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raised ; by their having explored regions unfrequented till his pre: fent Majesty ascended the throne ; and opened an intercourse with nations unheard of till that auspicious era: a valuable acceffion has been made to the resources of the regular trader, and of the mercantile adventurer of every denomination ; and fo vast a spread given to the navigation, and the general traffick of the empire, that there is not now a considerable space of any sea, or ocean, on which the colours of Grea: Britain do not wave; or a wind that blows that is not fraught with somewhat to bless her with materials for perfecting her arts, for advancing her science, for augmenting her wealth, for encouraging her population, for heightening her (pleadour, or for eternizing her fame."
• With regard to the objects of their complaints, the sum of what has been advanced seems to be: That Great Britain, instead of be. ing reduced, in consequence of the late war, to a state so deplosably feeble, that nothing but the extinction of her empire can re. move her disorder; instead of being deprived of all means of improvement-nay, and of hope itself, the last resource of the afflicted: is now seen receiving every day, greater and greater accessions of prosperity, of fame, and of happiness. Upon the whole, “ The pofture of her affairs is not only luch, that hardly one despondent idea can, with propriety, be admitted into a just description of it:* It is also such, as to afford rational expectations of her enduring throughout a great many ages ; and of her sons beholding better times than they have yet beheld-limes productive of events so momentous, and so splendid, as to add exceedingly to her glory, and to furnith her historians with materials for their brightest pages.
Ego me nunc denique natum Gratulor. • It is thus, that a Briton Mould express himself, towards the close of the eighteenth contury.'
All this is pleasing, and we sincerely hope it is true: but might not one of these evil prophets cover the disgrace of the brotherhood by retorting-May not such flattering representations of our prefent national prosperity, calculated doubtless for temporary purposes, be as fallacious, as the despondency censured in the writings and speeches of discontented politicians ? Who shall decide when doctors disagree? We are not so presumptuous; all that we gather from observation, is, that the nation is pronounced to be at the point of death by every political doctor, excepting those who actually attend on her. She is teized by them all in turn, without being either killed or cured, her constitution being Atrong enough to withstand their blunders : but the is impoverished all the while, by most unconscionable fees for prefcriptions and drugs.
art. VII. A Treatise concerning the Properties and Effects of Coffu.
sth Edit. with confiderable Additions. By Benjamin Mofely. M. D. Physician to Chellea Hospital, Member of the College of Physicians, London, of the Uoiversity of Leyden, of the American Philosophical Society, &c. &c. Auchor of a Treatise on Tropical Diseases, Military Operations, and the Climate of the Well Indies. 8vo. pp. 107.
Sewell. 1792. W
e are obliged to the author of this sensible and pleasant
treatise, for reprinting it at the present juncture, and for adding to the utility of former editions, by prefixing a long and well-written preface. The following observations are very valuable, just now, when the attention of the legislature is so particularly directed to the colonies :
• From the produce of our plantations, that 'magnificent property,' as Mons. Necker terms the French colonies, * which only the superficial and ignorant affect to undervalue," this country receives great additions to her revenue, and a total supply of one of the moft useful articles (perhaps now a neceffary) of life. Yet, from the calamities lately inflicted on some of them by the hand of Providence, and the accumulated burthens which the pub. lic neceffities have laid on them all, many of the planters are involved in ruin ; and those who escape must owe their deliverance to she bravest fruggles of industrious virtue.
• The population of White inhabitants, which is the great fecu. rity of the idlands, consists chiefy of those who culiivate the inferior staple commodities, among which, coffee is now the principal; and this population has always been proportionable to the increafe or decrease of those staples, Indigo may be instanced as an example: when indigo was encouraged in Jamaica, before that impolitic duty was laid on it, which exterminated the cultivation of it in our colonies, and gave it to the French, there were considerably more White inhabitants in that island than there are at present, though the island now produces five times the quantity of sugar and rum ic did at that time.
