but it was to no purpose. Behind Charles's men now began to throw away him now lay Worcester, with its houses their arms. In vain did Charles, having pillaged and its citizens slain for his sake, mounted again, ride up and down the and he forced to fly for life. Well might

he say: “I had rather that you would

shoot me, than keep me alive to see the * This is the version in "Boscobel,” which pro- sad consequences of this fatal day.” Sad ceeds to say, that in " Friar's street his majesty put indeed they were; his poor Scotch sol. that copy of the old edition of 1662, which we have diers, betrayed by their accent, wandered before alluded to, there is written, in the handwrit- about the country starving, until at last ing of the 17th century, against the words, "given mercifully knocked on the head by the to ye king by Mr. Bagnal,” which is curiously cor. peasantry. So ended the battle of Worroborated by Nash, who at the same time, however, cester, “as stiff a contest for four or five story: "The king would certainly have been taken hours as ever I have seen,” as Cromwell by Cromwell's cavalry, who were close at his heels, wrote. had not one of the inhabitants drawn a great load of Charles's expedition could have but one hay into Sidbury Gate, which blocked up the en- result: and that which took place was the trance, so that the horse could not enter; The King quickest and the best. Had Lesley or dismounted, and crept under the hay into the town; Dalzell fought that day as they should, as soon as he was entered the city, a cry was made the issue must still have been the same to mount the King; when Mr. William Bagnal, a with increased misery a few days later. loyal gentleman who then lived in Sidbury, turned For it was impossible that a boy like out his horse ready saddled, upon which his Majesty Charles with a handful of men, their amfled through St. Martin's Gate, and so to Boscobel. To a son of this Mr. William Bagnal, Dr. Thomas, munition ill supplied, could withstand a when Dean of Worcester, of which diocese he was veteran like Cromwell

, with England at afterwards bishop, married his eldest daughter; and his back. The bravery and devotedness from his papers this anecdote is transcribed."-Col of Charles's men will ever command relections, for the city of Worcester, made by Mr, Habingdon : in the Appendix to Nash's “Worces spect, and shed a lustre round a worthtershire," second edition, 1799, vol. ii. p. 106. See less cause. also pp. 323, 324, where Nash states that Bagnal And now at this day at Worcester, never received either his horse or saddle, or any many of the places connected with the recompense for them. We have followed the author of “ Boscobel," as he is supported by Bates in his battle are still in existence. Perry Wood "Account of the Rise and Progress of the late still stands, and the entrenchments are Troubles in England.”

still visible, and the peasant will show you VOL. XLIV.-NO. IV.

30

28."*

as a balance against all the royal oaks a bodies of the enemy were quartered, tree where the devil is said to have ap- Through its silent streets they went with peared to Cromwell. The railway now all secresy, stopping at a lonely roadside runs along where the hottest engagement house out of the town for refreshment: took place. Sidbury and St. Martin's and just when daylight was dawning they Gates have disappeared, and large lime found themselves at White-Ladies, a seat trees are growing on the site of the Royal of the Giffard family. The King's horse, Fort; but the Commandery is still stand-by way of precaution, was stabled in the ing, and the rooms may be seen where very ball. No time could be lost. Mr, Charles slept and the Duke of Hamilton Giffard sent for Richard and William died. Powick old bridge still stands, Penderel, who with their other brothers, crooked and narrow, spanning with its were tenants on his estate, and to them massive arches and abutments the streams committed the King. Blue ribbon, and of the Teme and Langhern, and was ad- George of diamonds, and garter, and mirably calculated by its position for princely ornaments had to be flung away. defense. A brass cannon is preserved in The King's long black hair was cut counthe Town Hall, presented to Charles by try fashion. His hands and face smeared the Count de Berg, thus refuting the over with soot. He had to exchange his statement in the prisoner's letter from own clothes for a coarse noggen shirt, a Chester that the Royalists were only sup- common countryman's green and greasy plied with sixteen leathern guns. A curi- suit, and leathern doublet. Whilst they ous item too is met with in the corpora- are busy disguising him, news is brought tion annals with reference to the poor that the enemy is close at hand. The Scotch soldiers—“Paid for pitch and King is hurried through a secret door, rosen to pfume the hall after the Scots, and hid in Spring Coppice. Into the

thickest part of it do they plunge. MornAll along the Kidderminster road that ing has broken, and the rain is pouring September night was hurry and confu- heavily on the royal fugitive as he sits sion; the King knew not whither to fly. shivering at the foot of a tree. All his London was proposed, but no one except friends, with the exception of Wilmot, Lord Wilmot fell in with this plan. who remains in the neighborhood under Scotland was next thought of, and the the protection of John Penderel, have royal party, separating themselves from now left him, not even daring to know the main body, turned northwards. Dark- where he is hid, for fear that under coërness overtook them, and at Kimer Heath, cion they might betray the secret. They near Kidderminster, they lost their way. attempt to rejoin Lesley's horse, which is In this dismal plight Lord Derby remem- as useless in retreat as it was in battle, bered Boscobel House. So on their peril- and is soon cut to pieces. Lord Derby, ous journey they again went. Stour with many others, is taken prisoner. The bridge must be passed through where Duke of Buckingham, Lord Leviston,

with a few more, contrive to escapa.

