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153. TRUTH AND FALSEHOOD.

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TRUTH. That there is in the human mind a natural or instinctive principle of veracity, has been remarked by many authors; the same part of our constitution which prompts to social intercourse, prompting also to sincerity in our mutual communications. Truth is always the spontaneous and native expression of our sentiments; whereas falsehood implies a certain violence done to our nature, in consequence of the influence of some motive which we are anxious to conceal.*

Speaking the truth is a common debt we owe to all mankind. Speech is given to us as the instrument of intercourse and society one with another, the means of discovering the mind, which otherwise lies hid and concealed; so that were it not for this our conversations would be the same as of beasts. Now being intended for the good and advantage of mankind, it is a due to it, that it be used to that purpose ; but he that lies is so far from paying that debt, that on the contrary he makes his speech the means of injury, and deceiving him he speaks to.

“ THE WHOLE DUTY OF MAN."

There is no duty which is higher than truth, and no sin more heinous than untruth. Indeed, Truth is the very foundation of righteousness.

- MAHABHẬBATA."

* From Stewart's Philosophy.

Truth is the highest thing that man may keep.

-CHAUCER.

The basis of all excellence is truth.

-JOHNSON.

Truth is such a virtue, that without it

Strength is weakness, justice tyranny, Humility pride, and piety hyprocrisy ; for in these

truth is all in all, The central and chief stone on which the virtue of

our actions must repose, Or, failing it, will fall to contrarieties :

contrarieties : on truth then, found thy being, As on a rock, 'gainst which the storms of passion

wreak themselves in vain. Truth against all the world, for it outlives it, and blooms immortally.

-CHARLES HENRY HANGER,

The Arabs say,

“ There is no ally surer than truth."

The truth is daughter of God.

-SPANISH PROVERB.

Truth evermore has been the love
Of holy saints and God above,
And he whose lips are truthful here
Wins after death the highest sphere.
As from a serpent's deadly tooth,
We shrink from him who scorns the truth.*

-RAMA.

• From the Råmayana, translated by Griffith.

God Himself is Truth ; in propagating which, as mon display a greater integrity and zeal, they approach nearer to the similitude of God, and possess a greater portion of His Love.

--MILTON.

No act of devotion can equal truth; no crime so heinous as falsehood; in the heart where truth abides, there is my abode.*

-KABÎR.

Tell truth and shame the devil.

--SHAKESPEARE.

The Prophet (Muhammed) said :

Quit that which throws you into doubt, and incline towards that which dost not cast you into doubt; because truth is the cause of comfort to the heart; and verily lying is a cause of doubt, and hesitation ; I mean, make choice of truth, and leave falsehood.

"MISHCAT-UL-MASABIH.” †

Lie not; but let thy heart be true to God,
Thy mouth to it, thy actions to them both :
Cowards tell lies, and those that fear the rod;
The stormy working soul spits lies and froth,

Dare to be true. Nothing can need a lie :
A fault, which needs it most, grows two thereby.

-GEORGE HERBERT.

He that speaketh truth sheweth forth righteousness : but a false witness deceit.

-"BIBLE-PROVERBS 12."

* From the Works of H. H. Wilson.
Translated from Arabic by Captain Matthews.

Speak truly, and each word of thine shall be a fruitful seed.

The lip of truth shall be established for ever; but a lying tongue is but for a moment.

-" BIBLE-PROVERBS 12."

Truth, sacred truth, shall flourish and prevail,
While all the arts of fraud and falsehood fail ;
The flimsy cheat wise judges soon descry;
Sure those will rob, who scruple not to lie. *

They whose eating is solely for the sustaining of life ; and whose speech is only to declare truth, surmount difficulties.

“ HITOPADESHA.”

Do not speak falsehood, for it brings distress ;
With truth our desires are gratified, and we secure

happiness.
Prayers, religious austerities, visit to holy places,

and charity, All is easy to practise, only truthfulness is difficult and this is the means of obtaining honor.

-SÂMAL.I

There is more profit in a distasteful truth than deceitful sweetness.

If a person has become notorious for lying,
Though he speak the truth, thou wilt say,

“It is false."

+ Prof. Johnson's edition.

From Bewick's Select Fables.
I A Gujarati poet.

If one with whom truthfulness is a habit
Makes a slip, people forgive him ;

;
But if one has become noted for lies,
People will not again believe the truth from him.

-SÅDI'S GULISTÂN.*

He who grieves at another's griefs, rejoices at

other's joys, And who is a friend to truth, is always helped by God.

-SAMALT

When by night the frogs are croaking,

Kindle but a torch's fire,
Ha! how soon they all are silent! Thus
Truth silences the liar.

-LONGFELLOW.

Truth and falsehood stand to one another in the relation of a stone to an earthen vessel. If a stone be thrown at an earthen vessel, the latter will break. In either case it is the earthen vessel that suffereth. I

-SIKH TEACHING,

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Patience, discreetness, and benignity :-
These be the lovely playmates of pure verity.

-DR, H. MORE.

The greatest friend of Truth is Time, her greatest enemy is Prejudice, and her constant companion is Humility.

-COLTON.

Translated by Platts. + A Gujarati poet.
From a Lecture on the Sikhs by Mr. Macauliffe, C.S.

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