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l'univers ;” but they certainly possess | Justice; the block of houses between the two incontestable grounds for attracting Sainte Chapelle and the Quai des Orfèvres our attention and justifying our amaze- bas already been pulled down, and the ment—the magnitude of the design, and quay widened up to the Rue de la Bathe wondrous rapidity of execution. rillerie. On the left bank of the Seine

The same merit may be justly claimed equally surprising alterations have been by the new Rue de Rivoli. This mag- effected. The Faubourg St. Antoine nificent street, running parallel with naturally afforded no great opportunity the quays and Boulevards, now extends for demolishing; still the architects have to the Fontaine de Birague, opposite the found it necessary to pull down some church St. Paul St. Louis. From the houses in order to form new routes of Place de la Concorde, where it com-communication. In the Quartier Latin mences, it runs along an endless succession enormous alterations are projected, which of stately art monuments, such as the must drive the students to despair. Four Tuileries, the Palais Royal, the Louvre, wide streets are to be formed, crossing St. Germain l'Auxerrois, the Tower of St. each other at right angles, and intersectJacques la Boucherie, the Town House, ing the entire Quartier. The two streets and the Column of July. The portion of running from east to west, parallel with this street extending from the Rue de the Seine, are the Rue des Ecoles and the Rohan to the Rue Culture Sainte Cathe- Boulevard St. Germain ; the two running rine furbishes the fairest evidence of the from north to south are the Rue St. Jachumanity that suggested this great artery. ques, a continuation of the Rue St. Martin More than thirty pestilential streets and on the right bank, and the Boulevard de alleys have been removed, and a whole Sébastopol, which is intended to run as quarter cleared and ventilated. The far as the Barrière d'Enfer in the FauTower of St. Jacques has been restored bourg St. Jacques, and intersect entire in its pristine pomp and surrounded by a Paris for a distance of nearly three miles. handsome garden, and the Town House These streets are to be completed in five lias been thoroughly cleared from obstruc- years, at a cost of 37,650,000 fr.; and tions; in the rear is the colossal barrack thus a stop will be put to the complaints called Caserne Napoléon, a perfect for that have been prevalent as to the left tress, connected with the Town House by a bank being neglected. subterranean passage; and in front, a mag One of the principal results produced nificent new street, christened Avenue de by the wholesale demolition of houses in Victoria, in honor of our queen's visit to the center of Paris has been that the fauParis. Another great artery is that known bourgs have greatly increased in populaby the name of the Boulevard de Sébas- tion. The Faubourg St. Antoine has been topol, running from the Strasbourg Rail- thus enriched by upwards of thirteen way station in the Faubourg Poissonnière hundred new houses, or more than suffito the Place du Châtelet. These streets cient for a population of forty thousand. have cost an enormous sum in payments A similar phenomenon is now visible in the to leaseholders and running up the new Faubourgs St. Germain and St. Marcel, buildings; thus, the new Rue de Rivoli, and the buildings will grow up with magiwhich swallowed up more than five hun- cal celerity so soon as the Boulevard de dred old houses, cost 81,563,000 fr. But, Sébastopol had become an established in spite of this, the Emperor has been in- fact. In the first and second arrondissedefatigable, and it is an extraordinary ments a multitude of new houses have also fact that the restorations have been car- sprung into existence, and the Tivoli garried on in every quarter of Paris almost den has entirely disappeared. This garden simultaneously: On the island of the Cité lay at no great distance from the northern important works have been undertaken : boulevards, in a quarter between the Fau. a broad street has been laid down from bourgs Montmartre and St. Honoré, the Parvis Nôtre Dame, running to the opposite the Pavillon du Hanovre on the Council House, over the Pont d'Arcole, Boulevard des Italiens, and extended which has been converted from a suspen- thence to the Barrière de Clichy. Even sion-bridge for foot-passengers only into though it might appear a paltry spot a handsome stone bridge with a broad when compared with Horace's Tibur highway. Great improvements have also Supernum, the Roman Tivoli, whence it been effected in and around the Palais de derived its name, it contained within its

