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Far sweeter than murmuring/water came the largest learning--the finest and most edutoll of the Angelus chimes.”

cated taste. He has disfigured his books, -Bell-founder, p. 13. and encrusted the works of his lofty im"I loved to watch the clouds- now dark and fectations. Now, that he is a Professor,

agination with some eccentricities and afdunIn long procession, and funereal line,

let him rack off his muddy theories in Pass with slow pace across the glorious sun,

Latin lectures, and the precious liquor Like hooded monks before a dazzling shrine. will flow richer and clearer from the dregs.

If he must write essays, let him not twist “And now, with gentler beauty as they rolled the poem to meet the essay, but make the

Along the azure vault in gladsome May, essay meet the poem. No man can say, Gleaming pure white, and edged with broidered “Go to, I will write a Greek tragedy in gold,

English.” Greek and Latin have put off Like snowy vestments on the Virgin's day:" flesh and blood, and become immortal : -Bell-founder, and other Poems, p. 177.

we do not like to be talking in the lan-“The round moon rests—like the sacred guage of ghosts. There are many flowers Host

in every language too fine to cross the Upon the azure altar of the skies."

sea; we must let them blow upon their -P. 187. own shore, and be at the trouble of a voy

age to enjoy them. When we want a We can not conclude this notice with Greek tragedy let us have the real thing: out adding our tribute of admiration to there are plenty of copies of the “Poetæ the purity of Mr. MacCarthy's poetry. His Scenici.” Let Mr. Arnold return to the strains will not cost a saint å sigh, or a vein of “Rustum and Balder,” if “ Trisvirgin a blush. He has the gracefulness tram ” and “the Church of Brou” offend of Moore without a stain of his licentious- his maturer taste-keeping Meropes for ness.

his desk, or for translations into Greek We close our long but pleasing task Iambics; and we venture to predict for with another word of Mr. Arnold. Of all him a name and a place among the poets the poets of the day, he has, perhaps, the of England.

From Fraser's Magazine.



M A T A.

Dr. MADDEN has managed to write a required no vast philosophic powers or very dull book upon an exceedingly inter literary skill to have so executed the work esting subject. As far as we can make as to have rendered it an important addiout his purpose from the catch-penny title tion to the library of every one who beand his general drift, if general drift there lieves that “the proper study of mankind can be said to exist in these chaotic vol- is man.” From the evil sympathy which umes, it is to illustrate the subject of mo- sets a convent of fine ladies and princesses ral contagion under its evil aspects. Cer- mewing like cats, howling like dogs, and tainly the theme is one upon which a very playing antics before a mixed commission ordinary writer might have filled a couple of the other sex; or makes half the inof portly volumes like these with attrac- habitants of a province fancy themselves tive and instructive matter. It would have loup-garous ; or fills the towns of Germa

ny with disciples of Saint Vitus dancing * Phantasmata ; or, Illusions and Fanaticisms of ridicule of the saner population — to that

themselves to death amidst the horror and Protean Forms productive of great Evils. By R. R. Madden. Two Volumes. 8vo. London: Newby. which causes the inevitable deterioration

