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prized, on being assured by me, that they raised my pulse from eighty to a hundred and nine vibrations in a minute, when taken in a full quantity.
But experience has now convinced me, that many medicines, usually denominated heating, are administered with advantage, in some ftages of pulmonary consumption. And as the Buxton water might be fingularly useful in cases that originate from intemperance, in which the stomach and liver are offečt. ed, in conjunction with the lungs, and the patient would fink into a ftate of languishment and despondency by the sudden and total disure of what is cordial, I have proposed the following queries to a judicious practitioner of the place: “ Have you seen the Buxton water used, in the hectical period of phrhifis pulmonalis - What have been its effects !-Have you tried it in the more fpurious pulmonary consumption, arising from ebriety 1-What have been its effe&ts under such circumstances ”
• The answer, which I have received, is, in substance, as fol. lows. " In all the cases, which have fallen under my observation of genuine phthifis, and in all the stages of that disorder, the Buxton waters bave appeared to me to be injurious. On the contrary I have seen the best effects produced by them, in various cases, where the stomach has been impaired by ebriety; where the liver has been affected ; and a bad cough has attended, together with copious and even purulent expectoration. Such cases I have, again and again, seen wonderfully relieved by the use of our waters.
• In treating on a subject so interesting to the profession, and which has often engaged my serious and very anxious attention, I have gone into a much longer detail than was my design, when I fac down to write to you. I fhall therefore halten to relieve you and myself, from the prolixity of this letter, by offering my best wishes for the success of your undertaking, and by expressing my hope that a due medium may be happily pointed out between the extremes of i be cooling and of the bearing regimen.'
The tenth essay in the second volume contains hints towards the investigation of the nature, cause, and cure of the Rabies Canina.' These are addressed to Dr. Haygarth, in consequence of his proposal for obviating the effects of the bite of a mad dog, by washing away the poison by a stream of water poured on the wound from a considerable height. Dr. Percival thinks that we err in supposing the symptoms, following the application of canine virus, to arise from its absorption. He imagines the cause of the disease to be similar to that of tetanus, originating from the local irritation of a nerve under peculiar circumstances. This is to us an unpleasant view of the matter, as it leaves no methods of foreseeing the approach of this complaint, nor any hopes of preventing its attack. Absorption may be bindered: but how is the local irritation of a nerve to be avoided, after it is actually wounded? We think, howeyer, that Dr. Percival's supposition cannot be supported. The constant distance of time from the bite to the appearance of hydrophobia; the regular occurrence of the same symptoms, however different the situation or function of the bitten part may be ; the access of those symptoms equally after large of small wounds; whether lacerated or simply divided; whether discharging to the time of the disease, or immediately healed without any perceptible degree of inflammation : these are cir. cumstances which prove the cause of the disease to be different from that of tetanus.- Nor is it any argument in favour of the doctor's hypothefis, to urge, that the symptoms of hydrophobia and tetanus așe alike nervous or spasmodic. We are not to be informed that convulsive or spasmodic symptoms, fimilar to those following the bite of a mad dog, exist from other causes : they do lo: but they do not constitute the same disease :-- the one is curable, or rather is often cured : the other, we suspect, ' never has been cured. It is in vain, then, to tell us of cures of hydrophobia arising from mental impressions, &c.;--and to call in Morgagni as an auxiliary. Had the Doctor wanted affift- . ance on this occafion, he might have cited an authority rendered. venerable by its antiquity. In the time of Celius Aurelianus, it was doubted whether hydrophobią was a disease of the mind or of the body : Cælius thought that both were diseased, and that the stomach and inteftines were the principal suffering parts. Arguments have been frequently urged in favour of the practice of the ancients in hydrophobia; and hence we are induced to search among them for remedies, in consequence of their accounts of cures in this disease :--but if we examine with accuracy, we shall generally see reason to suppose that they mistook some other disease for hydrophobia ; and, consequently, that their judgment requires censure, rather than that their practice demands praise. Of this kind is the account, given (by Dioscorides) of Themifon, the founder of the Methodic sect; who became mad by attending on one of his hydrophobic friends, and who was afterward, with great pains, cured; and Cælius gives even a more old-womanish history of the business ; for he adds, that afterward, as often as Themison attempted to write on the subject, he constantly relapsed. It is no wonder that such an hydrophobia admitted of cure!
