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their Scottish pronunciation. A company words. His lecturing manner was professorial, of anthors had sprung up, determined to but gentlemanlike, calm and expository, but assert their place among the classical rising into greatness, or softening into tenderwriters of England; and this had been ness, whenever his subject required it. A slight already allowed to Hume, to Robertson, throat; and such was my admiration of the
asthmatic tendency made him often clear his and Smith, and was being allowed to whole exhibition, that Macvey Napier told him Beattie. Stewart had, no doubt, an am- not long ago that I had said there was eloquence bition to take his place among the class. in his very spitting. Then,' said he, 'I am ical writers of Scotland.
glad there was at least one thing in which I had While pursuing his studies at Glasgow, like the opening of the heavens.
To me, his lectures were
I felt that I be read a paper on “Dreaming,” before a
had a soul. His noble views, unfolded in literary society in connection with the University; and he subsequently read the world."
glorious sentences, elevated me into a higher same paper to a similar society in Edinburgh. The theory here started, was There were hearers who felt that there afterwards embodied in his “ Elements," was a want in his expositions, and there and contains, certainly, not the whole are readers still who feel in the same way. truth on this mysterious subject; but still Ardent youths, like Brown and Chalmer's, a truth, namely, that in dreaming, the looked on him as timid and over-cautious. will is in abeyance, and the mind follows Chalmers wrote in 1801 : a spontaneous train. In the Edinburgh society he also read papers on “ Taste," “I attend his lectures regularly. I must conon “Cause and Effect,” and “Skepticism.” fess I have been rather disappointed. I never The fact that such topics were discussed, heard a single discussion of Stewart's which is a sign of the spirit which prevailed made up one
masterly and comprehensive whole. among the youth of Scotland at that time. His lectures seem to me to be made up of deIt is worthy of being noticed, that at almost uniformly avoids every subject which
tached hints and incomplete outlines, and he Glasgow he boarded in the same house involves any difficult discussion.” with Mr. Alison, who afterwards, in his Essay on Taste, carried out the theory Chalmers lived to proclaim him the which had been started by Beattie, in his highest of academic moralists. Still there Dissertation on Imagination, as to the was ground, in appearance and in reality, feeling of Beauty being produced by the for the early criticism. In his writings he association of ideas.
adopts the plan which Dr. Robertson took Quitting his course of training, we may credit for introducing, that of throwing a now view
him as delivering his professorial great deal of his matter into notes and lectures, in the class-room in Edinburgh. illustrations. This method, carried to the By far the liveliest account of him is by extent to wbich it has been done by Lord Cockburn.
kburn. It is worthy of being Robertson, Stewart, and M-Crie, is a read again by those who may have seen it radically defective one, as it interrupts before :
the flow of the discourse, and, with this, "He was about the middle size, weakly limbed, the interest in and comprehension of the and with an appearance of feebleness which gave whole. He has a most sousitive aversion an air of delicacy to his gait and structure. His to all such bold speculations as Leibnitz forehead was large and bald; his eyebrows indulged in, and is jealous of all such debushy; his eyes gray and intelligent, and capa- ductions as Descartes and Kant have ble of conveying any emotion from indignation drawn out. He has no ability for sharp to pity, from serene sense to hearty humor
, in analysis, and he looks on a high abstracwhich they were powerfully aided by his lips, tion with as great terror as some men do which, though rather large perhaps, were flexible and expressive. The voice was singularly on ghosts. He studiously avoids close pleasing; and, as he managed it, a slight burr discussion, and flinches from controversy; only made its tones softer. His car both for he seems afraid of figbting with an oppomusic and for speech was exquisite; and he nent, lest it should exhibit him in no seemly was the finest reader I have ever heard. His attitudes. Seldom does he venture on a gesture was simple and elegant, though not free bold assertion, and when he does, he al from a tinge of professional formality, and his whole manner that of an academical gentleman. ways takes shelter immediately after beHe lectured standing, from notes which,
hind an authority. Determined to sustain with their successive additions, must, I suppose, his dignity and keep up his flow of lanat last have been nearly as full as his spoken Iguage, he often takes rounded sentences and paragraphs to bring out what a more plishments, fascinating manners, and litdirect mind would have expressed in a erary tastes. His house now became the single clenching clause, or even by an ex- resort of the best society of Edinburgh, pressive epithet. Often does the eager, and he himself the center and bond of an ingenuous youth, in reading his pages, accomplished circle, at a time when the wish that he would but lay aside cere- metropolis of Scotland in the winter mony for a very little, and speak out months was the residence of many of the frankly and heartily.