ample space every requisite for pleasure the footsteps of Jussieu, the inhabitants gardens; but the greedy eye of specula- of Passy, Boulogne, and Auteuil sing a tion surveyed it, and Tivoli was doomed. pæan of praise at the conversion of their The ruthless ax was laid to the root of scrubby wood into a magnificent park. the chestnut - trees and silver poplars, An ordonnance of the 8th July, 1852, gave the grass-plats were cut up, the visitors the property of this wood to the city of were expelled, and some dozen streets Paris, on condition that it expended two soon occupied the fairy spot. For a while millions of francs upon it in four years. the gardens might still be traced, how. This condition has been more than fulfillever; the first purchasers of “eligible ed : in three years the city laid out three building spots” considered it a point of millions and a half in converting the sandy honor to leave a clump of trees or a bos- plain into a garden. If we take into quet near their houses; and in some account the four million francs expended places entire alleys and gardens might be expended in forming the Avenue de traced. But the quartier soon began to l'Impératrice, with the two millions spent be regarded as fashionable, and the de- in building the new hippodrome of Longmand for building sites rapidly destroyed champ, as well as all the improvements all the trees. On the Place Vintimille, projected, we must allow that the city of in the Rue de Douai, Rue de Calais, etc., Paris has spared no expense in producing the trees have all been cut down, and the a pleasure-garden such as the Parisians quartier now resembles any other, except could desire. Under the management of that the houses are eagerly caught up, Monsier Varé, the old scene of duels and and frequently entered upon before the suicides has been converted into the Parabuilding is finished.

dise of Imperial Paris: it already displays The park of Monceaux, near the Bar- trees and bushes of every variety, hedges rière de Courcelles, which reverted to the and labyrinthine flower beds, shady walks state by the Orleans succession, will soon and Elysian alleys, rocks and grottoes, a bill endure the fate of its pristine neighbor with a gentle slope and pleasant view of Tivoli, which it far surpasses in conven- the surrounding scenery, silvery ponds ience and space. The speculating builders and foaming cascades, green islands with have already invaded it, for it is known flower-gardens, châlets, and harbors; that two main roads, the Boulevard de boats and swans upon the water, stags and l'Impératrice and the Boulevard Male- deer upon the meadows, singing and sherbes, are to run through it. Even the chirruping birds in the trees and bushes Champs Elysées, which so reluctantly-the whole produced, as it were, by a allowed admission to bricks, appear fated. magician's wand. There are also numerAn Anglo-French company has been es- ous respectable hotels, where refreshments tablished, under the title of the “Com- of every description may be obtained, a pany of the Champs Elysées,” and holds magnificent room for concerts and balls, out most flattering offers to shareholders, and a hippodrome, where thousands great and small. It has already purchased of persons may drive and ride without a piece of land of more than one hundred impediment. The Bois has justly become thousand metres, and, we believe, has the favorite resort of the Parisians, and commenced operations. Every available we may say it assumes the character of a spot between the banlieue and the wall of botanic garden, as almost every variety circumvallation is by this time built upon, of tree has its habitat here, having been and even beyond them the Parisians are brought from all parts of the world to now setting up their lares. There seems, satisfy the luxurious desires of the Parisian in truth, no end to the extension of the populace. city, for the entire population, down to Since the gardens of Paris have been the poorest laborer, is affected by a desire destroyed for building purposes, it was for living out of town.

found advisable to take especial care of the The botanist, who not long ago was few oases left. Hence a commission has enabled to herbalize near the Barrière de been appointed for this purpose with a l'Etoile, on now seeing the Bois de Bou- very efficient staff. The city of Paris logne converted into à Parisian promen- now holds possession of eight inclosed ade, may perhaps be justified in giving grounds, forming promenades or squares ; way to a gentle sigh; but while he is on one side the Bois du Bologne with its compelled to go farther afield to follow in I annexes, the plain of Longchamp and the VOL. XLIV.-NO. IV.


Avenue de l'Impératrice, on the other the Then, again, we are told that the chimPlace Royale, the Place de l'Archevêché, neys are of extravagant dimensions, ocand the squares round the tower of St. cupying more than half the side of the Jacques, in front of the church of St. room, and costing a small fortune in firing. Clotilde, at the Temple, and at the ruins But the true Parisian cares little for these of the old Roman palace of the Thermæ. things; so long as the exterior of his house In addition to these, the city possesses more is handsomely

