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cuffed, are as follows: On the origin of the Gauls and Ger. mans; of their nobility, kings, princes, or chiefs. On the origin of the Franks, and of their chiefs and kings. On the kings and princes of the Gauls and Franks, and of their nobility. Under this head, we have a long litt of all the kings and princes of the Gauls and Gerinans, who are mentioned by Cæ. Jar and Tacitus; as likewise an abridged account of the kings, chiefs, and princes, of the Franks, who existed since that pe. riod and prior to the time of Clovis. To this is added a lift of fech Franks as were admitted to principal dignities among the Romans.--In the following chapter, we have some remarks on republics, monarchies, and nobility. These observations are defultory, and appear to be introduced without any evident connexion with what immediately precedes or follows. Chap. 6. contains a warm panegyric on nobility. Chap. 7. On Freemen, and on that class of people called • Letes' or · Lætii'Chap. 8. On slaves. -Chap. 9. On the hereditary succession of the kings of France, and of their rights from the time of Clovis to the present day.-Chap. 10. Of the antrustions. This word antrustion, (says the Abbé,) is 'peculiar to our history, and means, one whom the king has especially taken under his protection, in trusie regis.'-On the privileges, &c. of the nobles, -On ecclefiaftical poflellions.-On the bilops and clergy.On the order of knighthood. On the principal causes of the decline of the nobles, and of the means of re-establishing them.On ancient titles, dignities, lic. compared with those of the present day.-On the nicde of levying troops, &c.—On revolutions and their causes.Under this head, the present revo. Jution in France is considered, and, to our great surprize, we found, that this had been brought about by animal magnetism, M. Mesmer, and Cagliostro !
Such are the general contents of M. de Bevy's work, which, on the whole, seems to be correctly executed, and which may be useful as a book of reference to those who are searching into the early periods of French biftory.
Art. XV. Antiquités Nationales, &c. i.e. National Antiquities,
or a Collection of Monuments, &c. in the Kingdom of France. By AUBIN-LOUIS MILLIN.
Priored ac Paris, in the 2d, 3d, ano 4th Years of Liberty, 1790-1792*, This curious and entertaining work, as we are informed, has been presented to the National Assembly, and met with a
favourable A livraison, or number, of this work, appears monthly, and six pumbers make a volume. The priee of febécription (at M. de Boffe's
favourable reception. Its design is to provide us with such an account of tombs, infcriptions, statues, paintings on glafs, &c. drawn from abbeys, monasteries, castles, and other places within the French domain, as may prove a kind of general and particular history of the empire. The intention is respectable, and worthy of encouragement; a performance of this nature, at the same time that it entertains ine reader, is likely also to afford him considerable information.
This publication is in a progresive Rate : the three volumes, which are completed, consist of thirty-three articles; and several other livraisons (deliveries,) or numbers, are published, though few of them have yet come under our notice. The city of Paris chiefly furnishes the subjects of these volumes. From the cursory view which we have now been able to take of them, we are persuaded that the proprietor has employed great exertion and well-judged attention to render them picaling and useful to the pullic.
The collecrion opens with La Bastile.-- We should,' says the writer,' be inexcusable, were we to commence a history of the antiquities of the French empire by a description of any other monument. No object is more important than the Bac ftile, both on account of the terror which its existence inspired, and the universal joy which was excited by its fall.' - Accordingly, he proceeds to give the history of this famous, or rather infamous fortress, and to delineate its plan, clevation, and fta. tues ; with some other particulars. We remark, en pafant, the following lines-We firmly believe, with M. Charpentier, that the man in the iron mask can have been to other than an elder brother of Lewis XIV, the fruit of the gallantries of the amorous Anne of Austria, with the Duke of Buckingham, or fome other of her male favourites. After his death, adds our author,' every care was employed to have the fecre: buried with him : few were the persons who had any acquaintance with it: Madame de Pompadour knew it ; Lewis XVI. might poibly be ignorant of it.'
It will be easily imagined that an account of the destrullion of this fortress is not here omitted: "It is impolible to exprels, (says this writer,) the eigernels of every ciais of citizens to trample, with the fort of freedom, on the ruins of this residence of griefs and horrors.'
We are sorry that our present engagements will allow us to do little more than announce illis publication. We thouid Gerard-freer, Soho.) is ;l, per annum, if the numbers are delivered by the poit, as they are publilhed. If the work is served in von lumes at the year's end, he iubicription for the two annual volumes will be only 41. 49.
willingly willingly have presented the reader with several selections; which might at once allift his judgment concerning the volumes, and contribute to his amurement and instruction. At present, we must rest satisfied with a short extract or two.
Among the descriptions of the numerous monuments which the church of the Celestins in Paris presents to our notice, we have the following account:
• Near the tomb of Philip Chahot, facing the aitar, in the midit of those Gothic ftatues which recal the memory of Darbarous times, or of those superb sepulchres which cannot be furveyed without mingling with lentiments of admiration for the artist, melancholy reflections on the brevity of human life,-we perceive a pedestal richly ornamented, and supported by three young females of the greatest beauty : Are they virgins, who were martyrs ? No:- they are the Graces! We take no farther notice of the funereal images with which we are surrounded in this gloomy and melancholy chapel: we think ourselves transported into a temple of goddesses.
"These three Graces are of marble, and of one single block; they hold each other's hands, according to the manner in which the ancients have described them. They are the decent Graces; not eatirely clothed, but they are not naked; their proportions are so jutt, their heads so fine, that we cannot call our attention from them. Had the Greeks poffefsed this precious monument, it would have been celebrated by all their writers as one of the glories of their temples : yet the inhabitants of Paris know little of the existence of this chefd'æuvre. These Graces support ao urn of bronze, surmounted by a fleur de lis.
