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jectures that, for their mode of building, as well as for their astronomical hieroglyphics, the Gauls were originally indebted to the Indians. The last memoir relates to our author's controversy with Meffrs. De la Lande and Dupuis, who ascribe the invention of the zodiac to the Egyptians.
Observations made during a Voyage to the South Seas in the Years 1773 and 1774. By M. Le Paute D'Agelet.
This memoir confifts of extracts from the journal kept by M. D’AGELET, when he accompanied M. Kerguelen in his expedition to the South Seas. The particulars here mentioned relate to the variation and dip of the magnetic needle, to the saltness of the sea water, to the variations of the barometer and thermometer, and to the longitude and latitude of some of the places at which they touched. Among other observations that deserve attention, we find that this gentleman suspects the French geographers of an error with regard to the Isle of Trinity, which they have laid down in their maps of the African seas, but which he thinks is really the Ise of Ascençaon, which, by fome error of reckoning, occafioned probably by currents, has been twice laid down: at least, he found what in the charts is called Trinity, in 31° 53' longitude from Paris, which corresponds with that in which the Isle of Ascençaon is placed in the maps.
The situation of Foul Point in Madagascar is here determined to be 17° 40' 35" fouth latitude, and 47° 20' longitude.
M. D’Agelet tells us, that the weather in the southern hemisphere, between forty-four and fifty degrees of latitude, was very severe, even during the months of November, December, and January: the mercury in Réaumur's thermometer was seldom more than five degrees above the freezing point in the day-time, and, in the night, generally one or two degrees below it. In the space of two months, there were scarcely two fine clear days succeeding each other, and our navigators experienced almost continual fogs and storms, accompanied with violent rain, snow, and hail. The barometer varied from 26 inches 9 lines, to 28 inches 6 lines, Paris mealure.
The memoir is accompanied with a map of the land which these navigators discovered, and a plan of the bay in which they anchored, fituated in 48 40 fouth latitude, and 65° 50' eait longitude. The coast, which extended from 48° 20 to 49' 40 south latitude, was remarkably barren; and the mountains were covered with snow, and produced nothing but a yellow arid mois. On the thore, were multitudes of birds of various fpecies, and a great number of phocæ. The discoverers took 5
poffeffion of this dismal place, and called the bay by the name of one of their ships, Baye de l'Oiseau.
We fear that this memoir must be considered as a pofthumous publication, as the ingenious author failed with M. De la Proufe in the year 1785; from whom, we believe, nothing has been heard fince March 1788, when he was at Botany Bay.
Observations and Calculations of an Eclipse of the Sun, June 4th, 1788. By M. JEAURAT.
From Dr. Maskelyne's obfervation of this eclipse at Greenwich, M. JE AURAT has computed the following corrections of Euler's and Mayer's Lunar Tables : Mean conjunction by Euler's tables, 8h 14. 35
Difference, oh ó 57 5
Moon's longitude observed, 29 13° 14' 31"
23 13° 14' 48" Error + 17" from Mayer's old cables
} 28 13° 14' 27" from Euler's tables, 28 139 14 Moon's lacitude observed,
21' 1" North. Calculated from Mayer's new tables,
Error 23" from Mayer's old tables,
27 from Euler's tables, 20 21 On the Trigonometrical Operations performed in order to ascertain the Difference between the Meridians of Paris and Greenwich. By M. CASSINI.
As we gave, in our last Appendix, a particular account of this gentleman's larger publication on this subject, it is unnecessary to detain our readers with this memoir; in which the author expresses his grateful sense of the polite reception that he experienced in England, and his admiration of the observatories of Greenwich, Oxford, and Blenheim.
Calculation of the Triangles measured between Greenwich and Paris. By M. Le Gendre, .
This is the continuation of a memoir of which we gave an account in the Appendix to our fifth volume, New Series, page 514: the principles there explained are here applied to the triangles measured in England. M. LE GENDRE thinks that General Roy was wrong in his hypothesis concerning the figure of the earth, in applying corrections of which he did not point out the principles, and in not taking into consideration 3
the curvature of the triangles, but calculating them as if they had been rectilineal. He obferves, that the General's calcula tion of the longitude of Greenwich, which makes it 2° 19' 42", supposes the spheroidism of the earth to be 115th; whereas it is probably no more than zich ; on which hypothesis, the longitude of Greenwich is 2° 20' 15", or g' 21" of time.
MATHEMATICS. Memoir concerning an analytical Method of resolving Problems which relate to the Structure of Crystals. By M. Haüy.
The design of this paper is to deduce, from one general theorem, the various polyhedra, generated by a rhomboid composed of laminæ laid on each other, the sides and angles of which are supposed to decrease regularly by the suppression of the ranks of particles of which the laminæ consist. By this method, which was first suggested by Bergman, the Abbé Haüy has investigated all the various forms of crystals, which, notwithstanding their apparent diffimilitude, are deducible from one primitive form.
Inquiry into the Principles of the Differential Calculus and particular Integrals. By M. CHARLES.
In a memoir written some years ago, M. CHARLES Thewed that finite differential equations may, in some cases, have two integrals, one of which is not comprised in the equation that is considered as the general integral of that proposed. In the paper before us, he investigates this second integral in those cases in which the differences are infinitely small, and shews that it affords that species of solution, which is known by the appellation of particular integral, and which is only an incomplete integral deduced from an unknown complete one.
