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and infinuations exhibited against them by Dr. Priestley. They have chosen Mr. Burn for their advocate on the present occa: fion; and the Reply now before us is entitled to attention, from its having been drawn up and published, as we learn from the Introduction, with the general concurrence and approbation of the clergy of Birmingham.'

Mr. Burn meets Dr. P. with boldness, and evinces confiderable ability and adroitness as a writer. While he assures us that the clergy of Birmingham felt for Dr. Priestley in his sufferings, he does not omit to remind us that their present bufiness with him is not in the character of an injured man, but in that of an accufer. How far he is justified in the charges which he exhibits against the clergy and other inhabitants of Birmingham, Mr. Burn invites the public to examine. He particularly notices the several articles of impeachment; and we hope, for the sake of truth and justice, that every reader of the “ Appeal” will become a reader of this Reply. We have omitted articles which have long waited for insertion, that the attack and the vindication may appear as nearly together as possible.

According to this pamphlet, Dr. Priestley has been inaccurate in several particulars; and, of course, his reasonings on false facts must be deemed irrelevant. Mr. Burn does not al. together deny the circumstance mentioned by Dr. Priestley, respecting the refusal of the clergy to walk or ride with Diffenting ministers at funerals. He allows this to be true of some of the clergy of Birmingham : but he obferves, that this conduct arose from their personal objection to Dr. P. whose opposition to the church they deemed ro indecent, that some of them thought they could not with propriety act officially with him Mr. Curtis, he says, had no objection to Mr. Scholefield, yet, if be did it with him, he would not have been able to have drawn the line. Presuming on the truth of this statement, the removal of Dr. Priestley from Birmingham must contribute to unite the clergy and the Disenting ministers, at least over the grave. When the former are employed in depositing the remains of a Nonconformist in the dust, we do not see the propriety of their attempting to draw any line of discrimination between one Disa senting minister and another. We are always sorry when the teachers of religion appear to fall out by the way. All resentment should disappear at the fight of that place, where the wicked and disputatious cease from troubling.

If Mr. Burn seems rather to retire from the defence of Mr. Madan's sermon, he is firm in his vindication of the clergy; and he avers that the passage in Dr. Priestley's first letter to the inhabitants of B. in which the discourses of


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the clergy are accused of inflaming the populace to violence,

was as great an outrage upon character, as the conduct of the rioters had been on property

On the subject of the famous hand-bill, our author takes, what is called in parliamentary language, high ground; and as to the mode of their resisting the repeal of the corporation and teft acts, Mr. B. reminds the Doctor, that they were taught to adopt it by the very example of the Diflenters. This is the truth : some of the Diflenters threatened ; and when minorities threaten, they are generally defeated.

It appears by the pamphlet now under our notice, that Mr. Ruffell, and not Mr. Dadley the master of the hotel, was the person who prevented the dinner being put off, as was recommended. Mr. Dadley's solemn deposition, to prove this, is opposed to Mr. Russell's statement. It also appears, that the address to the mob, which has been so much discussed, and which began, Friends, and fellow.churchmen,was intended as a quieting sop for Cerberus, and was prepared and thrown to the many-headed monster, with the concurrence and at the express desire of the Dissenters. The name of Mr. Taylor is mentioned on the occasion.

With a view of vindicating the inhabitants of Birmingham from being the cause of the riots, several instances of prudent exertion are mentioned, and these instances merit being recorded: but we fear that it will be replied, exceptio confirmat regulam. Highly to be commended are those individuals who acted in the manner described by Mr. B. (p. 51.); yet it does not necessarily follow that this was the general conduct of the master manufacturers : for if all the workmen had been kept in their shops by rewards, by looks, or by threats, whence would come the rioters?

We with not, however, to be prolix on the subject of riots and rioters. More particulars are here discussed than we have space or time to notice. The conduct of the clergy, after the riot, appears to do them honour. We say appears ; for, while facts thus meet facts in battle array, we know not what to believe.

There are several passages in this Reply which are open to animadverfion : but, having said the needful, we shall make no remarks on the spirit and temper with which these counterfacts are recorded: leaving this office to Dr. Priestley in his Rejoinder; which, no doubt, will soon appear.

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Art. XXI. A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: With Stridures

on Political and Moral Subjects. "By Mary Wollstonecraft. 8vo.

pp. 452. 6s. Boards. Johnson. 1792. PHILOSOPHY, which, for so many ages, has amused the in

dolent recluse with subtle and fruitless speculations, has, at length, stepped forth into the public walks of men, and offers them her friendly aid in correcting those errors which have hitherto retarded their progress toward perfection, and in esta. blishing those principles and rules of action, by which they may be gradually conducted to the summit of human felicity. Inveloped as mankind at present are with the mists of prejudice, and encumbered on every side with institutions and customs, which prevent the free expansion of their intellectual and moral powers, it is the interest of private individuals, and the duty of those who are entrusted with the care of the public welfare, whereever, or in whatever character, this divine Instructress appears, to give her an honourable reception, and an attentive hearing. Among the most enlightened people of antiquity, Wisdom, as well as Beauty, was deified under a female form; and in modern language it is ftill usual to give Philosophy and Wisdom a female personification. What is this but a tacit concession in favour of the female part of the species, that they are no less capable of instructing than of pleasing?—and how jealous foever we may be of our right to the proud pre-eminence which we have assumed, the women of the present age are daily giving us indubitable proofs that mind is of no sex, and that, with the fostering aid of education, the world, as well as the nursery, may be benefited by their instructions.

