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render all the lands in Canada, granted to loyalist subjects, or others who have, or may volontarily take the caths of allegiance, as free as those in Nova Scotia.
• Men who have been engaged in their country's cause from the best of principles, should have every poffible indulgence; and in proportion as they have been deprived of comforts by the desolation of war, they should be recompensed without any partial reItrictions, and the remainder of their days rendered as happy as the government they live under can make them.
• The population of these new settlements, and their parallel facuation with Fort Olwegarche, Carleton Island, Ofwego, and Niagra, evince, perhaps, more forcibly than ever, the propriety of retaining these barriers in our possession, which, in the former part of this work, I have fully explained; and as the third township alone (which is nine miles square) contained, in the year 1787, about seventeen hundred inhabitants, it is difficult to say what number of valuable subjects that country may hereafter produce; certain it is, that it is capable of supporting multitudes, as the land is in general fertile, and on an average produces about thirty bushels of wheat per acre, even in the imperfect manner in which it is cleared, leaving all the stumps about three feet high, and from five to ten trees on an acre. This mode of clearing is in fact abo folutely necessary, becaule new cultivated lands in hot climates require shelter, to prevent the scorching heat of the sun, wbich, in its full power, would burn up the feed. It has also been found expedieni in ftony ground to let the itones remain, as they retain a moiture favourable to vegetation.'
Mr. Long, in return for some civility received from one of the servants of the Hudson's Bay Company, enters into a vindication of that company froin the charges of discouraging and alienating the natives, and of oppreflive behaviour toward their inferior fervants; charges which have repeatedly been brought against them. He adds,
• It has unfortunately happened that the company's enemies have been frequently of their own household, perlons in whom they placed confidence, and entrusted the mysteries of their commerce. Differences will naturally arise, and doubeless have arisen between the governors and their Cervants, in which case no man is, or ought 10 be, obliged to ttay in a service that is disagreeable to him; but then it is certainly fufficient to leave the employ, and highly improper to endeavour to prejudice the interest he once thought and felt it his duty to promote; and I am of opinion that not a single transaction, or circumstance, should be revealed that has not an immediate reference to the cause of the disagreement, or is neceffary to support or vindicate a reputation. The present governors are men of great probity, and probably may not condescend to take notice of these heavy charges against them; but as the most exalted virtue may be injured by groundless affertions, I trust the public will not be displeased with any endeavours, however feeble, to vindicate the character of lo respectable a body. As I do not
intend to enter on the subject more fully, I shall only entreat the reader, if he wishes further satisfaction on this head, to peruse the publication of Mr. Robson, [fee M. Review, vol. vii. p. 75.] who was one of the company's servants, and who Mr. Umfreville acknowledges to be a true and impartial writer. From his account the reader will judge of the propriety of Mr. Umfreville's cenfures on che conduct of the governors of the Hudson's Bay Company: A more copious examination of Mr. Umfreville's publication would exceed the limits I have prescribed to myself; and I cannot buc think that those who peruse it will readily perceive how much in. justice he has done to the governors and the company.'
It will appear from our account of Mr.Umfreville's publication *, that we did not entertain the highest idea either of his motives or his performance; and we have no conception that Mr. L. is himself without his motives, afluring him withal, that we can have no ill- will to them :--but we freely own, we have no predilection for the long-hackneyed application of the term mystery to commercial tran/actions; allowing that it may sometimes be honeftly applied to proper secrets in manufactures and handicrafts. The term mystery, in any fense, we believe to be feldom used but as a cover for something that will not bear exposure; and we hope it was misapplied with reference to the Hudion's Bay Company.
The vocabularies at the end, which occupy one-third of the volume, do not appear likely to be of any great use; for those who would study the Indian languages to much effect, must learn by the ear rather than by the eye; and the structure and orthography, admitting the correctness of the latter, have little that is inviting in them. The volume contains much local information, is furnished with a good map of the western parts of Canada, and is very neatly printed.
ART. V. Elays Medical, Philosophical, and Experimental. Ву
Thomas Percival, M. D. F.R.S. & A.S. London, &c. &c. Fourth Edition, revised and enlarged. 8vo.., 2 Vols. Pp.