Richard Penderel manages to procure a * It seems to be a trait with the English people, blanket for the King, and his sister-in-law, especially with the commonalty, to adhere staunchly through good and ill to their favorites, and as an “ the good wife Yates, brings a mess of example of this we may notice with what affection milk, and some butter and eggs,” declarWorcester has ever held to the Stewarts, in spite of ing with true womanly affection, “that all their black ingratitude. To this day is the cus- she would rather die than discover him." tom of placing oak-boughs, on the 29th of May: A poor court this wet wood for a King; is still there popularly believed that a figure over the and yet these poor people were sincerer entrance of the Guildhall of a man's head, with his courtiers than ever Charles had before ears nailed back, represents Cromwell in pillory, known.* whilst the two Charleses stand comfortably below in their royal robes. Mr. Noake in his "Notes and

In the dusk of the evening Charles and Queries for Worcestershire" gives a portion of an old song bearing on this point, which may still be * The peasantry to this day, along the road from heard among the lower orders:

Worcester to White-Ladies Hill, still point out with "The Worcester people being hurt full sore, sir, more or less truth the places where the king halted; Nailed Cromwell's head by the ears above the and at Wolverley, in the dell upon which Lea Castle Town-hall door, sir.

stands, the spot is still shown where the king crossed. Chorus. Heigho, what will they do?

-See Mr. Noake's " Notes and Queries for Worces. They're always finding something now." | tershire," p. 325.

his guide stole out of the

wood with the autumn leaves they could peep and see intention of making for Wales. At his the red coats of their enemies passing guide's house Charles was again disguised, close under them, peering into every corand assumed the name of Will Jones: ner of the wood. Evening at last rescued kings even in our times have been reduced them: and nowto such necessities. They then started

“When all the paths were dim, for Madeley, on the banks of the Severn.

And far below the Roundhead rode, On their road there, an incident befell And hummed a surly hymn," them, which we give in the words of the anthor of "Boscobel :)

they returned to Boscobel House, where

William Penderel lived, and where his “Before his Majesty came to Madeley he met good wife, Joan, provided the King with with an ill-favored encounter at Evelin Mill, a supper of chickens. At supper a coun. being about two miles from thence. The miller, cil is held as to the next day's provisions, it seems, was an honest man, but his Majesty and and Major Carlis proposes a campaign Richard Penderel knew it not, and had then in his house some considerable persons of his Majesty's against a neighboring sheep-fold, which army, who took shelter there in their fight he successfully performs the next morning, from Worcester, and had not been long in the killing a sheep with his dagger, and wil. mill

, so that the miller was upon his watch; and liam Penderel bearing it home in triumph; Richard unhappily permitting a gate to clap an exploit which reminds us of some of through which they passed, gave occasion to the scenes which Charles Edward must the miller to come out and boldly ask : Who have witnessed in the Cave of Corado. is there ? Richard, thinking the miller had The next day, which was Sunday, the haste, and led' his Majesty over

a little brook, King appears to have spent partly engag. which they were forced to wade through, and ed in cooking mutton chops, and in his which contributed much towards the galling of own private devotions. his Majesty's feet, who, as he afterward pleas We must now return to Lord Wilmot's antly observed, was here in some danger of proceedings; the reader will remember losing his guide, but that the rustling of that he still remained in the vicinity. He Richard's calves'-skin breeches was the best had found refuge at Moseley Hall, the direction his Majesty had to follow him in that seat of Mr. Whitgreaves, only eight miles dark night."-Pp. 225, 226.

from Boscobel, and from thence had gone Madeley, the seat of Mr. Wolfe, is on to Bentley Hall, at Colonel Lane's in. reached safely about midnight, and the vitation. Communication is opened by tired King, for better safety than in the the means of John Penderel between him house, passes the night and the whole of and the King, and it is determined that the next day in a hay-loft, for the Welsh Charles, on this Sunday evening, shall expedition had to be given up, as the join him; so bidding Carlis farewell, who enemy had posts on the Severn, which it afterwards escaped to France, the King was found impossible to evade; and a mounted on Humphrey Penderel's milllittle before evening the King and his horse, set out for Moseley Hall, with the guide beat their retreat to Boscobel, five brothers for an escort. The King Charles's hands and face having been pre complained of his steed's action, and we viously stained with walnut leaves by Mrs. must not forget the reply: "Can you Wolfe. To avoid their friend, the miller, blame the horse, my liege, to go heavily they were forced to wade the stream, when he has the weight of three kingCharles plunging in first, being a swimmer, doms on his back ?” Cheered up by the and helping his guide over. About five honest miller's joke, they reach Moseley in the morning they reached Boscobel- in safety through the rain and darkness. wood, where the King found Major Carlis, And here we take leave of the Penderels; who led the forlorn hope at Worcester, they were a right loyal brotherhood, and who, as the author of “ Boscohel" whom neither threats nor bribes could quaintly says, “had scen not the last man prevail to betray their King. It is the born, but the last man killed at Worces faithfulness and devotedness of such true ter.” The King and the Major climbed men that gives the real interest to our up into a thick pollard oak, or, in the story, and proves how good human nature language of the country people of the ever is, and what noble, faithful hearts are present day, “a dorrel tree.” Through beating beneath coarse vests. Refresh. its thick, close branches and its yellow ment is brought to Charles, who stands

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