To proceed to the method of treating this disease: Dr. Percival advises to begin with a large dose of opium, for a reason which is rather curious; 'in order,' says he,' to obtain a truce.' He then thinks the Foxglove might be tried: why? we fee nothing to indicate its use: a forcible impression, it is faid, 'must be raised on the nervous system :' bus 'not surely an impression of any kind whatsoever. 'Debilitating medicines we cannot recommend; on the contrary, we much more approve of the tonic plan, according to Dr. Ruth's idea.
Having controverted fome of the learned author's opinions respecting hydrophobia, it is with pleasure that we extract the following valuable remarks, which, we are happy to assure him, agree perfectly with our own experience :
• There is a species of chronic dyfury, to which persons of an arthritic or scorbutic habit, and who have passed the meridian of life, are peculiarly incident. It is often mistaken for the stone, and aggravated by the use of lithontriptics. Indeed, it has many symptoms in common with that disorder; such as frequent and orgent calls to make water ; pain at each extremity of the urethra; a mucous discharge; tenesmus; and sometimes a suppression of urine. But the patients, who labour under it, feel no uneasy weight in the peritoneum, and always void their water with much less difficulty, in an erect, than in an horizontal posture. The complaint, also, may be further distinguished from the stone by having shorter intervals of ease; by more frequently injuring the retentive power of the bladder, and by occasioning no sudden inLerruption to the stream of urine, in the absence of pain. It seems to arise from an acrid defluction on the internal coat of the bladder, which is thereby rendered so exquistely fenfible, that the ftimulus of the urine becomes almost intolerable ; and very frequent efforts are excited to expel it. These efforts, however, Mould be reftrained, because they tend to increase the pain and irritation of the bladder, and to prevent the complete discharge of its contents; for that organ cannot effectually contract itself without a due degree of previous diftenfion.
. I have tried various remedies in this disorder, but have found none fo successful as mercury, which seldom fails to afford relief, and generally produces a cure, if administered with perseverance, and in fufficient quantity. According to the urgency of the case, one, (wo, or three scruples of the unguentum cæruleum fortius Thould be rubbed into the thighs every night, till a light ptyalism ensues : the symptoms for the most part abate, before the fpirting comes on, and after it has continued a while, they disappear entirely.
. I was first induced to adopt this mode of treatment, from my experience of the falutary operation of the remedy, recommended by Dr. Gilchrift, in a disorder of the bladder, which bears some analogy to that which I have described *; but having found that the mercurial pill is apt to disturb the bowels, and consequently tbat it is less cercain of admiflion into the system, I have, in my later pradice, preferred the use of the unguentum cæruleum. In Nighter cases, indeed, I sometimes give halt a grain of calomel, with two grains of James's fever powder, twice every day; and this small dose of mercury, if duly continued, may fuffice to effe& a cure, without producing any salivation, or even foreness of the mouth. In a late instance, an habitual head-ach, with which a difficulty and pain in making water were complicated, gave way to this remedy.
•• Physical and Literary Esays, vol. III.'
• From the falutary operation of mercary in the dyfury, it
may be suspected, perhaps, that the disease originated from the lues venerea. I formerly entertained this idea myself; but further experience has convinced me, that it has no foundation in more than half the cases which occur; and consequently, in explaining the action of the remedy prescribed, we must not have recourse to the secret powers of a specific or an antidote.'
We cannot conclude this article without expressing our conviction of the benefits, which medicine and philosophy in general have received from the attention and judgment of Dr. Percival.
