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Well, perhaps, would it have been for reverse—that the fact of knowing what Charles's memory had he been captured. persecution is does not necessarily make His youth and bravery would have filled men generous to the suffering, but only in a picture very different in colors to that qualifies them to inflict it all the more; which history now draws of him. Men and that acquaintance with fidelity and would bave remembered how he led the heroism only serves, with some, to inspire van over the broken arches of Warring- practical distrust in the existence of all ton-bridge; how, too, sallying from the virtue in women, and all honor in men. Royal Fort, he met face to face even Instead of Charles's chivalry and his valor, Cromwell himself and his veteran troops, we remember him only as having allowed and for a time, too, drove them back; the English flag to be insulted; instead of how, too, when the battle was going his patience under his hardships, we know against him he once more rallied his troops, of him only as one to whom his father and when all hope was gone he tried to bequeathed a rich legacy of his worst cheer them on again to the charge. But, vices--as one who possessed the most as it is, we only learn from Charles's sub- winning manners but the lowest moralssequent life that, sometimes, nothing in the dupe of mistresses and the slave of this world is sooner forgot than benefits— favorites, who held a levee of panders and that experience does not make some men kept a privy council of buffoons, and eleone whit better or wiser, but quite the I vated adultery into a science.
From the North British Review.
THE COLLECTED WORKS OF DUGALD STEWART.*
EVER since the decease of Dugald | at a dignified distance from his readers, Stewart, now nearly thirty years ago, and seldom lays aside his classical statethere has been a strong desire felt by many liness. to have a memoir of him. This feeling bas It seems that his son, Colonel Stewart, rather been increased by the circumstance, had prepared an account of the life and that those who never saw him have been writings of his father, together with his able to form a very dim idea of the man, correspondence with eminent individuals, and of bis character. He ever flits before and anecdotes from his journals. But, our phantasy as an author or a professor; during his military service in India, Colowe see him walking up and down, cogitat- nel Stewart had suffered from an attack ing a lecture, or dictating an essay; or we of coup-de-soleil, which affected his inget a glimpse of him gliding through the tellect, and, in a rash moment, he comcollege courts, or addressing a reverential mitted to the flames the biography, as body of students in the class-room. He well as several papers by his father. The is not one of those authors who throw following letter, dated Catrine, 1837, to a their individual heart into their writings, publishing house which had inquired after so that their works are their fittest me this literary property, will be read with a moir. On the contrary, he keeps himself melancholy feeling, as coming from the
son of such a sire, and as illustrative of a *." The Collected Works of Dugald Stewart, topic on which the father had often dwelt, Esq." Edited by Sir William HAMILTON, Bart. the dark cloud which forever settles on With a Memoir of Dugald Stewart. By John the border country of mind and body: VEITCH, M. A. Vols. 1.-X., 1854 58. Edinburgh: Thomas Constable and Co.
“You need not further trouble yourself on
this head, because, finding myself getting on in materials, but mainly from the peculiar life, and despairing of finding a sale for it at its character of Mr. Stewart himself. It is real value, I have destroyed the whole of it. To easiest to seize a likeness when the features this step I was much induced by finding, my are marked; but Stewart's mental chalocks repeatedly picked during my absence from home, some of my papers carried off, and some
racter was distinguished for its regularity of the others evidently rca if not copied from, and its fine proportions, and was without by persons of whom I could procure no trace, prominences or excesses of any kind. Beand in the pursuit or conviction of whom, 1 sides, while Stewart had no doubt a libenever could obtain any efficient assistance from ral heart, he contrives to keep it very the judicial functionaries. As this may form, much folded up from our view in his writat some future period, a curious item in the his- ings, and in any recorded conversations or tory of literature," etc., etc.
