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way: but they, for the most part, torn on sobjeêts that more in. mediately belong to what is usually termed the orthodox system of theology. They are generally written in the ancient textual method, with all the formality of division, subdivision, and improvement. The author appears to be a man of a candid spirit; and though he adheres pretty closely to the established creed, he lays more stress on rectitude of conduct than on foundness of faits. On the subject of religious freedom, his sentiments are manly and liberal. We quote the following passage as a specimen of his manner of writing:
• Every man hath a right to make a conscientious inquiry about the will of God toward him—about the part alligned him to ac by the Supreme Governor-about the truths proposed to his understand ing, and the rules prescribed for his conduct. Every man ought to examine, it is his duty to examine candidly, the various schemes of religion that may be offered to him, to reject what he may think wrong, and to embrace, after inquiry, what appears worthy and proper to be embraced. Every man bath a right to worship God in the way his conscience di&tates.
• The hand of God hath given us those liberties, and the hard of man cannot take them away. To talk of force in this affair is a perfect absurdity. How pre pofterous it is for man to lay his commands on a thing not subject to man's jurisdiction. The chief may order us to embrace this or that system of opinions; this or that form of worship; conscience (miles at this order. The human mind will think its own way, will see with its own eyes, and will take its own course, in spite of all the orders of men, and in opposition to all the statutes of human authority by which they may be inforced. What was it that produced our Reformation from papacy? or what is it that supports this glorious fabric? It is free. dom of inquiry: Take away this the Reformation goes with it; popery and implicit faith will brandith their sword again over a benighted world. These are rights inherent in men, liberties be. ftowed on human nature by its Creator; to hold them facred and treat them with reverence, and to endeavour to hand them down incorrupted, is a point of effential justice.'
SINGLE SERMONS. Art. 70. Preached at All Saints, High-Wycombe, Bucks, Jan. 1,
1792. By William Williams, of Worcester College, Oxford, Curate of the said Church. 8vo. pp. 29. 15. Deighton.
The parable of the prodigal fon is here spiritualized, and made the foundation of an address, to finners in a Itate of alienation from God.' It reprefents all men as naturally prodigals, and urges the necessity of returning to God,' in that strain of eloquence which is asual among the followers of Calvin and Whitfield. Art. 71. God manifeft in the Flel. Preached at High-Wycombe, Bucks, Dec. 25, 1791. By William Williams, Curate of All
Saints, High-Wycombe. Published by Requeft. 8vo. Pp. 28. 15. Deighton. 1792.
The doctrine of the Trinity is here ftrenuously asserted, and many passages of fcripture are quoted to prove it: bat we do not find, what, indeed, we could not expect, that the author has advanced any thing that is new on this exhausted subject. Art. 72. Occafioned by the Death of John Thornton, Esq. late
of Clapham, Surry; containing Observations on his character and Principles. 8vo. 15. Johnson. 1791.
The character of this gentleman has been, for many years, esteemed and respected. We doubt not that all who have knowa him, will allow the propriety of the delineation which is here made. The discourse is well written, and bears evidenc marks of the author's good sense, and of diligent attention to his subje&. One sentiment runs through the whole, to which we cannot avaid ob. jecting. We trust that we are neither uncandid, nor biassed by any party-view, when we express our disapprobation of this writer's appearing, at least, to assert that Mr. Thornton's exemplary benevolence, probity, and piety, are to be ascribed to what has been deemed orthodoxy of opinion. That his eminenc virtue was produced and improved by the principles of Christianity, we have no difficulty in acknowleging: but if our author would persuade us that the Calvinistical explication of those principles alone could produce such an effect, we not merely hesitate, but declare our full diffent.-Worthy and excellent characters have abounded, no doubt, among all the denominations of Christians, -even among Roman Catholics, to whom, perhaps, as much as' to any, this writer might be disposed to object. - Persons who are far removed from what be regards as orthodox, will acknowlege and act on the . conftraining love of Christ, and the infinite mercy of God hereby displayed,
It is not surely charitable, nor Christian, to confine religious and virtuous conduct to any set of principles which depend on human explications. The principles of divine revelation, if we carefully at. tend to them and act on them, will, though in some respects dif. ferently received, operate to the most valuable purposes; and it has not been without reason that sensible and upright persons have ex. pressed their fear, that this purpose has been obftructed and narrowed by those who have dogmatized about articles of faith, and by these means have led men attray from real piety and righteousness.-Lec us direct this author to one character, which the perusal of this pamphlet has brought to our recollection: It will be no degrada. tion to Mr. Thornton's merit, however considerable, to class him with Mr. Thomas Firmin t; like him, in the mercantile line; like him, also, eminent for rectitude, philanthropy, and activity in
• The text of this discourse, 2 Cor. v. 14, 15.