507 and 442. 125. Boards. Johnson. 1790. THIS
His edition of Dr. Percival's Essays + is introduced by the
following advertisement : • The present edition of this work comprehends not only the author's former volumes, of Medical, Philosophical, and Experimental Essays; but also many detached pieces, written at distans times, and on various occasions, that have been inserted either in the transactions of some of the learned societies, of which he is a member, or in other periodical journals. He has attentively re
* See Monthly Review Enlarged, vol. v. p. 13+
+ See Review, vol. lvi. p. 120. Rev. JUNE 1792.
vised the whole ; has made numerous practical additions ; and coro rected or expunged whatever appeared to be inconfiftent with his later experience, and better informed judgment. On certain philosophical subjects, of which he has treated, much light has been thrown by subsequent inquirers. He has not, however, attempted to model foch Essays anew; or to weave into their texture discoveries and improvements, made since the period when they were written. For he deems anachronism, of this kind, to be a violation of literary property; and unfavourable to the interests of science, by creating perplexity in the view of its progressive advancement.'
Dr. Percival's character being well known to the public, and the principal part of these essays having already come under our review, we shall content ourselves with offering a few very brief remarks, and thall scarcely dwell on any subject, except the new matter, which is not in great abundance.
In the advertisement which we have extracted, Dr. Percival tells us, that he has corrected or expunged whatever appeared to be inconsistent with his later experience, and better informed judgment. We fear this caution has not been fufficiently observed. We see not the utility of the first two essays, the empiric and the dogmatic, each contradicting the other, and both probably asserting more than the author believes. The objection more forcibly affects the two essays on inoculation : the doctrines of one are in absolute opposition to those of the other. In the second volume, the advantages of early inoculation are practically and incontestibly proved : in the first, the practice is as decidedly condemned: in truth, in one case, the author speaks from experience and facts; in the other, he indulges in theory and declamation, which his well-informed judgment should now have rejected. Other instances might be enumerated :--but we have done.
Of the essays which are added to this edition, most have before appeared in the memoirs or transactions of different so. cieties; and have, in course, been already noticed by us : this is not the case with all. In the second volume of the Medical Memoirs, Dr. Percival published the case of a young lady, affected with pulmonic complaints, and at the same time pointed out the ill effects of adhering too rigidly to the antiphlogistic treatment. This is a subject of importance; and we shall extract what is now farther added, in consequence of the inquiries of a very ingenious physician,' whose name is not mentioned.
• The young lady, whose case is briefly described in the Memoirs of the Medical Society, vol. 11. p. 297, (p. 336 of the preceding Eray,) had no strumous dispofition. The use myrrh was continued, many weeks: gestation was daily employed, when the weather admitted of it: she often drank porter at her meals: light animal food was allowed : she was sent into the country, near Manchester; and afterwards to a friend's house, on the banks of the Mersey, distant only a few miles from the sea. At this time the Peruvian bark was administered in the form of pills, combined with a liule rhubarb and sale of tartar, on account of the weakness and acidity of her stomach.
• I have read, with attention and satisfaction, your account of a case of pbtbifis pulmonalis, in the London Medical Journal of 1788. But I cannot concur with you in opinion, that debility is to be confidered, solely, as the proximate cause of this formidable disease ; though it is so universally a concomitant, as to render the antiphlogiftic treatment, in many cases, unwarrantable, when carried to any extent. Yet I am persuaded the symptoms may be such, as to in. dicate venæsection. And I have seen instantaneous relief, obtained from it, when levere stitches have occurred, and the patient has been in a state of dyspnea, threatening suffocation. The waste of the Aoids not being proportionate to that of the folids, and the a&tion of the heart being much diminished, a plethora seems to be the necessary consequence, which nature often attempts to remedy by Sweats or diarr bæa. Bleeding may, therefore, be occasionally expedient, to restore the equilibriu in between the circulating fluids, and the powers of the vascular system. But I believe this expediency may, for the most part, bê confined to particular emer. gencies; and that the same falutary end may be more effe&tually and permanently attained, by such means as augment the vital energy The tonics, however, which are employed, Thould be such only, as stimulate in the gentlelt degree, otherwise the contractions of the heart will become quicker instead of stronger, the circulation through the lungs will be rendered more imperfect, and the vital powors will fustain a lasting injury.