letters preserved to us. That we should
not have a living family portrait is no Every one rejoiced, in these circum- fault of the biographer, who has done his stances, to find it announced that, in this part with industry, integrity, and judg. edition of the collected works, there was ment, and has given us a memoir characto be a memoir of him by Sir William terized by clearness and accuracy of narHamilton, the metaphysician who occupi- rative, elegance of style, and a fine philoed in this last age the high place which sophic spirit. We rather think that this Stewart did, in a previous age. It turned is precisely such an account as Stewart out that Hamilton was obliged, from fail. would have wished preserved of himself, ing health, to depart from the idea of and that he would have shrunk from a writing an original and connected narra- more searching anatomy of his inward mo. tive, and was to confine himself to a col- tives, and declined a fuller narrative of lection of materials, with notes and observ- incidents, which might have exhibited his ations on Stewart's philosophy; and even infirmities. this design was frustrated by his lamented Dugald Stewart was born in the Old Col. death. We are grateful, in these circum- lege buildings, Edinburgh, on Nov. 22d, stances, that we have now at last a me- 1753. His father was Dr. Matthew Stewart, moir of Stewart by Mr. Veitch, one of at one time minister at Roseneath, and Hamilton's most promising pupils, and afterwards successor to Maclaurin in the already favorably known by his transla- mathematical chair in Edinburgh, and tions, with notes, of portions of Descartes. still known as one of those British mathe
The biographer has taken a high stand- maticians, who were applying with great ard, and has reached it. This is no other skill and beauty, the geometrical method, than the memoirs of Smith, Robertson, while the continental mathematicians were and Reid, by Stewart himself
, who again far outstripping them by seizing on the seems to have taken as his model the more powerful instrument of the calculus. Eloges of the French Academicians. Still, His mother was the daughter of an Edinthis dignified and rose-water style of bio- burgh Writer to the Signet. He was thus graphy is not after all the highest; as connected on the part of his father (and Stewart's admiring pupil, Francis Horner, also of his grandfather, who had been min. remarks of him: "His conceptions of cha- ister of Rothesay) with the Presbyterian racter, though formed with comprehen- ministry, and on the part of his mother sive design, want that individuality to with the Edinburgh lawyers--the two which the painter of portraits must de classes which, next to the Heritors, held scend.” It is evident throughout this life the most influential position in Scotland. of Stewart, that the painter has been at Dugald was a feeble and delicate infant. pains to collect reminiscences from a va- He spent his boyish years partly in Edinriety of quarters, and that he has made a burgh, and partly in the maternal mansion judicious combination of them, but it is house of Catrine, which we remember as just as clear that he has not seen the being, when we paid pilgrimage thither a original
. He has given us a wonderfully number of years ago, a whitewashed, good likeness; but it is of the professor broad-faced, common-place old house, sitin his gown, rather than of the man in his uated very pleasantly in what Wordsworth inner and domestic life-his heart—his calls expressively the “holms of bonnie conscience—and his religious experience. Ayr,” but unpleasantly near a cotton-mill This we suspect is an unavoidable defi- and a thriving village, which, as they rose ciency, arising not only from the want of about 1792, destroyed to Stewart the charms of the place as a residence. Stewart prepared to give as high an education as entered, at the age of eight, the High can be had in any University in the world. School of Edinburgh, where he had, in the The youth seems at this time to have had latter years of his attendance, Dr. Adam thoughts of entering the Church of Engfor his instructor, and where he was dis- land; and if he had gone south, we can tinguished for the elegance of his transla- conceive him rising to as high a dignity tions, and early acquired that love for the as a Scotchman sent to Oxford on that prose and poetical works of ancient Rome, foundation, has reached in our day, and, which continued with him through life. in that event, he would no doubt have Ile entered Edinburgh College in the ses- discharged the duties of the Episcopal sion 1765–66, that is, in his thirteenth office with great propriety and dignity. year. We remember that Bacon, David But a destiny better suited to his peculiar Hume, Adam Smith, Thomas Reid, and character and gifts, was awaiting him. In many other original-minded men, entered the autumn of 1772, that is, when he was college about the same age; and we are at the age of nineteen, he became substistrengthened in the conviction, that, in tute for his father in the chair of matheorder to the production of fresh and inde- matics in Edinburgh. It is precisely such pendent thought, it is of advantage to an office as this, à tutorship or assistant have the drilling in the ordinary elements, professorship, that the Scottish Colleges all over at a comparatively early age, and should provide for their more promising then allow the mind, already well-stocked students; an office not to be reserved for with general knowledge, to turn its undi- sons or personal friends of professors, but vided energies to its favorite and evident- to be thrown open to public competition. ly predestinated field; and that the mo. This is the one thing needful to the Scotdern English plan of continuing the routine tish Universities, to enable them to comdiscipline in classics or mathematics till plete the education which they have so the age of twenty-two, while well fitted to well commenced, and to raise a body of produce good technical scholars, is not so learned youths, ready to compete with well calculated to raise up great reform- the tutors and fellows of Oxford and Camers in method and execution. What the bridge. In 1775 Mr. Stewart was elected Scottish Colleges have to deplore, is not assistant and successor to his father; in so much the juvenility of the entrants- 1778, on Professor Adam Ferguson going though this has been carried to excess— to America as Secretary to a commission, as the total want of a provision for bring- he, upon a week's notice, lectured for him ing to a point, for carrying on, for con- on Morals; and in 1785, Ferguson having solidating and condensing the scattered resigned, Stewart was appointed to the education which has been so well begun office for which he was so specially fitted, in the several classes. But to return to -to the chair of Moral Philosophy in the the college youth; we find him attending, University of Edinburgh. among other classes, that of Logic under We pause in the narrative, in order to Stevenson, for two sessions, that of Moral look at the circumstances which combined Philosophy, under Adam Ferguson, that to influence the youth, to determine his of Natural Philosophy, under Russell, and career, and to fit him for the good work from all of these he received a stimulus which he performed. First, we have a and a bent, which swayed him at the crisis mind not, certainly, of bright original of his being, and abode with him during genius, or of great intellectual force, but the whole of his life.