decorated with stucco, gildthan fifty-seven thousand trees, planted ing, and statues, he is perfectly satisfied, in the Champs Elysées, the quincunxes of and these things are lavishly expended in the Trocadero, the inner and outer boule- Imperial Paris. At the same time, Paris vards, the quays, and a few open spaces; has been newly furnished to correspond the whole of the plantations occupy a with the new style of building, and thus space of more than two hundred acres ; an immense sum of money has been the oldest, on the Champs Elysées, dating brought into circulation; and if such from 1617. The outer boulevards are amusements keep the people quiet and adorned in some parts with double rows contented, who are we that we should of lofty trees, dating from 1760; but the gainsay the wisdom of the imperial policy? inner boulevards lost nearly all their trees In so slight a sketch as ours it would in the revolutions of 1830 and 1848; be impossible to give more than an outline those left are too stunted, and the newly- of the improvements in Paris which the planted trees too young to offer any Emperor has effected; but what we have shade. As a general rule, the trees said will suffice to prove how admirably planted in the streets of Paris have proved he has provided for the physical comfort a failure, in spite of the care devoted to and well-being of the lower classes. By them; they die off rapidly, and the a stroke of his pen he has affected a margamins do their part in accelerating velous change, such as we have so long their death. The authorities have recently desired at home, which has been debated planted large nurseries in the Bois de and discussed under a hundred different Boulogne, where they experimentalize on aspects among us without producing the the best varieties of trees, and arrange- slightest satisfactory results. It is true ments have been even made with the gas that eminent philanthropists have subscribcompanies, which will in future prevent ed to build model lodging-houses, but we the trees being poisoned by the exhala- doubt whether St. Giles has lost one denitions from the pipes. If these prophy- zen by their erection; and though schemes lactic measures are in any way successful, have been ventilated for lodging our we may live in hope of seeing trees artisans out of town and enabling them planted in our own streets--somewhere to come to their labor each morning by before the advent of the Millennium. train, we do not find any prospect of its

It would lead us too far, were we to fruition. And yet it is a question which stop and discuss the result of all these will have to be grappled with sternly bechanges in the aspect of Paris. For a time fore long: the safety of our population rumors were prevalent of discontent at demands that such lurking-places of disthe great increase of rents, but these ap- ease must be eradicated, and the legislapear to have subsided, and the population ture is alone capable of strenuously interof Paris to have " accepted the situation ” fering. The pleasing fiction that every with resignation. There appears to be man's house is his castle,” has, like so more truth in the statement that, in these many other fictions, been overturned by new buildings, internal comfort has been the Board of Health, and it would require too often sacrificed to external effect. but a step to carry out in London all that Among the numerous jeremiads we have the Emperor has so successfully achieved heard, the principal refer to the instability in Paris. At any rate, we are forced to of the houses and the thinness of the walls. admit that they “manage such things Another inconvenience is the immoderate better in France” on the sicvolo sic jubeo height of the windows, which open after principle than we can effect by the united the Italian fashion from top to bottom, efforts of our Board of Health and Saniand are fastened by a heavy iron bar, tary Commissioners. which a puff of wind is sure to blow open.

From Colburn's New Monthly Magazine.


It is seldom that the historian of man "That which I now publish came solely from occupies himself with the inferior animals. the family, from the domestic hearth. It is There seems to be almost an antagonism from our hours of repose, from afternoon conbetween the two. Man, whether contem- versations, from winter readings and summer plated in relation to the past, to the pro- book.

gossip, that this book took its origin—if it is a gress ever going on in the present, or to

"Two active persons naturally united after the the great future conditionally held out to day's work, put their gatherings together, and him, occupies a preëminence which unfits warmed their hearts by their evening's repast. the intellect, busy with so great a theme,

“Is that to say that we had no other helps? It for pursuits of a comparatively insignifi- would be alike" unjust and ungrateful to pass cant character.

them over. The familiar swallows that lodged Yet that lessons of the highest import tame robin redbreast that flew about me cast

under our roof took a part in the gossip. The and interest to humanity, of purposes om- tender notes into it, and sometimes the nightinnisciently working to an end, of relations gale would suspend it by its solemn concert. coördinated by an infinitely wise Creator, “Time weighs. There has been life and labor, and of goodness evidenced in the adapta- violent changes, and the dispersion of a world tion of structure to functions in the very of intelligence in which we lived, and to which lowest grades of animated beings, are to nothing has succeeded. The rude toils of hisbe derived from the pursuit of natural tory found a relief in instruction, which was

friendship. Their interruption is now silence. history, is well known. There is a natu- From whom, then, can we ask for repose and ral theology as well as a revealed religion, moral refreshment, if it is not from nature ? and happy is he to whom both books are "The powerful eighteenth century, which emopen. If the one enlarges the mind, the bodies a thousand years of combats, found reother gratifies the intellect, and all who pose in the amiable and comforting (although have tasted of the joys and pleasures de feeble in matters of science) book of Bernardin rived from the contemplation of Nature, de Saint Pierre. It finished with that touching even as a Gosse would make her known losses wept for in the bosom of nature !"

sentence of Ramond's: "So many irreparable to us in her least regarded aspects, have felt that there are no gratifications more

This is, at all events, a great step. To pure, no pleasures less alloyed, than such the individuals themselves concerned-the as are derived from these simple, harmless, historian and his wife-a great discovery. and yet instructive pursuits.