principal Scottish families, and of persons Still we should form a very unjust opin- of high literary and scientific eminence. ion of Stewart, if, in consequence of these The weekly reunions in his house, which weaknesses, we thought him devoid of happily blended the aristocracies of rank originality, independence, or profundity. and letters, bringing together the peer We certainly do not claim for him the and the unfriended scholar, were for many sagacity of Locke, or the speculative years the source of an influence that most genius of Leibnitz, or a power of general- beneficially affected the society of the izing details equal to Adam Smith, or the capital. His influence was extended by shrewdness of Reid, or the logical grasp his receiving into his house, as boarders, of Kant and Hamilton, and we admit that young men chiefly of rank and fortune. he was inferior to all these men in origin- In his classes of Moral Philosophy and of ality; but he has admirable qualities of Political Economy, he had under him a his own-in soundness of judgment he is greater body of young men who aftermore to be trusted than any of them; and wards distinguished themselves, than any if he is without some of their excellencies, other teacher that we can think of. he is also without some of their faults. Among them we have to place Lord He has no such rash and unmeasured Brougham, Lord Palmerston, Lord John diatribes as Locke's assault on innate Russell, Francis Horner, Lord Lansdowne, ideas; no such extravagances as the mon- Lord Jeffrey, Sir Walter Scott, Sydney adical theory of Leibnitz; no such wast- Smith, Dr. Brown, Dr. Chalmers, James ing of ingenuity as Smith's theory in his Mill, Sir A. Alison, and many others who “Moral Sentiments;" he does not com- have risen to great eminence in politics, mit such gross misapprehensions in scholar- in literature, or philosophy; and most of ship as Reid does; and he never allows these have acknowledged the good which any logic to conduct him to such prepos- they derived from his lectures, while some terous conclusions as Kant and Hamilton of them have carried out in practical landed themselves in, when they declared measures the principles which he inculcausation to be a law of thought and not cated. He seems, in particular, to have of things.
We have noticed that in many kindled a fine enthusiasm in the breast of cases Stewart hides his originality, as care- Francis Horner, who ever
speaks of him fully as others boast of theirs. Often in terms of loftiest admiration, and, though have we found, after going the round of cut off in early life, lived long enough to philosophers in seeking light on some exhibit the high moral aims which he had abstruse subject, that on turning to imbibed from the lessons of Stewart. Stewart, his doctrine is after all the most It was in 1792 that the first volume of profound, as it is the most judicious. his Elements was published. In 1793 ap
We do not mean to enter into the de- peared his Outlines of Moral Philosophy, tails of his remaining life. In 1783 he containing an epitome of the doctrines married a Miss Bannatyne, of Glasgow, expanded in his larger writings. His who died in 1787, leaving an only child, other works appeared after successive inafterwards Colonel Stewart. He spent tervals; his Account of Adam Smith in the summers of 1788 and 1789 on the 1793, of Robertson in 1796, and of Reid Continent. In the appendix to the Me- in 1802; his Philosophical Essays in 1810; moir, there is a selection from the letters the second volume of his Elements in which he wrote to his friends at home. 1814; the first part of his Dissertation in Though written in the midst of instruc. 1815, and the second in 1821; the third tive scenes, and on the eve of great events, volume of his Elements in 1827; and the they are excessively general and common- Active and Moral Powers in 1828. Tho place, and display no shrewdness of ob- Lectures on Political Economy are now servation. In 1790 he married a daughter published for the first time. of Lord Cranston, a lady of high accom- In 1805 he threw himself, with more