with a blending of harmonious qualities, a After finishing his course in Edinburgh, capacity for inward reflection, and a dishe went to Glasgow in 1771, partly by position toward it, a fine taste, and conthe advice of Ferguson, that he might be summate judgment. From his youth he under Dr. Thomas Reid, and partly with breathed the air of a college. He was the view of being sent to Oxford on the early introduced to Roman literature, and Snell Foundation, which has been of use to made it his model. Stevenson used many students of Glasgow, but has in Wynne's Abridgment of Locke's Essay as some respects been rather injurious to the a text-book, and from it the student may college, as it has led many to ascribe to it have caught the fresh and observational the mere reflected glory of being a train spirit which Locke had awakened, while, ing-school to higher institutions, whereas at the same time, he was kept from what Glasgow should assert of itself that it is Cousin describes as the common defect of the British philosophy-being "insular" | intimacy with the lofty spirit of Plato, or, - by the other text-books employed, better still
, by an appreciation of the deep namely, the “Elementa Philosophia of theological discussions which had collected Heineccius, and the “Determinationes around them so much of the English and Ontologicze" of De Vries, works which Scottish speculative intellect of the two discussed, in a more abstract and scholas- preceding centuries. tic method, the questions agitated on the Like every other man not altogether Continent posterior to the publication of self-contained, Stewart must have felt the the Philosophy of Descartes. A still spirit of his age, which, as coming in from greater influence was exercised over the every quarter, like air and sunshine, comyouth by Ferguson, who, with no great monly exercises a greater influence on metaphysical ability, but in an altogether young men than individual teachers can Roman, and in a somewhat Pagan manner, possibly do through the special channels discussed, with great majesty and sweep, open to them. Hume had stirred the the topics of which the pupil was ever thoughts of thinkers to their greatest after sofond — lying between mental depths; and this was now the age in science on the one hand, and jurispru- which Hume had to be met. Stewart dence on the other. From his own father, was born fourteen years after the publicaand through his own academical teaching, tion of the great skeptical work of mod. he acquired a taste for the geometrical ern times, the “Treatise on Human Namethod, so well fitted to give clearness ture;" and two years after the publication and coherency to thought, and to teach of the work from which all the debased caution in déduction. He thus became modern utilitarianism has sprung, the one of those metaphysicians (and they are “Inquiry concerning the Principles of not few) who have been mathematicians Morals.” At the time when the youth likewise, in this respect resembling (not was forming his convictions, Hume was to go back to Thales, Pythagoras, and living in Edinburgh, and the center of an Plato, in ancient times) Descartes, Leib- influence radiating round the man, who nitz, S. Clarke, Reid, and Kant. In was a mixture of the lively, good-natured the class of Natural Philosophy he was animal, and of the intellectual giant, but introduced to the Newtonian physics, with a terrible want of the high moral and which had been taught at an early date spiritual. The original disposition of in Scotland, and caught an enthusiastic Stewart did not tempt him to daring specaffection for the inductive method and for ulation; his domestic training must have Bacon, which continued with him through prepossessed him against infidelity; and life, and is his characteristic among meta- he had been placed, in Glasgow, under physicians. But the teacher influencing the only opponent worthy of Hume, who him most, and indeed determining his had appeared ; and so these earthquake whole philosophic career, was Thomas shocks just made him look round for a Reid, who, in a homely manner, but with means of settling fast the foundations of unsurpassed shrewdness, and great inde- the temple of knowledge. pendence and originality, was unfolding Locke's philosophy had been the reignthe principles of common-sense, and thus ing one for the last age or two. Mr. laying a foundation for philosophy, while Veitch speaks of the “ tradition of sensahe undermined the skepticism of Hume. tionalism, which the Scottish universities Stewart has found in Reid the model in- during the first half of the century, and structor, and it may be added, that Reid up to the time of Reid, had in general dishas found in Stewart the model disciple. pensed in Scotland." This statement is This whole course was an excellent train too sweeping : for, first, Locke had given ing for a metaphysician; it would have as high a place to reflection as to sensabeen perfect it, along with his knowledge tion; and, secondly, he had given a high of natural philosophy, his somewhat dull office to intuition; while, thirdly, Locke's apprehension had been whetted by an ac- philosophy had not been received in Scotquaintance—such as that of Locke in an land without modification, or in its worst earlier, and that of Brown in a later age aspects, as it had been in France. Stew—with the more fugitive and complicated art, like Reid, entertained a high admiraphenomena of the physiology of the body; tion of Locke, and was unwilling to sepaand if, in addition, his over-cautious tem- rate from him; but he saw at the same per had been raised heavenward by an time the defects of Locke, and that there