• It might be imagined that this urn is a depository of the ashes of some young virgio, cut off io the lower of her age. We approach it with emotions both of grief and renderness: we read the inscriptions, and we start back on learning from them, that this vase contains the base and persidious hearts, of the weak Heory II., of the extravagant (bizarre) and feditious Francis, Duke of Anjou, and finally of Charles IX. that butcher of his subjects. Catherine de Medicis ordered this monument (which ranks forf among the works of Germain Pilon,) as a receptacle for the hearts of her husband and her children.
• It is difficult to find a more finished piece of sculpture than this monument : for its noble fimplicity, the correctness of design, the elegance of form and contour, the lightness and excellence of the drapery, it well deserves a place in the museum which is hereafter to be prepared.'
No reader, who is acquainted with history, will censure this author for the contempt and execration with which the perfons, to whose memory this beautiful monument is dedicated, are mentioned. Catherine de Medicis herself, in the minds of all the sober friends of truth and liberty, will be consigned over to the same infamy with them, whatever flattery or elegance may appear on their tombs,
We fhall not lengthen our present article by farther extracts, unless it be just to lead the reader back to a Mort passage which occurs before the detail of the final demolition of that horrid abyss, the Bafile: complaints and remonftrances relative to this and to other royal prisons had several times been made by the parliaments; and, adds this writer,
• Lewis XVI, had himself perceived the iniquity of such imprifonments; this prince, who had abolished the torre, substituted, in the roon of theie infectious dungeons, more healthy places of confinement, and had said, in a declaration on the goch day of Avgust 1789, “ These concealed sufferings and punishments inflicted in obscurity, at the same time that they cannot contribuie, by their publicity and example, to the preservation of order, become useless allo in respect to the justice of our government."--Nevertheless, the ministry, the people in power, and all others who considered the Baftile as a proper instrument for the gratification of their paflions and their reseniments, found means to render his good intentions void.'
Whatever tribute of respect we may be disposed to pay to the good temper of Lewis XVI. the reader will probably infer, from the above hint, as well as from other circumstances, that the insufferable evils, under which the people groaned, would never have been remedied, had they not refolutely exerted them felves for their removal. Haughty despots, aristocrates, courtiers, &c. will never recede but by force; and whatever may be their pretended submissions and their promises, they will renew, if poffible, every kind of oppression and misery, if not vigilantly watched and powerfully restrained.
The engravings attending these volumes are very numerous: fifty-three in the first volume ; in the second, forty-nine ; and in the third, forty-four: they appear to us, for the chief part, to be well executed: if there be any failure in this respect, we apprehend it may be in some of the first numbers : but whatever litule exceptions may be made, the plates are, on the whole, very pleasing, and contribute to render the work highly agreeable and valuable. At some future time, we hope to be able to allow it a greater Phare of our attention.
ART. XVI. Relations de plusieurs Voyages, &c. i.e. An Account
of several Voyages to the Coat of Atrica, to Morocco, Senegal, Goree, Galam, &c. extracted from the Papers of M. SAUGNIER; to which is added, a Map of the Country, by M. DELA BORDE. 8vo. PP. 341. Paris. 1791. , Imported by De Boffe,
London. This his history is introduced to the public by M. DE LA
Borde. He observes that, through the whole of the narration, the most scrupulous attention is paid to facts; and thao it poffefies none of those fi&tions by which travellers milead their readers, while they seek to amuse them.
We are next prelented with the account of M. SAUGNIER's first voyage to Senegal. Amid various disappointments and vexations, which are here detailed, this gentleman embarked at Bourdeaux in December 1783, and set sail for Senegal. On the morning of the 17th of January 1784, through the carele:rnefs of the captain, and the ignorance of an inferior officer, the vefsel was run on a fand-bank, and lost near the mountains called Ipel de Nun, on the coast of Africa. One of the crew, who first quitted the wreck, and swam to the shore, was feized by the Moors, and his companions saw him exposed to a large fire, round which the natives were dancing with horrible gestures and noiles. Their fears induced them to think that he was killed and caten, and they even deliberated whether they Mould not blow up the ship, and themselves in it, rather than perifh on the shore. This proposition was over-ruled: but such was the terror of the captain, that he determined to kill himselt, and actually discharged a brace of pistols into his mouth. The chief part of the crew gained the shore, where they were taken by the Moors, who divided the plunder. M. SAUGNIER was claimei by two masters, one of whom, rather than yield his prize, attempted to ftab him, but, failing in his purpose, was himself killed by his competitor.--The natives, who were present at the time of the shipwreck, were the Mongearts, or Arabs of Saara, or Zara: these, however, had not the exclusive spoil of the velle, but were obliged to share it with the Moors of Biledulgerid, who are here called Monselimines : it was by one of these that our author was captured. He obferved, that the flaves of the Mongearts were more humanely treated than those of the other nations, and that they were in fume mealure clothed, while the others were totally naked: this difference, he imagined, muft arise from some intercourse with Europeans; and he therefore determined to attempt his escape from his present poflefior, in hopes that, if taken by the other party, he might be sooner removed to Senegal. He succeeded in his fight, and was seized by the Mongearts, by whom he was kindiy treated. As he had imagined, they made him travel toward Senegal, in order there to dispose of him: but a war, in which the neighbouring princes were engaged, prevented their design, and he was again removed into the delart. After a journey of thirty days, he arrived at his master's tent:bis employment here was to procure wood for firing, and to churn butter. He was afterward fold to several different matters; and he remarks that, as he approached nearer to Morocco, his treatment became more severe; till having been in