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started by the revival of the old Platonic ing moral good in so rigid a form, are not and Aristotelic disquisitions on this sub-constrained to acknowledge that the ject, in the forthcoming volumes of Sir moral law has not been kept by man. W. Hamilton. But it should never be Taking their own high principles along forgotten, that the motive part of man's with them, neither could have loooked nature may be excited by a great many within, without discovering sin to be quite other objects as well as pleasure and pain, as much a reality as virtue. Stewart by all the objects, indeed, which are ad- could not have gone out of his dwelling in dressed to the motive principles of man. the old College or the Canongate, nor can It is the apprehension of objects as about Cousin go out of his chambers in the Sorto gratify the motive principles of the bonne, without being obliged to observe mind-whatever they be-which stirs up how far man and woman have fallen bethe emotions. Thus, the apprehension of neath the ideal picture which they have a coming object, which is to gratify a mo- drawn in their lectures. At the very time tive principle, excites hope, which is strong when the Scottish metaphysicians were in proportion to the strength of the appre- discoursing so beautifully of moral virtue, hension and the strength of the particular there was a population springing up motive principle; while the apprehension around their very colleges in Edinburgh of a coming object, which is to disappoint and Glasgow, sunk in vice and degradathis motive principle stirs up fear. It is tion, which appalled the good men of the. strange that Stewart no where treats of next age—the age of Chalmers—to conthe emotions in his Philosophy of the Ac- template, which the men of this age know tive Powers.

not how to grapple with, and which is not Stewart's view of the Moral Power in to be arrested by any remedy which the Man, and of Moral Good, seems to us to mere philosophic moralists have propoundbe substantially correct. In treating of ed. We acknowledge most fully, that these subjects, he avows his obligations to Stewart's lectures and writings have Butler and Price.* His doctrine has been tended, directly or indirectly, to carry adopted, with some modifications, which several important measures which are calare improvements, by Cousin. Stewart culated to elevate the condition of manand Cousin are the most elevated of all kind, such as Reform in the Legislature, the moralists who treat of ethics on Prison Improvement, and the Abolition of grounds independent of the word of God. Tests and of Restrictions on Commerce. We are convinced that they never could But the institutions which aim at lessening have given so pure a morality, had they the sin and misery of the outcast and denot lived in the midst of light shed abroad graded—such as missions, ragged schools, on our earth by a supernatural religion. and reformatories—bave proceeded from We have always felt it to be a strange very different influences; and a philosophy circumstance, that Stewart and Cousin, in embracing the facts which they contemgiving so high a view of the moral faculty, plate, must dive deeper into human naare never led to acknowledge that it con- ture, and probe its actual condition more demns the possessor; and, after present- faithfully, than the academic moralists of * Aristotle holds his place at Oxford. We rejoice

Scotland ever ventured to do. Mr. Veitch at this, provided he is not allowed to slay all his very properly remarks, in a foot-note: younger brethren that he may be undisturbed in his “ The great fact of man's actual condition, reign ; that is

, provided his writings are not studied, as a member of a lapsed world—the pecuto the neglect of modern authors who have proceed- liar ethical motives of reverence and love ed in the inductive manner. “ Ethics of Aristotle,” lately published by Sir

Alex. for a person who has exemplified the ander Grant of Oxford, is the best work in the Eng- moral law in absolute perfection, and done lish language on the Ethical system of Aristotle, even so in the creature's behoof-and all the as the first half of the second volume of Archer But questions connected with the adjustment of ler's History is the best work on the Dialectics of the results of the ordinary Christian ethics Plato. We do not agree with Sir Alexander in his view of the death of Socrates, but we are grateful to

-are unnoticed by Mr. Stewart, or, in him for his account of the Sophists as against Grote

. general, by Scottish ethical speculators of His account of the relation in which the philosophy note.” As Mr. Veitch has found space, of Aristotle stood to the previous Grecian systems, is from time to time, to refer, in his Mesearching and generally accurate; though he does

moir, to writers of his own Hamiltonian not, we think, give full credit to Aristotle for correcting the extravagances of Plato, who did not ac- school, he might also have spared a senknowledge the reality of the individual.

tence to state, that this defect was sup

plied by Chalmers, who is reckoned, wher- teresting chapter in the history of the ever the English language is spoken, an literature of political economy, and they ethical writer of note. It is an interest illustrate the character of Stewart's inteling and encouraging circumstance, that lect and philosophy. the majority of the professors of Morals An estimate of the influence which has in the Scottish colleges at this present been exercised by Stewart, may form an time, have avowed in their writings a be appropriate close to this article. lief in the doctrines of sin and atonement, In Scotland, he increased the reputation and, we presume, teach them in their of the Edinburgh University. Horner classes. We hope that it will never be speaks of " many young Englishmen who tolerated again in Scotland, that any pro- had come to Edinburgh to finish their fessor of moral science should inculcate, education,” and not a few of these had that man is subject to moral law, without been attracted by Stewart. He has had adding that he has disobeyed it.