eagerness than he was wont to display in underlying it, but the criticism is, on the public matters, into the controversy which whole, a fair and just one. Stewart now arose about the appointment of Leslie-a lived, till the close of his life, at Kin. man of high scientific eminence, but with niel House, Linlithgowshire--a residence a great deal of the gross animal in his na- placed at his service by the Duke of Ham. ture-to the chair of Mathematics. He ilton. Henceforth he was chiefly employ. wrote a pamphlet on the subject, and ap- ed in maturing and arranging the philopeared in the General Asseinbly of the sophical works which he published. The Church of Scotland, as a Presbyterian details given of this part of his life are elder, to aid the evangelical party, who, scanty and uninstructive. In 1820 he under the leadership of Sir H. Moncrieff, came forth to support Sir James Mackinwere no way inclined to join the moder- tosh as successor to Brown; and when ate party in their attempt to keep out a Sir James declined the office, Stewart redistinguished man, because he entertain commended Sir W. Hamilton, who seems ed certain views on the subject of physi- ever afterwards to have cherished a feelcal causation, and to retain the College ing of gratitude towards Stewart. The chairs for themselves. In his speech on election fell on Professor Wilson, who, the occasion, Stewart does let out feeling while the fittest man living for the chair for once, and it is mingled with pride and of Rhetoric and Belles Letters, had no
special qualifications for a chair of Philo
sophy. “After having discharged, for more than
In 1822, Mr. Stewart had a stroke of thirty years, (not, I trust, without discredit to myself,) the important duties of my academical paralysis, from which, however, he parstation, I flatter myself that the House does not tially recovered. Mrs. Stewart describes think it incumbent on me to descend to phi- him, in 1824, as troubled with a difficulty losophical controversies with such antagonists. of speech, and a tremor in his hand, as Such of the members, at least, as I have the walking two or three hours every day, as honor to be known to, will not, I am confident, cheerful in his spirits, his mind as acute easily allow themselves to be persuaded that I
as ever, and as amusing himself with tonly on a question in which the highest inter reading on his favorite pursuits, and with tonly on a question in which the highest inter- the classics. He had just given to the ests of mankind are involved.”
world his work on the Active Powers, In delivering the speech from which and was on a visit to a friend in Edinthe above is an extract, he was called to burgh, when he died on 11th June, 1828. order, and not being accustomed to such He was buried in the family vault in the handling, he sat down abruptly. The Canongate. There is a monument in motion of Sir H. Moncrieff was carried honor of him on the Calton Hill; but the by a majority, which occasioned great fittest memorial of him is to be found, joy to the Edinburgh Liberals.
first, in his pupils, who have done a good In 1806, the Whig party, being in work in their day, and now in his writpower, procured for him a sinecure office, ings, which may do a good work for ages entitled the Writership of the Euinburgh ( to come. Gazette, with a salary of £300 a year. If there has been an anxiety felt to In 1809, Mr. Stewart was in a precarious have a memoir of Stewart, there has state of health, much aggravated by the been an equally strong desire to have a death of a son by his second wife, and he complete edition of his works. We do asked Dr. Thomas Brown to lecture for not know what causes may have hindered him. In 1810, Brown, being strongly re- this in time past--we suspect that they commended to the Town Council by must have risen from different parties Stewart, was appointed conjoint profess- having an interest in his published writor, and henceforth discharged all the ings; but this we know, that it was diffiduties of the office. Brown never attack- cult to procure certain of his works, as, cd Stewart, but he openly assailed Reid; for example, the third volume of his Eleand we suppose the intimacy between ments, of which there had never been Stewart and Brown henceforth could not more than the one quarto edition. Every have been great. Stewart delivered his one rejoiced, in these circumstances, to ultimate estimate of Brown in a note ap- find it intimated, that we were to have pended to the third volume of the Ele the collected words of Stewart, edited by ments. There is evidently keen feeling Sir W. Hamilton, the most competent man then living for the undertaking. and it should have appeared in its unity, This edition is now all but completed, as Stewart left it. and will ever be the standard one. The We do not propose to criticise these editor has not enriched it with