of character in inferior companionship


long continued, or even the transient subject are the two hundred and thirtysense of degradation which comes of the six pages-one fourth of the entire workbriefest communion with persons of rela- which are given to the history of Joan of tively vitiated spirit, there is only a differ- Arc; or the forty-six pages occupied with ence of degrees; and to have shown the the life of Saint Theresa. These personapower and reality of moral contagion, as ges having been quite unique in their time we are all more or less liable to be affected and way, and the subjects of inspiration or by it, from the identity of its operation in fanaticism, of singular independence and its ordinary and in its extraordinary cases, originality, were of course peculiarly would have been a performance meriting fitted to illustrate the theme of “ epidemic the gratitude of the world. Here indeed mania.” is a great theme ready to be taken up by After the life of Saint Theresa—which, any capable man who is desirous of doing by the way, is nothing but a literal transhis fellows a great service, and making lation of her life written by herself — we himself a proportionate reputation. The have one hundred and twenty-five pages subject has not been even spoilt by Dr. on “ The Inquisition in Spain and PortuMadden. This gentleman suffers under gal,” which we expected to see followed the “ epidemic mania" not uncommon in by an abstract of the Decline and Fall, these days, of writing big books with the and a history of Parliamentary Governleast possible expense of talent and trou ment in England; but these matters — ble; this curious disease has caused him together with others still more closely reto perceive “ epidemic mania” in almost lated to the theme, such as the Chinese every phenomenon of humanity which he War and the life of Lord Palmerston, with happens to have read of or observed from digressions on the coloration of green tea, the moment he first contemplated the and on the polarization of light; or the composition and publication of his Phan- crinoline contagion, with illustrative estasmata. For example, our wars with says on horse-hair and the microscopic pethe French in the twelfth and thirteenth culiarities of the wool of the Indian bat centuries, are attributed to "a national - we presume, are reserved for the epidemic mania of marauding in foreign forthcoming parts of the work, which can countries.” “Not, however, content with not, with any conscience or consistency, the immeasurable scope which such a view be completed on its present plan in fewer of his subject gives him, Dr. Madden by than ten thousand octavos. The two a development of the principle on which bulky tomes before us, in addition to the his Memoirs of Lady Blessington were dissertations already mentioned, have othmade to include a separate and indepen- ers on the “flagellation mania,” in which dent memoir of every fifth-rate literary Dr. Madden gives all the examples that man who had ever been at Gore House, I have occurred in his reading of ascetic drags into his book every thing he has practices, none of them being in any way lately heard or read of which he thinks related to his subject; a life of Saint John likely to please the public craving for the the Baptist, showing that he was a very unaccountable or horrible. For example, holy man, and therefore not unfit to be certain phenomena of sorcery and witch- appealed to by those who were afflicted craft come legitimately under the head of with epidemic chorea, and terminating “ epidemic mania.” Now the sacrifice of with the information that “the festival of children seems to have constituted a part Saint John occurs on the 24th of June;' in certain forms of sorcery. But not very and voluminous appendices, containing, far removed from this subject is that of among other matters, complete chronologchild-slaughter and cannibalism in general, ical statistics of all burnings for sorcery, which is elaborately illustrated. In this treason, coining, etc.; “ opinions of the connection, Dr. Madden further treats us Platonists and Pythagoreans of the third with interminable extracts from “Minu- century of the Christian era ; of Porphyry, tius Felix, Justin Martyr, and Tertullian,” a Platonic philosopher of Tyre, born in to prove that the primitive Christians did the year A.D. 233, the scholar of Longinot practice human sacrifices, as the Pa- nus; and of Jamblichus, a Pythagorean gans charged them with doing. Dr. Mad- philosopher and Platonist, a disciple of den further shows that Athenagoras “tri- Porphyry," on the subject of “malefic umphantly refutes the same slander." No spirits;" “ The Nun's lament in the origi. less skillfully and curiously related to the nal Spanish, a poem of the fifteenth cen.


tury;" a long dissertation from Feyjoo, ple: “ The following notice of this sup-
“ Sobre La Multitud de Los Milagros," posed transformation of human beings
also "in the original Spanish," etc., etc. into shapes of wolves and other animals,
If the reader, after laboring through from that work of St. Augustine, I give
these volumes, has learned notbing else, both in the English by the Rev. Alban
he will at least have discovered that Dr. Butler and in the original Latin.” The
Madden professes some acquaintance with artifice of repetition, which Mr. Carlyle
the Latin and Spanish languages. This and other great writers have often used
gentleman misses no opportunity of show- in order to impress their readers with im-
ing his breeding; for example: “If any portant doctrines, is also adopted by Dr.
disorder of the human race ever might be Madden. For instance, chapters twelve
accounted one of demoniac origin, it sure- and thirteen both open with an historical
ly was this furious and uncontrollable rage account of the “Black Death ;” but this
of 'La secta de los Dançantes,' as they artifice requires certain precautions to be
are called by Suero." Dr. Madden is fond observed in the use of it when it concerns
of displaying at once modesty and accu- the statement of facts; and Dr. Madden
racy in his learning. We have heard of will do well in future editions of Phan-
books having been written with a pair of tasmata to make chapter twelve agree
scissors, but this is the first example which with chapter thirteen as to the propor-
has come before us of an author boasting tions of the human race destroyed by that
of his having dispensed with the pen as famous mortality; for when we come to
far as possible in the operation of book- such high numbers, the difference be-
making. Such declarations as the follow-tween one third and one fourth is not un-
ing are not uncommon in Dr. Madden's important.
work: “ This chapter I place before my The only portions of Dr. Madden's
readers without the omission of a single book from which the student of the pro-
word.” “In the preceding account, the foundly interesting subject of moral con-
language of the Saint [Theresa] has been tagion is likely to obtain any substantial
almost literally rendered.” “I have given information, are the chapters on “ Epi-
in the preceding literal translation from demic Monomania in Convents,” on “Ly-
the French original, the whole of Bossuet's canthropy,” and on “ Convulsive Chorea.”
Raisons et Fondements.Had Bossuet's On these points Dr. Madden seems really
Raisons et Fondements, St. Theresa's Life, to have read a good deal; and his facts,
and Bohn's Cheap Classics, been inedited though ill put together, are numerous,
MSS. just discovered by Dr. Madden, he and to the point. From these chapters
could not have transcribed, translated, we select the following illustrations of a
and printed them with a greater sense of class of maladies which have not ceased to
triumph Our readers will also perceive be awful and mysterious because we have
from the expressions we have quoted, generally ceased to regard them as the
that Dr. Madden usually reserves his in- results of demoniacal possession.
formation as to the fact of the matter giv The first case of conventual “ demono-
en being extract or translation, until his pathy” given by Dr. Madden is that of
disciples have perused it under the im- the nuns of Cambrai. In 1494, these nuns
pression of its being original writing. were seized with symptoms which were
This seems to us to be a new and curious investigated by authority, and declared
expedient for combining the safety of au- to arise from devilish influence. Jeanne
thority with the interest of novelty, and Pothière, one of the nuns, was denounced
arriving at the utmost facility, without by the rest as the sorceress to whom their
sacrificing the morality, of authorship. In evils were to be attributed ; and she re-
order we suppose that his readers may be ceived the sentence--mild for the time -
in some degree compensated for the en- of imprisonment for life. The nuns of
tirely gratuitous character of many of his Cambrai " for a period of four years be-
digressions, Dr. Madden takes care that lieved themselves tormented in the most
they shall be thorough and exhaustive. horrible manner by demons. The pos-
No theologian illustrating a doubtful pas- sessed were seen laboring under the con-
sage of Scripture, could give his authori- viction that they had been transformed
ties with more satisfactory fullness than into animals, running about sometimes
Dr. Madden does in his dissertations on like dogs, at other times like cats, coun-
loup-garous and cataleptics. For exam-1 terfeiting their motions and their cries;