a greater influence than perhaps any other, It is very evident that the Scottish in diffusing throughout Scotland, a taste academic moral writers of last century, for mental and moral science. We have while they pay a dignified respect to referred to the power exercised on him Christianity, have kept at a distance from by Reid ; but if Stewart owed much to its profound peculiarities. Without mean- Reid, Reid owed nearly as much to ing to excuse this deficiency, we may yet his grateful pupil, who finished and affirm that some incidental advantages adorned the work of his master, and by have sprung from this reticence. It was his classical taste has recommended the certainly better that they should have common sense philosophy to many who kept at a respectful distance from Christ- would have turned away with disdain ianity, than that they should have ap- from the simpler manner of Reid. And proached it only, like the great German here we are tempted to give utterance to metaphysical systems, to set all its truths the feeling, that Reid has been peculiarly in rigid philosophic framework, or to ab- fortunate in those, who have attached sorb them all within themselves, as by a themselves to his school. If Stewart devouring flame. But the peculiar ad- helped to introduce Reid to polite society, vantage arising from their method, con- Sir William Hamilton, by his unmatched sists in this, that they have, by induction, logic, and vast erudition, has compelled established a body of ethical truth on philosophers to give him-notwithstandgrounds independent of revealed religion; ing the somewhat untechnical character and this can now be appealed to in all de- of his writings—a place in their privileged fenses of Christianity, and as an evidence circle. By his expositions of Reid, and of the need of something which philoso- his own independent labors, Mr. Stewart phy is incompetent to supply. Divines aided in throwing back a tide of skeptican now found on those great truths which cism, which had appeared in France in the Scottish philosophers have established, the previous century; in England toward as to there being a distinct moral faculty the beginning of the eighteenth century, and an immutable moral law, and then on the back of the licentious reigns of press on those whose conscience tells them Charles II. and James II. ; and in Scotthat they have broken that law, to em- land, about the middle of that century. brace the provision which revelation has it appears from letters of Dr. John Gremade to meet the wants of humanity. gory, published in Forbes' Life of Beattie,

The space which we have occupied with that atheism and materialism were about the Mental and Moral Philosophy, pre- that time in high fashion, and were supcludes us from entering on the two ported by many who used the name of volumes of Political Economy, now pub. Hume, but who had never read his works, lished for the first time, partly from manu- and were incapable of understanding scripts left by Stewart himself, and partly them. This tide came to a height about from notes by pupils. The views ex- the time of the French Revolution, and pounded will scarcely be regarded as it was one of the avowed aims of Stewart, much advancing the science in the present “to stem the inundation of skeptical, or day; but they did good service when rather atheistical publications, which were delivered for twenty years in lectures. imported from the Continent." Nor is it They are still worthy of being looked at to be forgotten, that Stewart, directly by on special topics; they may form an in- his lectures and indirectly by his pupils,

contributed as much as any man of his nity, and of God. This wretched philoage, to diffuse throughout Scotland a sophy—if philosophy it can be calledtaste for elegant literature, and enlarged was one of the fatal powers which opeand liberal opinions in politics.

rated to give an evil direction to the ReAs to England, Sir J. Mackintosh, writ- volution, and prevented good from issuing ing to Stewart in 1802, speaks of the want out of it. After Sensationalism—which of

any thing which he could call purely used, but only to abuse, the name of philosophical thinking; and Horner, in Locke—had reigned for more than half a 1804, declares, that the highest names in century, there appeared a reaction led on the estimation of those in the metropolis, by M. Royer Collard, who began in 1811 who felt any interest in speculative pur- to lecture at the Normal School. It is a suits, were Hobbes and Hartley. Such most interesting circumstance, that in works as the Moral Philosophy of Paley, conducting this war against the debasing were fitted to lower still farther, rather systems which prevailed, he betook himthan elevate, this taste. It was altogether self to the philosophy of Reid and Stethen for the benefit of English thought, wart. Exercising a considerable influence that Stewart did become gradually known in himself, Royer Collard has had a more in South-Britain, where his elegant style, extended sway through his pupils, espehis crowning good sense, and the modera- cially Victor Cousin and Theodore Jouftion of his opinions, recommended him to froy. In this course of years, the works mang who had imbibed as great an aver- of Reid were translated into French, sion to Scotch Metaphysics as ever George with an admirable historical and critical III. had. There are still persons who ab- introduction, by Jouffroy. So early as hor the infidelity of Hume, and who de 1808, the first volume of Stewart's Elespise the plainness of Reid, who suspect ments was translated into French by M. the rhetoric of Brown, and are frightened Prevost, of Geneva ; and of late years M. by the bristling nomenclature and logical Peisse has translated the other two voldistinctions of Hamilton, but who are at- umes of the same work. It is now many tracted by the writings of Stewart, which years since since Stewart's Outlines were are felt to be as pleasing and as regular translated into the same tongue by Joufas their own rich fields bounded by hedge froy, who had prefixed a preface of great rows. In England he has so far been of judgment and acuteness. It thus appears, use in creating a philosophical spirit, where that the great reäetion in favor of sound none existed before, and in checking the philosophy, commenced by Royer Collard, utilitarianism of Paley. He is also enti- and conducted by Cousin and Jouffroy, tled to a share of the credit of the great has made large and profitable use of the measures of reform, which such pupils as Scottish school, and rejoices to acknowHorner, Brougham, Lord John Russell, ledge its obligations to Scotland. No Palmerston, Jeffrey, and Lansdowne, have doubt, it has also called in aid from carried in Parliament. Perhaps these other quarters. Cousin has been indebteminent men have never estimated the ed to the school of Kant, as well as to the amount of wholesome impulse which they school of Reid, and has derived some of received in early life from the prelections his favorite principles immediately from and lofty character of the Edinburgh pro- the great metaphysician of his own counfessor.