such notes ten massive volumes. This would be a as he has appended to his edition of Reid heavy work to ourselves and to our read. -notes distinguished for the very quali ers: it would almost be equivalent to ties which Reid was deficient in, exten- a criticism of all modern philosophy. sive scholorship and rigid analysis. Sir Nevertheless, we must touch on some W. Hamilton, in undertaking the work, topics of an interesting and important stipulated that Mr. Stewart's writings kind, as discussed by Stewart, and again should be published without note or discussed by later writers on mental scicomment. We rather think that Ham- ence. ilton had not such a sympathy with the The first volume of the collected works elegant and cautious disciple as with the contains the Dissertation. We look upon shrewd and original master. Besides, it as the finest of the Dissertations in the elaborate notes to Stewart must have Encyclopædia Britannica ; and this is no been very much a repetition of his notes mean praise, when we consider the num. to Reid. In this edition Hamilton is ber of eminent men who have written for tempted at times to depart from his rule; that work. We regard it, indeed, as he does give us a note or comment when upon the whole the best dissertation the subject is favorite one, such as the which ever appeared in a philosophical freedom of the will; and often must he serial. As a history of modern philosohave laid a restraint on himself, in not phy, especially of British philosophy, it pruning or amending to a greater extent. has not been superseded, and, we believe, But the value of this edition consists in never will be set aside. It is preëminent its being complete, in its having refer- for its fine literary taste, its high moral ences supplied, and one index after an- tone, its general accuracy, its comprehenother, and in its containing additions siveness of survey, and its ripeness of wisfrom Stewart's manuscripts, and these of dom. When we read it, we feel as if we ten of great value, both in themselves were breathing a pure and healthy atmoand as illustrating Stewart's philosophy. sphere, and that the whole spirit of the Sir W. Hamilton was cut off before the work is cheering, as being so full of hope edition was completed, but Mr. Veitch in the progress of knowledge. Its critical has carried on the work in the same man- strictures are ever candid, generally mild, ner and spirit. Having said so much of very often just, and always worthy of bethis fine edition, we must protest against ing noted and pondered. The work is the occasional translation of the language particularly pleasing in the account given and views of Stewart into those of Ham- of those who have contributed by their ilton, in places where it is purported to literary works to diffuse a taste for megive us Stewart himself. Thus, in Index, taphysical studies, such as Montaigne, vol. iv., p. 408, Stewart is represented as, Bayle, Fontenelle, and Addison. in a place referred to, discussing the ques. should be admitted that the author has tion as to whether some of our notions be scarcely done justice to Grotius, and not "native or à priori," but, on looking failed to fathom the depth of such minds up the page, no such language is used; as Leibnitz and Jonathan Edwards. We and the same remark holds good of vol. agree, moreover, with those who regret V., p. 474, where Stewart is spoken of as that he should ever have been tempted describing our notions both of matter and to enter on a criticism of Kant, whose mind as merely “phænomenal,” a view works he knew only from translations and thoroughly Kantian and Hamiltonian, and imperfect compends.* not sanctioned by Stewart. We must be allowed, also, to disapprove of the liberty taken with the Outlines of Moral Philo
* In regard to histories of philosophy, we have
now three parts of Mr. Maurice's work, in all of sophy, which is cut up into three parts, which we have huge sunlit objects, seen, as it were, and appears in three distinct volumes. in a fog, raised by the heat of a dreamy, feverish, This is the most condensed and direct of sultry day in summer. Tbe great defect of all his all Stewart's writings; it contains an
works is, that he seldom utters a clear categorical abridgment of bis whole doctrines : it is edition of his Biographical History of Philosophy.
proposition. Mr. Lewes has published a library one of the best text-books ever written, The work is clever and acute, but is not profound, VOL. XLIV.-NO. IV.