fancying themselves changed into birds,”tion. In this case each seizure was obetc. We have fuller details of a similar served to be the cause of many more. epidemic which broke out in the convent All the nuns present with, or even in hearof Yvertet some sixty years afterwards. ing of the cries of, a new patient, became Most of the facts related are those of or- affected themselves. The cook of the dinary hysteria, as they would appear convent, herself one of the sufferers, was through the exaggerated medium of a fixed upon as the cause of the malady; belief in devilish possession. The nuns and she and her mother were burnt alive, were first seized with fits of fear and mel without, bowever, any mitigation of hysancholy, then with bursts of irrepressible teria at Kintorp. laughter; sometimes they seemed to be! In 1560, the convent of Nazareth, at dragged by force from their beds, and Cologne, was visited by “the prevailing along the ground; lost their speech and epidemic.” The usual symptoms were power of moving, or were cast into con present, with the additional feature of the vulsions and horrible distortions of form, entire perversion of the moral principles with vomitings of a fluid like ink, and “ so and sentiments. The mouths of hitherto acrid as to excoriate the mouth and lips." | irreproachable young women were filled Goulart thus describes the chief symptoms with blasphemies and improprieties. Forof this attack:

tunately for the cook of this community,

the devil on this occasion appeared in "When the convulsions set in, some were person in the shape of a dog, and ran raised in the air to the height of a man, and all about the cloisters in a manner that was of a sudden were cast down on the ground. And when some of their friends came to visit

by no means edifying.” those who seemed to be convalescent, or nearly

| Two years later, the disease seized the so, the moment their friends appeared, some inmates of the Foundling Institution at would fall flat to the ground on their faces; ...l | Amsterdam. The children who were afothers lay stretched out as if they were dead, fected, among other symptoms, spake forbut with legs and arms twisted backwards. One eign languages, and " knew what was of them was lifted up in the air, and though the passing elsewhere, even in the great coun. assistants tried to prevent her rising, she was

cil of the city. They made grimaces at lifted up in spite of them, and then flung down so violently that she seemed dead. But coming

the doors of certain women, so that the to herself as if out of a profound sleep, she latter were suspected to be sorcerers." went out of the refectory as if nothing had The names of these women the cotemhappened."

porary chronicler conceals, “ to save the

honor of their relations." About 1560, a It appears that these nuns had been for convent near Santen was visited. The some weeks previous to this attack upon nuns were variously affected, some “ wisha diet of bread and the juice of horse-ing for uttering horrid sounds and noises radish. We might bave attributed a like the bleating of sheep, sometimes they good deal-especially the excoriating fluid were thrown from their seats in church, vomited—to this irregular diet, but that vails were torn off their heads,” etc. It other victims of a similar malady seem to appears, according to Wier, the authority have had their digestive organs even from whom Dr. Madden derives the ac. more singularly affected, without any ex- count, that “the cause of this tragedy planatory circumstances of diet. In a was imputed to one of the sisters, who foundling hospital at Amsterdam, for ex- had formerly been in love with a young ample, some children, on being exorcised man, and on account of affinity between by the priests, vomited “ quantities of them her parents bad refused to give her pins and needles, thimbles, scraps of cloth, in marriage to him; and the devil, taking pieces of broken pottery,” etc. And later, the form of this young man, had appeared at Auxonne, certain possessed nuns, on to her in the midst of her most passionate being exorcised, “ experienced sickness of transports, and had counseled her to bestomach, and brought up various sub-come a nun, which she immediately did. stances-hair, small pebbles, pieces of wax, This evil spirit spread like a contagion bones, and even living reptiles.”