The study of man's past career had, at We have been led into this exordium the best, left more to regret than to adby the fact that the well-known and de mire, the present had been brimful to servedly-esteemed historian of man- J. overtowing of calamities; they asked for Michelet-has published two volumes on something else than tears given to soliNatural History-one on “ Birds," the tude, or the moral apothegms by which other on “ Insects.” How he was led to it is sometimes sought to heal the woundthe study of nature, he shall tell us him ed heart, and they found in the simple self; it so fully bears out our own feelings pursuit of nature a cordial with which in the matter:

to go ever onward, a drop that came from "I owe to a friendly and faithful public, who overflowing sources, a new strength, nay has listened to me so long, and has never cast wings !” me off, a statement of the circumstances which, From such a source something peculiar without taking me away from historical pur- and original must be expected. In what suits, led me to Natural History.

does this manifest itself? We will en

deavor to ascertain. First, we are told * L'Oiseau. Par J. MICHELET. Deuxième édition that the historian going to extremes, seekrevue et augmentée. 1856. L'Insecte.

Par J. ing for a bird in a bird, and an insect in MICHELET. 1858.

an insect, has avoided all human analogies.

With the exception of a few chapters, both in the middle of a wilderness. A neglectworks are written as if birds and insects ed garden suited both tastes. The abundstood alone, and man had never existed. ance of fruits, vegetables, and plants of

all kinds fed a number of domestic ani“Man could not have lived without birds, mals. The worst was that knowing each who alone have saved him from insects and they could not eat them. The same reptiles; but birds could have lived without abundance fed no end of slimy things, man. "With or without men the eagle would equally Michelet worked at his “ History of the

snails, insects, and grubs. In the morning reign in its throne on the Alps. The swallow would not the less make its annual migration. Revolution of '93,” an heroic and fatal The frigate-bird, albeit unobserved, would not epoch, which filled his every thought and the less hover over the solitary ocean. The inwardly consumed him. It was, he says, nightingale would chant its sublime hymn in a daily struggle of affection and of nature the forest, even with greater safety, without against the gloomy thoughts of the world waiting for a human audience. And for whom? and of man. In the evening they read For her whom it loves, for its offspring, for the the “Birds of France,” by Toussenel

. forest, for itself indeed, who is its most delicate Sickness overtook them here, and they auditor, and the most in love with its own song."

removed to a more southerly climate, and But the historian — the man who in nestled for a time in a valley of the ApenMichelet's own language has drunk of the nines, some two leagues from Genoa. strong and bitter wine that flows from But there the orange and the lemonthe fountain of all history—can not sepa- trees, harmonizing in their changeless forate himself from man. It is in vain that liage with the ever blue sky, grew monohe tells us that his natural history shall tonous. Animal life was infinitely rare. seek no analogies in human nature; hu- There were no little birds, no sea birds. manity is at the bottom of all. It is not Fish do not frequent those transparent long ere it breaks out :

waters. “I could pierce them," says

Michelet, " with my eyes to a great depth, " The religious faith which we have in our and see nothing but solitude and the heart, and which we teach here, is that man black and white rocks which make up the shall pacifically rally all the earth about him, bottom of this marble gulf.” There was that he will gradually find out that every adopted animal, every living creature that is no walking, only a litile stony rugged domesticated or at least brought to such a de- pathway circulating between the old gargree of friendship or neighborly communication den walls, the precipices, and the sea. As as its nature is susceptible of, will be a hundred to ascending the hills, it was a feat of times more useful to him thán it could be with gymnastics altogether beyond their its throat cut.

strength. The physicians had also in" Man will only be truly a man when he shall terdicted the pen, so the historian was seriously work at that which the earth expects left to his eyes and his thoughts, and a from him:

"The pacification and the harmonious gather- new world was thus awakened in him. ing together of living nature.

The first friends he made were the liz* A woman's dream, some one will exclaim. ards that peopled the rocks. At first they Where's the import?

were shy, but scarcely eight days had “Granted that a woman's heart had a part in elapsed before the dreamer was known this book, I see no reason for advancing this as even to the youngest, and they pursued a reproach. We accept it as praise. Patience their innocent and graceful evolutions in. and mildness, tenderness and pity, the warmth different to his presence. A fly was to of incubation, these are the very things which make, which' keep, and which develop a living them a banquet. " On such an arid soil the creation."

povera gente of the coast were little better

off. The analogy suggested a train of It was in 1852 that Michelet broke thought the culminating point of which with his usual habits, and locking up his was the resuscitation of the Apennines ! books with bitter joy, he sought the coun From what little things do great results try air for the sake of the health of a be- sometimes flow! But still the orange loved person. The site selected was near groves seemed silent and gloomy deprived Nantes, where the yellow waters of Brit- of birds. The historian felt for the first tany join the gray flood from La Vendée. time that human life becomes a serious "The house, an old château in the style of thing when man is without the ban of Louis XV., long uninhabited, and placed those innocent creatures

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