Art. VI. A Disertation on the Querulousness of Statesmen. 8vo.
pp. 116. 25. 6d. Longman, &c. 1792. EY very one who is conversant with political discussions, either
in print or in parliament, must have been frequently struck with the confident warnings of immediate impending ruin, folemnly and continually given to us, to discredit the national measures of the times. The writer before us, evidently in friendship with our present administration, exhibits a diverting series of these awful predictions, from a publication called Britannia Languens, that appeared one hundred and ten years ago, down to Dr. Price, and Mr. Richard Champion, of the present day. He furnishes the following key to this querulousness :
• It is not unworthy of being remarked, that all the ftatesmen, and authors, whose lamentations and prophecies, respecting the finances, have now been noticed, were either out of place, or connected with persons who had been deprived of their places, at the times they uttered them. They seem to have bequeached the pseudo-prophetick art to Messrs. Fox, Sheridan, and Co. and these gentlemen will, doubtless, give up the practice of itthe very moment in which appointments under government shall be offered to them.' Of the wisdom and tendency of such conduct, we are told, On marking the junctures at which my countrymen have utter
complaints, and their gloomy predictions; on recollecting how often the former have been unjust, and the latter false ; and, on considering the motives from which both the former and the latter have usually sprung; I am convinced, that they have proved hardly any thing in those giving birth to them but folly; and that they have yielded little elle to the publick than injuries.
They must, upon the whole, have been marks of folly :-because it is a reproach to any man, to have given rise to a groundless opinion of his country's fortune being adverse; and, because, at all times in which mankind are not divinely inspired, it is out of their power to determine upon what will happen, after the operations of immediate known causes have ceased.-The affairs of every peo
ple. are continually fluctuating. The spirit of enterprize, of any particular people, is never long the fame; and this fingle circumItance often renders it impossible to tell what will be the asped of things at any given period. But, if the given period be a remore one ; and if the calculator take into his account, not only the various changes incident to his own country; but also the influence which other countries have upon those by which they are surrounded; he will soon be led to apprehend, that the chances of errour to which he is exposed are innumerable.
They must have been injurious : - because they have infused distrust of our government, into nacions disposed to be friendly to our iland; because they have nourished faction among our statesmen, and promoted disaffection among our citizens ; in fine, because they have subtracted unneccffarily from the tranquillity, and the happiness of the great body of the British people.
Fruftrantur falfis gaudia lacbrymulis. · Those persons are, perhaps, wise, who treat the lamentations, and the prophecies of politicians, as if they were tragedies; which, while they have little of reality in them, serve to benefit both the writers, and the actors; and to amuse, as well as to depress, the auditors.
• From all that has been advanced, I draw the following conclefion.-Neither the king, nor the people, ought to be, in the smallest measure, disquieted, in consequence of the complaints, and the predictions, which they may occasionally hear, from some vain aucbor, or some aspiring stateiman. As to those persons, by whom both the king, and the people, are so faithfully, and so effectually served, they ought to lay their account, that they thall frequently
“ have their belt success ascrib'd to Fortune, And Fortune's failures all ascrib’d to them.” • And, in the midst of that clamour, which may sometimes arise out of the very means employed in conducting their countrymen to real and durable greatness, it will be of use to them to remember, that Columbus's crew murmured, and mutinied, when bound on the discovery of a world.'
Far otherwise is the display here exhibited as the antidote to such political poison :
• The wonder of a well-informed man will not be excited, by hearing one assert, even with the most unquestionable marks of truth, that the good fortune of this country is, at present, such, that her commerce is greater than that of any country in the world. For, he must know, that her commerce has many times exceeded that of any other country. But, it may excite his wonder, in no small degree, to be assured, that one may truly allert, that her com.. merce, at this day, exceeds the commerce of any other countryin a much higher proportion than it did at any part period.-By her inhabitants having, since the return of peace, caused merchandize to flow, in quick and ample ftreams, along its wonted channels; by their having ventured to overleap, or to throw down those barriers, which illiberal prejudices, and a most pernicious policy, had