were fundamental laws in the mind which references to intuition, and moral sense, Locke had overlooked, or only incidentally and inherent power, there was a deep noticed. In Glasgow he must have felt the mine, very much concealed till it was influence left behind by a train of eminent opened fully to the view by the penetramen. There Hutcheson had been the tion and perseverance of Reid. founder of a school, afterwards called the In order to estimate the character of the Scottish school. We know that this honor age, it must also be taken into account, has been claimed for his predecessor in the that there was a strong expectation, that ethic chair, Gerschom Carmichael, the ed results were to follow from the application itor of Puffendorf, and the author of a of inductive science, to mental phenomelittle Treatise on Natural Theology; we na, similar to those which had flowed from have looked into his works, and are per- its application to physics. Bacon had desuaded that he exercised an influence on clared that his method was as applicable the mind of Hutcheson, who was his pu- to mental as to material facts, though he pil, but it must have consisted mainly in seems to have had no idea of consciousconnecting him with the old and more ness being the agent to be employed in abstract philosophy of the schoolmen, and the inquiry into the laws of mind. Sir of the Continent, and in keeping him Isaac Newton had said, in his Optics : from falling altogether into the experiment- “ And if natural philosophy, in all its parts, al method of Locke. In addition to the by pursuing this method, shall at length external and internal sense of Locke, be perfected, the bounds of moral philoHutcheson had called in a moral sense—a sophy will also be enlarged.” Pope, too, very inadequate account we grant—but had said in his Essay on Man: “ Account still containing a truth, inasmuch as it for moral as for natural things." Turnrepresented moral good as discerned by bull, under whom Reid studied in Aberan original and distinct moral power. In deen, had quoted this language of New. Glasgow, too, Adam Smith had expounded ton and Pope, in his work on the“ Princithose original views which he afterwards ples of Moral Philosophy,” published in published in his “Theory of Moral Senti- 1740; and his aim was to "apply himself ments,” and his “ Wealth of Nations.” to the study of the human mind, in the In Edinburgh, James Balfour of Pilrig, same way as to that of the human body, who was Professor of Moral Philosophy or to any other part of natural philosoin the University from 1754 to 1764, had phy.” Catching this spirit from Turnbull, opposed Hume's ethical views, on grounds, Reid was even now employing it to discohowever, which do not give morality a ver principles deeper than any that had sufficiently deep foundation in the consti- been systematically noticed by Locke, by tution of man or character of God. He Hutcheson, or any Scottish philosopher. begins his “Delineations of the Nature To this same noble work Stewart now deand Obligations of Morality,” with the voted himself; but seeking meanwhile to principle, that private happiness must be combine with the profound philosophy of the chief end and object of every man's Reid, a literary excellence like that of pursuit, shows how the good of others af Hume and Smith. fords the highest happineso, aire in order And this leads us to notice, that we can to sanction natural conscience, he calls in not form any thing like an adequate idea the authority of God, who must approve of the influences which combined to mould of what promotes the greatest happiness. the character of Stewart, who cultivated But in his “ Philosophical Essays,” he op- literature as eagerly as he did philosophy, poses the theory which derives our ideas without taking into account, that he lived from sensation and reflection. “ It may in an age of great literary revival in Scotindeed be allowed that the first notions of land. The union between Scotland and things are given to the mind by some England being now compacted, it was sensation or other; but then it may also seen that the old Scottish dialect must be true, that after such notices are given, gradually disappear, and ambitious youths the mind, by the exercise of some inherent were anxious to get rid of their northern power, may be able to discover some re- idioms, and even grave seniors, including markable qualities of such things, and noblemen and dignified doctors, like even things of a very different nature, Robertson, (as we learn from Lord Campwhich are not to be discovered merely by bell's Life of Loughborough,) had formed any sense whatever." Still, with all these a society, in order to be delivered from