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No. XXXI.-AUGUST 15, 1866.


The epoch of wars in Europe—that long era of strife which has lasted for more than two thousand years—is gradually coming to an end. There will be wars yet—and possibly great wars; nevertheless the end of international strife is approaching, and Europe will ere long settle down into a peaceful community of nations, into a commonwealth in which each State will respect the rights of its neighbours, and act harmoniously with them. The power of kings, the ambition of growing States, will ere long cease to plunge our Continent into the turmoil and dread evils of military conflicts. Each people begins to appreciate and respect the rights of its neighbours; and as the great work of national development and of self-government goes on, expediency, self-interest, will come more and more to the help of international morality. Let each people have its natural rights, and the cause of wars will be well-nigh at an end. In proportion as each nation becomes developed and matured, as each resolves to be itself, and can manage its own affairs, this growth of the Peoples, this principle of Nationality, will raise a barrier against the efforts of selfish ambition, whether on the part of peoples or of kings. We see the beginning of this process; and, though the happy end is not yet, still it is visible in the future—it is approaching.

But there are other conflicts than those waged by armies. Industry also has its wars. The plough and the 18om and the forge can engage in international conflicts of their own, without the aid of either sword or spear; and the navies of commerce can struggle in hostile rivalry, although not a cannon is fired from their decks. A war of tariffs, commercial and industrial, has long prevailed over Europe. Each country has sought to restrict or to nullify the industry of its neighbours. For the sake of its own people, it has sought to exclude the products, and restrain the industrial enterprise, of other countries. This warfare likewise is coming to an end. Gradually VOL. VI.


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