useful and worthy parfuits, and a&uated in all by the principles of Christianity, -illustrating, in his own conduct, their excellence and efficacy.--He has been dead nearly a century, but his memory survives with honour; as, we doubt not, will that of Mr. Thornton, to many diftant years :--but Mr. Firmin, it is well known, was, though an established Chriftian, an Unitarian and Socinian in principle.
It will not be improper, before we close this article, juk to obferve, that Mr. Thornton's extensive, and, it may be said, surprizing beneficence, (as was that of Mr. Firmin,) was greatly afsted by a wife frugality and economy in the conduct of his affairs. Dilipa. tion and extravagance leave no room for benevolent attentions; if they seem to take place, it is thoughtlessly, often without any rigbt principle in the bestower, or deftitute of much service to the receiver, and not unfrequently in contradiction to the claims of justice and honesty. Art. 73. Preached at the opening of Bridwell Chapel, near Ul.
culme, Devon, 4th Jan. 1792, by Johua Toulmin, A. M. To which is prefixed, an Address delivered on the fame Occasion by John Williams. Svo. 15. Johnson. This chapel has been erected at the sole expence of Richard Hall Clarke, Esq. of Bridwell. It is intended for divine worship on the Unitarian plan. Mr. Williams, the miniiter of the place, as we conclude, presents a fair and free declaration of that view which he and his affociates take of Christianity, at the same time that he afferts the right of private judgment, and claims the forbearance and candour of those brethren who may diffeot from their opinions. The subject of Mr. Toulmin's fermon is the promise of Chrift's presence with bis disciples, Matth. xviii. 20.-Dr. Priestley's paraphrase of the words seems nearly, if not entirely, to include the meaning aligned to them in this discourse. It is here quoted, as follows,-" Whenever so few of you are assembled, as Christians, for any purpose that refpects my religion, it is the same thing as if I myself were there: so that your prayers and your acts will have the same force as mine."--Mr. Toulmin observes, • the gracious promise holds forth an assurance of the good effeels, which mould follow the assembling together in his name.'-He adds, in a note, “ Bilhop Pearce thos glosses the words:'--but the Bishop seems to limit the promise to the apostles, --and does not appear wholly to coincide with this account: his concise comment indeed leaves the reader fill rather oncertain and perplexed.-Mr. Toulmin apprehends it may be thought, that too much time and labour have been given to explain a phrase, the meaning of which is not far to seek. And certainly this might be said, if a couclufion had not been drawn from the text, which entirely confounds the character of Christ with that of the Being who fills heaven and earth. He proceeds to draw some practical inferences from his subject : but we have only farther to remark, both as to the address and the sermon, that while they plead for purity of worship, they urge, with energy and
animation, that practical infuence of piety, and that integrity of life, devoid of which every other kind of zeal is base and contemprible.- We hould observe, that a liturgy is to be used in this chapel.-The prayers which were delivered on this occafion immediately before, and after, the sermon, are here printed.