try, Descartes; and he has besides, careIn France the influence of Reid and fully examined the human mind, in an inStewart has been considerable, and has ductive manner; and he has been able to been of the most beneficial character. In give a unity to these materials, because that country, Locke's philosophy, unfor- he is possessed of great original genius, tunately introduced by Voltaire, and ac- acuteness, and comprehensiveness of mind. cepted in its worst side, had wrought only We are sometimes inclined to think, howmischief, partly by its drawing away the ever, that he has got the most precious attention of thinkers from the more spirit- element in his eclectic system, from the ual philosophy of Descartes, and partly school of Scotland. We are greatly by its tempting a set of speculators to gratified to observe, that after he had derive all men's ideas from sensation, and been drawn aside for a time from his atto deny the existence of all ideas which tachment to the Scottish philosophy, by a could not be derived from this source later affection for German Transcendentsuch as the idea of Moral Good, of Infi-alism, (this is very visible in his course of

lectures delivered in 1828 and 1829,) he is precepts may be also a reflection from the now returning to his first love—and this same light. Often, we should think, when at a time when Scotland is rather forsak- M. Cousin has looked around him on these ing the inductive method, and turning scenes of revolution through which France its regards towards the à priori method has passed, and on those terrible attempted of Germany. We regard Cousin's review assassinations which burst out from time to of the Scottish school, as the most fault- time, and that grinding military despotism less, as it is certainly the most generous, which still abides, must he have seen that of all his historical criticisms. In his re- his country needs something deeper and view of Locke, he has scarcely done just- more influential than any system of moral ice to the Essay on the Human Under- science, even though it should be as pure standing, which he always judges from and elevated as that which he has been the consequences to which the system led living to inculcate. in France; in his review of Kant, he has In Germany Stewart has been little not always been able successfully to wres- known, and has exercised no power for tle with that powerful logical mind; but good or for evil. The only English phiin his review of the Scottish Metaphysi- losopher familiarly referred to in that cians, he has shown a most hearty appre-country is Locke, and even he is known, ciation of their excellencies, while he has we suspect, more through his French conoffered strictures which are very common- sequences than from the study of his work. ly correct. In the preface to the last edi- The German professors speak of him, untion (1857) of his volume on the Scottish der the name of Locké, as the representphilosophy, he declares that the true ative of sensationalism, overlooking the modern Socrates has not been Locke, but constant reference which he makes to reReid, that modest and laborious pastor of flection as a separate source of ideas, and a poor Scottish parish, who, after passing to the lengthened account which he gives seven years in the study of himself, in a of intuition - a much juster account, in profound retreat, came forth with a full con- some respects, of its function than that sciousness of his enterprise, to accomplish given by Kant or Schelling: The great a revolution at once great and durable. English ethical writer, Butler, who has

established forever the great truth of the “ Kant,” he says, " has commenced the Ger- supremacy of conscience in the human man philosophy, but he has not governed it. constitution, is either altogether unknown It early escaped him to throw itself in very in Germany, or referred to by such writers only on the ruins of his doctrines. Reid has as Tholuck only to show that he is not impressed on the Scottish mind a movement understood or appreciated. The only less grand, but this movement has had no re- Scottish metaphysician thoroughly known actions."