• The cultivation of coffee requiring but little capital, is an inducement for people of small forcunes to settle in the islands. It is a creditable refuge for the industrious inan, who has been unfortunate in trade, and to those whose larger schemes in life have failed. - It is an easy employment; the labour light; and many parts of it performed by children. The situations and foil where it is carried oa mult be dry, and of course healthy, to be advantageous. Coffee plantations, in particular, may be conGdered as a nursery of useful inhabitants for the colonies.
• The soil belt suited for coffee is happily such as can be spared from every other purpose. Large tracts of poor land, which would otherwise lie walle and useless, may be rendered as profitable as the belt, without the mortality and casualcies atcendant on severe labour io hot climates.
• The oumerous little families which live on coffee plantations, and are dispersed in small settlements, in the interior parts of the
ifands, occafion the mountainous and woody lands to be cleared and opened ; and to be interfected with roads and easy commo. nications.
• Thus the residents live in safety, and all sorts of property acquire a proportionate value and security. The retreats of fugitive segroes are laid open ; plunder and depredation prevented, and conspiracies for rebellion are deprived of their hiding places. And
bus the credit of the planter, and security of the merchanı, itand on a firm bafis :--those commotions being prevented, which have fo often disturbed the tranquillity of the islands, and occasioned the Juin of many individuals abroad and at home, to the great defalcation of that immense revenue, which thele islands pay to the mo. ther country
* • Belides, the importance of a numerous body of men, to form an occasional militia, is evident, to any person acquainted with the colonies, who must know how little fatigue and exposure to the fun is suficient to destroy an unseasoned ftranger.
• Inhabitants are always ready in case of sudden emergency; and being acquainted with local circumstances, and inured to the cli. mate, can perform services, which uninformed, raw European troops cannot do; and, were interest and attachment less operative considerations, colonial inhabitants may be depended on ;-many instances of which were exhibited in the events of last war.'
• The truth is, that sugar plantations, though they are great fources of wealth to their proprietors, as well as to government, do not employ a sufficient number of white people for their internal fecurity against the insurrections of the negroes. The manufacture is fimple, and the labour wholly carried on by flaves; and chough the Deficiency Law of Jamaica directs, that one White person thall be employed for every thirty flaves, under a penalty of thirty pounds per annum for every deficiency,—yet this law is often de. feated, or the fine submitted to ; as White servants are expensive, and a less number than that proportion is sufficient for the purpose of making sugar.
• The cultivation of inferior staple commodities is therefore neceffary to the very existence of the sugar colonies; and I am perfuaded will prove to them more beneficial in many respects, than at prefent is generally imagined.--Here, then, is an open and grateful field for colonial patriotism ; in which the Amor Parrix will neither find oppofition from envy, nor disappointment from ingratilude.- Here is the occasion to demonstrate the love of country, and to perpetuate a benefit to mankind, which will never be for. gotten; and if those who, from character and situation, are entitled to attention, will come forward, and point out to the public the impofitions it has suffered from misrepresentations, and that the interests of the sugar colonies are no other than the best interests of
• The duties and excises, upon a computation for the year 1781, amount to about 1,344,312 1. fterling, annually, on the produce of Jamaica only.'
this country, there will never be wanting sufficient good sense in the nation, to underítand, that a subject of the realm, exerting his industry at four thousand miles distance, may be employed as beneficially to the state, as the manufacturer at home, who lives by him; and is as much deserving the protection of it, as the country 'squire, who leaves his fox-hounds, to give a filent voie or ewo daring the winter, and retires the remainder of the year to his Sa. bine Fields in sloth and ignorance.'
We with that these sentiments, which we think to be the voice of truth and reason, may meet with attention ; and that, instead of perpetuating misery in the islands by the continuai importation and increase of flaves, the safety and happiness of the inhabitants may be insured, by encouraging the induftry and promoting the settlement of free people.