• To the MONTHLY REVIEWERS. GENTLEMEN,
14th July, 1792.' PLEASE to accept my thanks for your attention to my remarks on
a passage in Aristotle, in your Review for May. I certainly meant 7,82 and not råd. I cannot quite coincide with you in opinion in your observation on the last conjc&ure I offered: for although." the form of the phraseology be preceptive," it does not necessarily follow, that it is the precept of Aristotle; it probably was the rash decisión of some Pseudo. eritics at Athens, (the ci apwo. he had just been mentioning.) who guided the popular voice. Statim non poeta titulo salutandum eft, (fic enim perperam populus jubet,) etiamû imitationem perfecit. But my prefent motive for troubling you, was to point out what appears to me io be a palpable mistake in the third volume of the translation of Mariti's Travels, noticed in your last Appendix, p.525. It is respecting the Cypress, as it is there termed. It seems that the Abbé iniended to defcribe the Cyprus, and not the Cypariffus: Mariti says, that there is a general refeinblance between this tree and the Ligustrum (the Privet); but this does not correspond at all with the Cyparissus. In Ainsworth, the Cyprus is thus described : “ A buih or tree, much like to that we call Privet, of the Rower of which, in the le of Cyprus, they made a very sweet oil,” Plin. 12. 24. Cyprus is used also in the Vulgate edition of the Bible, to denote Camphire. Ainsworth, apud voc. The Greck Lexicon also mentions Kutros as signifying a tree. In Mariti's ad vol. p. 355, he says, " The shrub known in the Hebrew language by the name of Copher, the Latins call Cyprus, being common in that hand.” Cogher, ex Heb. 90) quod proprie picem fignificat. Camphite, G.ex Plin. vid. Ainsw. ap. voc. Copher. In the Song of Solomon, chap.i. ver. 14. according to our tranflation we read, My beloved is unto me as a cluster of Camphire in the vineyards of En-geddi;" according to the Vulgate, I think, “ Botrus Cypri dilectus meus in vineis Engaddi-- Burpusracemus-a bunch or clesier.”- -" The Botrus Cypri (says Mariti,) has been supposed to be a kind of rare and exquisite grapes transplanted from Cyprus to Enguddi: but the Betrus, (he adds, is known to the nations of Cyprus as an odoriferous flrub called Kenna (Chenna) or Alkanna. Copher, and Cipre, vol. I. p. 333 and 334." Pliny, 27. 4. speaks of an herb called Botrys, which, according to Ainsworth, is the Oak of Jerusalem. or Anubrojia. However this may be, there can be but little doubt that Cypress is a mis-translation. • I am, Gentlemen, respectfully
• Your obedient fervant, LAVENENSIS.' Lavenensis is entitled to our thanks for the accuracy of the foregoing observations. The Arub, of which the Abbé Mariti specks, is well
figured by Prosper Alpinus, p. 47, and has a manifeft fimilarity to Privet, or, rather, Myrtle; though, in its cluster of Aowers, it widely differs from both. The term Cypress was appropriated by our old Botanills to the plant known by the names of Cupressus, Cypariffus, and Chamæcyparifjus; also Cyperus was called Cypres Grals; all alluding to one common etymology:-in pursuance of which etymology, we suppose, the tranflator rendered Cyprus alfo Cypress. Parkinson, an authority among old English botanists, fpeaks' of this plant as a Privet; of which, had the translator been aware, he would doubtless have profited. The Cypress, properly fo called, was a fanereal tree ;-from its branches being hung up fo frequently in Rome at the doors of the deceased, it became one of the first objects of the young city painters' attempts at representations of nature, whence the remark of Horace:
" et fortale Cupresum
Navibus ære dato qui pingitur?" The Cyprus Plinii is the Lawsonia inermis of Linné. It woald fave much trouble, if all writers, when speaking of plants, would use the Linnéan name. The antient name might be easily adduced by way of illustration, but the characteristical name should be taken from the Linnéan Nomenclature.
*.* S. R. does not appear to distinguish between religion and its Decessary appendages; between its nature, which is not of this world, and the worldly exteriors with which the profeffion of it must at present be accompanied. Hence his objections to the article which has excited his comments:-but our engagements are become too numerous to allow of our entering into private controverfies; so that, on this, and on other disputed subje&ts, after impartially delivering our opinion, we are obliged to say, with Pilate, “ Wpat we have written, we bave written."
+++ We are forry to acquaint Græculus Efuriens, that there is not now any probability that the intended fcheme, to wbich he refers, will ever be execuied. It is the lot of mortals to meet with disappointments; and the circumftance, to which we here allude, is one of those instances that so often occur to remind us of the adage, Non omnia polumus omnes.
tit Olher letters remain for confideration.
In the Rev. for Jone, p. 197. 1. 13. from bottom, for • looks'
read locks. At the bottom of p. 360. (for July,) for RP. 130. read