New Inquiries into the Construction and Limits of Finite Dif. ferential Equations of the First Order. By the same.
The intention of this memoir is to thew that the solution of a finite differential equation, in which the sides of two polygons are alternately assumed as the locus, corresponds exactly with the second integral, which he had before discovered by a method purely analytical.
On Double Integrals. By M. LE GENDRE.
Double integrals are highly useful in finding the magnitude of solids, and in calculating their attraction: an ingenious and fimple method is here given of facilitating the investigation of them, by a transformation of the variable quantities, illustrated by fome theorems relative to the attraction of spheroids.
The above are the principal articles in this volume: their variety and importance reflect honour on the learned body by which they are published, as they afford a proof that not even political contentions, which are often so faral to the interests of science, have prevented these philosophers from supporting that character, which their academy has so long maintained, as one of the most useful and respectable in Europe,
Art. V. Oratio Funebris 'in Obitum Viri Clarissimi, &c. i. c.
An Oration on the Death of ABRAHAM ARENT VANDER MEERSCH, Professor of Divinity and Ecclesiastical History in the Society of Remonftrants in Amderdam. By PAUL VAN HEMERT, Profeffor of Philosophy and Literature. 8vo. PP. 50.
Amsterdam. 1792. THIS This fpirited oration is an elegant tribute to the memory of
a worthy man, whose abilities and character rendered him beloved by those of his own communion, and commanded the respect even of those bigotted adherents to human systems, who disliked him on account of his love of free inquiry, and his zeal for rational Chriftianity. He was the disciple of the celebrated Wetstein, whom, in the year 1756, he succeeded in his profesforship. · He was not less remarkable for his acquaintance with modern languages and with the best writers in them, than for his extensive and familiar knowlege of the ancients: he translated into Dutch the works of Warburton, Sharpe, and Lardner, and wrote a considerable part of a Dutch Universal History, on a plan nearly the same with that of our Universal History. He was the author of a great number of anonymous dissertations on the controversy with Calvinists, and was always the zealous as well as the judicious defender of the community to which he belonged: but his chief work was a Dutch tranilation of and commentary on Eusebius, which was highly esteemed even by those whose religious sentiments were most opposite to his. The manuscript was fhewn, by the bookseller who published it, to Professor Voget of Utrecht, a most bigotted Calvinist, who was requested to write a preface to it; with this request the Profeffor readily complied, and spoke of the work with the strongest expressions of admiration. He happened, while correcting the proof, to hear that Vander Meersch, who was then a very young man, was the author whom he had thus recommended to the public. To have been surprized into such an act of candour toward an heretical remonftrant, was more than the good man's Christian patience could well bear, and he immediately added this sentence to his preface, “ Quid
diete periile juvat!” or, in plain English, What signifies learning, when a man is damned!"
In this, as in all the compositions of Profeffor VAN HEMERT, the Latin is pure and elegant, and the style is nervous and eloquent. The following Thort specimen will fully convince the learned reader that the work deserves this praise :
· Libertatem, fateor in religionis caufa, Meerschius profitebatur, eamque ut aliis concedebat, fic fibi vindicabat, omniumque viriuin coxtentione tuebatur. Hæc ea eft libertas aurea, quâ nos Remonstrantes jure noftro gloriamur; quæque SOLA characterem exprimit atque naturam familiæ noftræ. Hæc ea eft, quâ formularum humenarum patroni gloriari ac fuperbire nequeunt. Hæc ea eft, quam nobis ab ipfo Deo, dein ab Jesu Christo, quem unum veneramur magistrum, datam et concesam, pro virili femper ftrenueque defendemus, uamque eripi nobis, quoad maneat nostra societas, nulla ratione patiimur! Hoc enim, ut cum Tullio gloriabundus dicam, liberiores et folutiores fumus, quod in. tegra nobis eft judicandi poteftas, nec ut omnia, quæ præfcripta et quafi imperata fint, defendamus neceffitate ullâ cogamur.'
Art. VI. Mémoires du Ministère du Duc D'Aiguillon, &c.i.e. Me
moirs of the Administration of the Duke D'Aiguillon, Peer of France, and of his Goverament of Bretagne. 8vo. Pp. 392.
Paris, 1792. Imported by De Boffe, London. THE 'He scenes of vice and corruption, with which the history of
the French court is filled, must be disagreeable and painful to every friend of virtue: but this disgust is increased when these scenes are detailed by people, who dare not give their publications the fanction of their names, and who, for aught that we know, may deferve our indignation by having presented to us a series of vile falsehoods, dictated by a spirit of political resentment, or private revenge. Such were our sentiments on reading the present memoirs, which are published by we know not whom; nor do the editors condescend to inform us who was their author; nor how they fell into their hands; though they assert that some of the facis related could have been communicated to the writer by none except the Duke D'Aiguil. lon. He appears to be a zealous partizan of this nobleman, who is as uniformly the object of his praile, as every other mi. nister is of his cenfurc. He condemns with great severity the adminiftrations of Turgot and Necker: but the chief object of his aversion is the Duke De Choiseul, whom he represents as a man ready to sacrifice every thing to his unbounded lust of power, and whom he accuses of having poisoned Madame De Pompadour, the Dauphin, and the Queen.