Art. VIII. Discourses on Hiftorical Subjets. By the Rev. Mr. Gre
gory, M. A. Vol. I. 8vo. pp. 103. 28.0d. sewed. Deighton. 1791. Since example has more influence on the mind of man than
precept, it will not be doubted that historical or biographical facts may very properly be made the basis of practical addresses to the people; and perhaps a much more extensive use might be advantageously made of what may be called historical preaching, than has hitherto been generally imagined. It was not necessary for the present author to appeal to the authority of Basil, or any other ancient writer, to prove that the Scriptures afford many lively portraits of virtue for our imitation. Judgment, however, should be exercised in the felection of incidents or characters from the Scriptures, as well as in the application of them to the purposes of moral and religious instruction. The fatal effects of jealousy and envy may be forcibly represented from Cain's murder of his brother Abel; and intrepid integrity and piety may be advantageouQy exemplified in the character of Daniel : but it may not be so easy to deduce important reflections from the narrative of the confusion of tongues at the tower of Babel ; of the Israelites pafing the Red Sea ; of the death of Sisera by the hand of Deborah ; and of the deliverance of Jonah from the belly of a fish. Accordingly, several of these discourses consist of a tedious historical detail, with a very small portion of moral application. For example, the discourse on the Israelites pafling the Red Sea is chiefly employed in attending the Israelites froma Egypt, to the separation of the waters for their passage ; and nothing is added, but a remark on the power of God, and a reflection on the resemblance between thele incidents and Christian baptism. In like manner, the story of Jonah is principally applied as a type of the death and resurrection of Jetus:
• Jonah, • Jonah,' says our author, was a figure of Christ, who died upon the cross to make an atonement for our sins. We chat believe in him, being before tossed with storms of fears, and in danger of being drowned in the pit of destruction, thereby obtain peace witla God, and enjoy quiet and rest in our souls.'
• Whilst we consider the dreadful ficuation of the prophet Jonati in the belly of the whale, and his deliverance therefrom on the third day; let us always carry in mind the death and sufferings of Jesus Christ, and his glorious resurrection ; to which this story is analogous. There is also a further fimilarity between them. For as Jonah, after his deliverance, went and preached to the Ninevites, and turned them to repentance; so, likewise, after the resurrection of Christ, the Holy Spirit was sent down upon the Apostles, and they went forth to convert all nations, to teach them the knowledge of the true God, and the neceflity of a Saviour ; baprizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.
• We may further learn from this example, that although we may be plonged into a sea of troubles, and so surrounded with dangers and misfortunes as to despair of succour; we may nevertheless be assured, that the hand of the Lord is not shortened, and that he heareth, from his holy seat in heaven, all those who call upon him in the hour of distress and misery. Yes, the fame Almighty Being, who delivered Daniel from the lions' den, who protected Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego in the burning fiery furnace ; who pre. ferved alive the prophet Jonah for three days and three nigfits ia the belly of a whale, will never leave us nor forsake us. ParticuJarly not, when languishing under bodily infirmities, and lying upon the bed of sickness, we beseech him to restore us to our former health ; unwilling yet perhaps to quit the world, unprepared perhaps to die!"
This last inference certainly implies an idea not very confitent either with found theology, or with fact; viz. that whenever we are lying on the bed of sickness, we may expect deliverance from death in consequence of our fervent prayers. How much more noble is it, instead of praying against death, to follow the counsel of the heathen poet, and to pray against the fear of death,
Fortem pofce animum, et mortis terrore carantem; leaving all external events, as Juvenal, in the same beautiful paffage, advises, to the direction of the powers above us :
Permittes ipfis expendere Numinibus quid
Conveniat nobis, rebufque fit utile noftris. These discourses are certainly not destitute of juft observations and useful reflections : but we cannot think them entitled to any high degree of commendation, either as literary compo sitions, or as practical sermons adapted to general utility.