in Germany is David Hume. Reid is oc

casionally spoken of, only to be disparaged Yes, he says, Reid is a man of genius, in his system and its results. Stewart is and of a true and powerful originality; so scarcely ever named. We must be alwe said in 1819, and so we say in 1857, lowed to regret this. Such a body of after having held long converse with carefully inducted fundamental truth, as mighty systems, discovered their secret, we have in the philosophy of Reid and and taken their measure. We feel proud, Stewart, is precisely what was and is we confess, of the eulogiums which have needed to preserve thought from the exbeen pronounced on Scotland, not only travagancies of the transcendental schools by Cousin, but by Jouffroy and Remusat. in the last age, and now, in the natural But these philosophers have scarcely seen, recoil which has taken place since 1848, after all, wherein lies the peculiar strength from the tide of materialism which is setof the Scottish nation. This is not to be ting in so strongly, and with no means or found in its systems of moral philosophy, method of meeting it. The philosophy but in its religion, of which the high of Germany must ever go by oscillations, moral tone of its philosophy is but a re- by actions and reäctions, till the unfortuflection, which would soon wax dim and nate critical method of Kant is abandoned, vanish were the original light extinguished; and the inductive method is used to denay, in remembering that Kant was determine the rule and law of those à priori scended from Scottish parentage, we have principles of which so much use is made, sometimes thought that bis high moral while there has been so little careful in


quiry into their precise nature and modemises which Stewart as well as Kant had of operation.

furnished. He would have adhered, after This may be the proper place for refer- knowing all, to his decision : ring to the relation in which Stewart stood toward Kant. We have already express- "We are irresistibly led to ascribe to the ed our regret that Stewart should have thing itself (space) an existence independent of entered on a criticism of Kant without a

the will of any being." It is an "incompredeeper acquaintance with his system. No hensible doctrine which denies the objective redoubt it might be retorted, that the criti- stance, nor an accident, nor a relation, may be

“That space is neither a subcisms of Stewart upon Kant are not more safely granted; but it does not follow from this ignorant and foolish than those of the dis- that it is nothing objective." Our first idea of ciples of Kant upon Reid; but it is better space or extension seems to be formed by abto admit that Stewart committed a blunder stracting this attribute from the other qualities in his review of the Kantian system. of matter. The idea of space, however, in what Some have supposed that, if he had known manner formed, is manifestly accompanied with

an irresistible conviction that space is necessamore of Kant, he would have formed a totally different opinion of his philosophy. sible," etc. 'He adds: “To call this proposition

rily existent, and that its annihilation is imposAnd we admit that a further acquaintance in question, is to open a door to universal skepwith Kant's works would have raised Kant ticism."-Diss., pp. 596–597. in bis estimation-would have kept him from describing his nomenclature The great work which the school of "jargon," and his philosophy as “incom- Reid has done, consists in its careful in prehensible”—from affirming that Kant vestigation, in the inductive manner, first, has “thrown no new light on the laws of of the faculties of the mind; and, secondthe intellectual world” — would have ly, and more particularly, of man's primashown him many curious points of corre- ry and intuitive convictions. For this spondence between the views of Kant and they ought to be honored in all time. the profoundest of his own doctrines, and Kant did a work similar to this last, but have enabled him, when he did depart in a different manner. Rejecting (as Reid from Kant, to give fair and valid reasons, had done) the combined dogmatic and deand thus to help in what inust be one of ductive method of Descartes, he introthe tasks of philosophy in this age--the duced the critical method, affirming that work of taking from Kant what is good Reason can criticise itself, and proceeding and true, and casting away what is evil

, to criticise Reason by a kind of logical because false. While we admit all this, process of a most unsatisfactory kind. we are convinced at the same time that Criticism has succeeded criticism, each Stewart would never have given an adhe- new critic taking a new standing-point, or sion to the peculiarities of Kantism. He advancing a step farther, till Hegel's would have said, My method of induction system became the reductio ad absurdum is better than your method of criticism, of the whole method of procedure inauguand my account of the intuitive convic- rated by Kant. We admit that Kant was tions of the mind is correct, when I repre- right in affirming that à priori principles sent them as fundamental laws of thought should be examined before they are asand belief; whereas you are giving a sumed in philosophical investigation. We wrong account of them, when you repre- are not at liberty to assume a first truth sent them as à priori forms imposing on till we have shown it to be a first truth; the objects in all cognition something and we have no right to use it in argument which is not in the objects. We can not or deduction till we have determined its conceive him, in any circumstances, allow- precise nature and law; but this is to be ing to Kant (as Hamilton unfortunately done, we maintain, in the inductive mandid) that Space, and Time, and Causation ner, with its accompanying analysis and are laws of thought and not of things, exclusions. The Scottish school comand may have merely a subjective exist- menced this work, but they do not profess ence. His caution, his good sense, and to have completed it. Stewart every his careful observation, would have pre- where proclaims that it is to be done by vented him from ever falling into a system the combined efforts of successive inquirof nescience such as that to which the ers, pursuing the same method for ages. relentless logic of Hamilton has carried Reid and Stewart no where profess to him, founding, we acknowledge, on pre- give a full list, or even a rigid classifica

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