In the class of philosophers, the author of this treatise whom we will not offend by styling, authoress-has a right to a distinguished place. The important business, here undertaken, is to correct errors, hitherto universally embraced, concerning the female character; and to raise woman, from a state of degradation and vaffalage, to her proper place in the scale of existence; where, with the dignity of independence, she may discharge the duties and enjoy the happiness of a rational Being. The fundamental principle, on which the whole argument of this work is founded, is that, except in affairs of love, sexual diftinctions ought to be disregarded, and women be confidered in the light of rational creatures; who, in common with men, are placed in this world to unfold their faculties, and whose first object of ambition ought to be to obtain a character as a human Being. It is acknowleged that more attention has lately been paid to the education of women than formerly: but it is at the same time maintained, that the method, in which they are commonly educated, only tends to enfeeble both the body and the mind,


and to render them insignificant objects of desire. In order to correct this error, which is considered by Miss Wollstonecraft as a gross violation of justice against one half of the species, and as prolific in mischief to the whole; and after some general obfervations on the rights and duties of human beings, and on the causes of the present imperfect state of human society; the prevailing opinion of a sexual character is discussed, and its influence on female education and manners is, with equal foli. dity of reasoning, and strength of colouring, represented at large. From a great variety of juit observations and bold reflections on this subject, we select the following:

• Many are the causes that, in the present corrupt state of so. ciety, contribute to ensave women by cramping their underkeands jogs and sharpening their senses. One, perhaps, that filently does more mischief than all the rest, is their disregard of order.

To do every thing in an orderly manner, is a most important precept, which women, who, generally speaking, receive only a disorderly kind of education, seldom attend to with that degree of exactoess that men, who from their infancy are broken into mechod, observe. This negligent kind of guess-work, for what other epithet can be used to point out the random exertions of a sort of indtinctive common sense, never brought to the rest of reason? pre. vents their generalizing matters of fact-- so they do to-day, what they did yesterday, merely because they did it yesterday.

• This cootempt of the understanding in early life has more baneful consequences than is commonly fupposed; for the little knowledge which women of ftrong minds atrain, is, from various circumstances, of a more derullory kind than the knowledge of men, and it is acquired more by theer observations on real life, than from comparing what has been individually observed with the relulis of experience generalized by speculation. Led by their dependent fatuation and domestic employments more into society, what they learn is rather by snatches; and as learning is with them, in genesal, only a fecondary thing, they do not pursue any one branch with that persevering ardour necessary to give vigour to the faculties, and clearneis to the judgment. In the present face of Society, a liule learning is required to support the character of a gentleman; and boys are obliged to submit to a few years of disa cipline. But in the education of women, the cultivation of the understanding is always fubordinate to the acquirement of some corporeal accomplishment; even while enervated by confinement and false notions of modesty, the body is prevented from attaining that grace and beauty which relaxed half-formed limbs never exhibit. Besides, in youch, iheir faculties are not brought forward by emulation; and having no serious scientific ftudy, if they have na. tural sagaciry, it is turned too soon on life and manners. They dwell on effects, and modifications, without tracing them back to causes; and complicated rules to adjult behaviour, are a weak sub. Ritute for simple principles.

• As

• As a proof that education gives this appearance of weakness to females, we may infance the example of military men, who are, like them, lent into the world before their minds have been stored with knowledge or fortified by principles. The consequences are fimilar; soldiers acquire a little fuperficial knowledge, snatched from the muddy current of conversation, and, from continually mixing with society, they gain, what is termed a knowledge of the world; and this acquaintance with manners and customs has frequently been confounded with a knowledge of the human heart. But can the crude fruit of casual observation, never brought to the teft of judgment, formed by comparing speculation and experience, deserve such a distinction ? Soldiers, as well as women, practise the minor virtues with pun&tilious politeness. Where is then the sexual difference, when the education has been the same! All the difference that I can discern, arises from the superior advantage of liberty, which enables the former to see more of life.'

The folly of the present mode of female education is well exposed in the contrasted pictures of a woman formed after the fashionable model, and another educated on rational principles, in the trying situation, when she is left with a large family, without her accustomed guide and protector :

• Supposing a woman, trained up to obedience, be married to a fengible man, who directs her judgment without making her feel the servility of her subjection, to act with as much propriety by this reflected light as can be expected when reason is taken at fecond hand, yet the cannot ensure the life of her protector; he may die and leave her with a large family.

• A double duty devolves on her; to educate them in the chasacter of both father and mother; to form their principles and secure their property. But, alas! she has never thought, much less acted for herself. She has only learned to please men, to depend gracefully on them; yet, encumbered with children, how is the to obtain another protector-a husband to supply the place of reason? A rational man, for we are not treading on romantic ground, though he may think her a pleafing docile creature, will not choose to marry a family for love, when the world contains many more pretty creatures. What is then to become of her! She either falls an easy prey to fome mcan fortune-hunter, who defrauds her children of their paternal inheritance, and renders her miserable; or becomes the victim of discontent and blind indulgence. Unable to educate her sons, or impress them with respeat; for it is not a play on words to affert, that people are never respected, though filling an important station, who are not respectable; the pines under the anguilh of unavailing impotent regret. The serpent's tooth enters into her very soul, and the vices of licentious youth bring her with forrow, if not wich poverty also, to the grave.

· This is not an overcharged picture; on the contrary, it is a very possible case, and something similar must have fallen under every attentive eye.

I have, however, taken it for granted, that she was well. disposed, though experience thews, that the blind may as easily be

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