• If it be true that the sweats, in the phthisis pulmonalis, are eft forts of nature, to obviate the proportionate luperabundance of the fluids, it will follow that they should not entirely be restrained. Indeed they are the crisis of the nocturnal Fever, which occurs. And when the patient rises from his bed so early, as to anticipate their coming on, he will experience a subsequent aggravation of his most diftrefling heclic syri ptoms. A diarrhæa will also be the probable consequence, which wastes the strength more than the molt profuse sweat. ings; not only by carrying off what should be converted into nutriment, but by producing an atonia of those organs, whose integrity is essential to the vigour of the body. We should be solicitous, therefore, to moderate rather than to suppress the cutaneous evacuations : a biscuit steeped in wine, a draught of porter, or a dose of the solution of myrrh, now so generally used, will often succeed, when administered at the commencement of the perspiration : and after it has continued gently, for some time, the patient may change his coverings; rise from his bed; and he will thus find himself rather refreshed than debilitated by the perspiration.
• A recommendation of wine, in the pulinonary consumption, will be alarming to many practitioners. But let it be recollected, that
it is the most efficacious antiphlogistic, in the burning fever of the angina maligna ; and that the stomach is familiarized to its stimulus, by the daily habit of drinking it at our meals. When it is administered however to phthifical patients, the most accurate attention should be paid to its effects on the pulse. Experience will then be our guide, and I believe, if the use of it be confined to the period of languor, which always fucceeds the pneumonic pyrexia, we shall do good, without incurring the risque of injury. I have lately had, under my care, a lady, who has been long subject to hemoptyfis, and whole lungs are so delicate, that she suffers a relapse, whenever fhe breathes a close warm air, for any length of time. She has ftri&ly confined herself, many years, to a vegetable diet; and finds that even a slight indulgence in animal food occasions a considerable degree of fever, and sometimes a fresh bemorrhage. But the drinks daily, with advantage, several glasses of red port wine. Rhenish, or old hock, mixed with Seltzer water, forms a pleasant, cooling, and tonic beverage, in hectical disorders. Though I have objected to the use of nitre, in the paper before referred to, the Saline mixture, especially when given in the state of effervescence, is highly salutary, in the febrile paroxysms of pulmonary consumption. It produces a grateful sensation in the stomach, and is fedative, without being debilitating. Myrrh may very commodiously, and with good effe&ts, be combined with it. Indeed I regar this remedy as the most useful, which modern practice has adopted in consumptions. Yet when the Rev. Dr. Griffith first communi. cated to me the MS. of his father concerning it, before his Work on Hectic and Slow Fevers was published, I entertained many doubes of the propriety or even safety of adminiftering it. And before I ventured to follow so novel a practice, I consulted Sir Joha Pringle ; whose letter, on the occasion, I happened to look into, a few days ago
“ As for Dr. G.'s publication, it was certainly with Sir George Baker's approbation and mine; though for my part I had no experience of his medicines, and should never, from theory, have prescribed them. But as the author was believed to be an honest man; and as I have more regard to experience, and the observations of old and plain physicians, than to my own speculations, I made no difficulty in giving my advice, for the publication of this little book.”- This paragraph I copy, as a pleasing proof of Sir John Pringle's candour, and as an example worthy of imitation by those, who are wedded, from long habit, to the antiphlogistic treatment of the pulmonary consumption.
• In a paper communicated to Dr. Duncan, and inserted in the Medical and Philosophical Commentaries, vol. V. p. 166. I have recommended the flowers of zinc, in the disorder now under our consideration : and this remedy, though a powerful tonic, neither increases heat, nor quickens the vibrations of the pulse.
* Near twenty years ago, in a consultation which I had with my late excellent friend Dr. Fothergill, on the case of a delicate young lady, labouring under the pothisis pulmonalis, I remember he recommended the Buxton waters to her. I objected to the use of them, on account of their heating quality, and he was much fur.