amongst several other sisters of the conIn the convent of Kintorp, near Stras- vent. In 1609 occurred the celebrated bourg, the disease broke out among a case of Madeleine de Mandol and Louis community of nuns, many of whom were Gaufridi. Two inmates of St. Ursula at women of high family and great cultiva- | Aix became subject to the usual hysterical

convulsions. Madeleine de Mondol con- fridi. Contrary to the custom of the fessed to being “possessed by a great times, Marie de Sains escaped being number of devils;" Louise Capel owned burned alive, and was sentenced only to to three devils, “ one of whom called him- perpetual imprisonment, with compulsory self Verreine.” These girls attributed religious austerities. their possession to Gaufridi, who was ar About 1628, the nuns of a Benedictine rested, tried, and burned alive upon their convent at Madrid became subject to conevidence. The accusation, with its fore- tagious hysteria and catalepsy, which they seen consequences, seems to have driven attributed, as usual, to demoniacal posses. Gaufridi mad, and he confessed to “all sion. After the malady had prevailed for that was laid to his charge,” and a great three years, the Inquisition arrested and deal more. He had been a demon-wor- imprisoned the spiritual director, Father shiper, he said, for fourteen years. “Ce Garcia, the superioress, and some of the démon m'engage à rendre amoureuses de nuns, as heretics, for pretending to a ma personne toutes les femmes que j'at- supernatural illumination or clairvoyance tendrois de mon souffle. Plus de milles during their attacks. In this and in all femmes ont été empoisonnées par l'attrait other well-authenticated cases, it is partiirrésistible de mon souffle, qui les rendoit cularly worthy of remark that the worst passionnées.” The burning of Gaufridi features of the malady were elicited, indid not cure the nuns of their epilepsy, stead of being subdued, by the long series and a second sacrifice was offered up in of exorcisms to which the patients were the person of a poor blind girl, who was subjected. Those who have witnessed accused by Louise Capel.

the effects of a few " magnetic passes" Certain of the Brigettines of Lille, who upon the moral and physical nature of had been present at the exorcisms of persons of weak minds, will not be surthe nuns at Aix, seem to have trans- prised that the mysterious looks, words, mitted the disease to their own convent. and gestures of the exorcist of the sixMarie de Sains, one of the community teenth or seventeenth century should who had been eminent for her irreproach- have “electrobiologized” the poor nuns able life, was charged with sorcery on this into the belief that they were “possessed” occasion. She was imprisoned, and main- by as many devils as they knew the names tained for a year that she was innocent; of. but at the expiration of that time, the Of all these cases of monomania in concharge acting in the same dreadful man- vents, that of the nuns of Loudun is the ner upon her imagination as it had pre- most celebrated, chiefly on account of the viously done on that of Gaufridi, she re- part attributed to Richelieu in the prosenounced her protestations of innocence, cution of Urbain Grandier. The Ursuand charged herself with unheard-of ini- lines of Loudun were ladies of high rank quities. The Archbishop of Malines, who and cultivation, and the school attached was one of those engaged in the investi- to their convent was attended by girls of gation of the case, declared that “since the best families in France. The nuns he had been in the world he had never first complained of midnight visions, in heard or seen any thing similar: the crimes which a former confessor, who had been and abominations of Marie de Sains were dead some time, appeared to them in anbeyond all conception.” She confessed to ger, and inflicted blows" without motive “murders without number, stranglings of or mercy,” and on one occasion used vioinnocent children, ravaging of graves, re- lence of another kind. While thus torveling in orgies of super-human turpi- mented, the women frequently rose from tude, sacrileges unheard of, banqueting their beds in a state of somnambulism, and junketing incessantly with demons at (not then understood as such,) and wantheir sabbath.” The poor girl further dered about the dormitories and even the more, while undergoing the ineffectual roofs of the convent. We may say once mummeries of the exorcists, " improvised for all, that a very distressing perversion sermons which she ascribed to Satan, of the moral sentiments was one of the raved polemically and at large on the most constant symptoms of this terrific Apocalypse, and made long discourses on malady, a fact illustrating in an important Anti-Christ and the Precursor," who was manner the effects of conventual seclu-the son of Madeleine de Mandol and Gau- sion upon the imagination. An eye-wit

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