The next three volumes contain the objects as well, as, for example, ourselves Elements of the Philosophy of the Hu- or others in joy or sorrow. In a later man Mind, and are introduced by a por- age, Hamilton has confined the term in tion of the Outlines. In the first volume an opposite direction to the logical or of the Elements and in the opening of the general notion. Stewart's classification second, he spreads out before us a classifi- is also redundant. Attention is not a cation of the intellectual powers—as Per- separate faculty, but is an exercise of will ception, Attention, Conception, Abstrac- --roused, it may be, by feeling, and fixtion, Association of Ideas, Memory, Im- ing the mind on a present object. He agination, and Reason. The list is at once does not seem to know what to make of defective and redundant. Stewart acknow- Reason, as a distinct faculty; and, as deledges Self-consciousness, which is an in- fined by him, it ought to include abstracseparable concomitant of all the present tion, which is certainly a rational exercise. operations of the mind, to be a separate But, if the work is defective in logical attribute; and in this he seems to be grasp, it excels in its descriptions of conright, inasmuch as it looks at a special crete operations, and in its explanations object, namely, self in the existing state, and elucidations of phenomena presenting and gives us a distinct class of ideas, themselves in real life. All his works are namely, the qualities of self, such as replete with those “intermediate axioms" thinking and feeling: Yet it is curious, which Bacon commends as most useful of that while he gives it half a page in his all, as being removed equally from the Outlines, it has no separate place in the lowest axioms, which differ but little from Elements. It is also a singular circum- particulars, and from the highest and most stance that Reid dismisses it in the same general, which are notional, abstract, and summary, way. An inductive observa- of no weight; whereas the “ intermediate tion, with an analysis of the precise are true, solid, full of life, and upon them knowledge given us by self-conscious- depend the business and fortune of manness, would give a solid foundation for kind." The fine reflection and lofty elothe doctrine of human personality, and quence of Stewart come out most pleasclear away the greater part of the confu- ingly and instructively in all those passsion and error lingering in the metaphy- ages in which he treats of association and sics of our day. Nor is there any proper imagination. account given in the Elements of that On one important point, discussed fre. important group of faculties which dis-quently in the Elements, the school of cover relations among the objects known Reid and Stewart was led into error by by Sense-Perception and Consciousness. their excessive caution, and by being awed The omission of this class of attributes so much by the authority of Locke. Reid has led him into a meager nominalism, maintained, in a loose way, that we do very unlike the general spirit of his philo- not know substance but qualities, and sophy. He restricts the word Conception Stewart wrought this view into a system. to the mere imaging power of the mind, We are not, he says, properly speaking, and even to the picturing of bodily ob- conscious of self or the existence of self, jects, as if we could not represent mental we are merely conscious of a sensation or
some other quality, which by a subsequent
suggestion of the understanding, leads to and is thoroughly sophistic. He has no sympathies a belief in that which exercises the quality. with humble, cautious, and practical truth-seekers
, (Phil. Essays, p. 58, etc.). This we tion is of the Arabs of philosophy, such as the So- must regard as a radically defective docphists and David Hume, and of thought-bewildered trine. We do not know intuitively a men, such as Spinoza, of whose Ethics be threatens quality of self apart from self; we know to give us a translation; and his end is to show us both in one primitive, concrete act, and it that philosophy can yield no truth, and thus to shut is only by a subsequent operation that we us up to a miserable Comtism, in which is omitted the religion (if religion it can be called,) which the separate in thought the quality which may late M. Comte declared to be the most essential part change in its action from the self or subof bis system. In his Politique Positive,” M. Comte stance which abideth. Descartes erred, speaks of those in this country who have adopted we think, when he represented the mental the other parts of his system, and rejected his re. ligious worship, as guilty either of an impotency of process as being “cogito ergo sum ," the intellect, or an insufficiency of beart, or, most com- primitive cognition is of the ego cogitans. monly, of both.
But we look on Stewart as equally erring