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ittumental in saving the life of a Moor who had bought him, and who was attacked by four Arabs, he was from that time used with the utmost civility, and even friendship. The brother of the Moor, one of the richest individuals of the country, offered him his fifter in marriage: but finding him disinclined to this connexion, he caused him to be conducted to the chief of Glimi, that he might be forwarded to Morocco. By this tíme, the European merchants at Mogador having received intelligence of the distress of M. SAUGNIER and his companions, had entered into measures for their relief, and they accordingly prepared with joy for their journey to that town. The interference of the merchants had, however, displeased the Emperor of Morocco: but his anger was of short duration : the unfortunate voyagers were kindly treated by him, while they remained in the country, and were speedily forwarded to France, where they arrived in the month of October 1784.
To this detail of M. SAUGNIER's voyage, are added some account of the manners of the people by whom he was enflaved.--Their religion is Mohammedan: they pray three or four times daily, sometimes more frequently, but never publicly, unless a priest happens to be in the horde. One principal occupation of the priests is, to attend to the education of the children; in instructing whom no force is used; they are never corrected; it would be a crime to strike a child, who, according to the received opinion, is incapable of knowing the right from the wrong:-on the same principle, they pay every attention to idiots, to persons who are deaf and dumb, and to madmen. At the age of nine or ten years, the children are circumcised; their heads are also shaved, leaving only four separate locks of hair; one of which is removed in consequence of any commendable action of the child, and the removal of all confers on him the rank of manhood.-In Saara, hospitality is practised in its greatest extent: the master of a tent will supply the wants of a stranger, though, in order to do it, he himself fafts.-The Mongearts, or inhabitants of Saara, contrary to the practice of their neighbours, tolerate all religions except the Jewish.-The respect paid to old age is extreme: the aged people, together with the chiefs of the horde, are the judges of the nation.- Wars between different nations are not frequent; the disputes between individuals of the fame country being fufficient to prevent much increase of population :--the whole society consists of robbers. -Women are better treated by the Mongearts than by their neighbours. Polygamy is authorized, yet few Arabs have more than one wile: in case of disgust between the parties, the wife retires to her relations; nor is the obliged to return to her husband, unless with her own APP, REV. VOL.VIII. Qq
consent: a husband is thought to give the greatest proof of his affection when he chastizes his wife ; in such a case, it is almost a certainty that no separation will take place. The conftancy of the women is not to be shaken.- These customs are not only observed among the Mongearts, but are common to many nations inhabiting the country to the north of the Niger. - The people of Saara, as well as those of Biledulgerid, acknowlege one chief of their religion. He is called Sidy Mohammet Moussa, and his authority is unlimited.
Such are a few of the observations made by this intelligent and unfortunate traveller.-In a subsequent voyage, for his fortitude was not overcome, he penetrated up the country of Africa, from Senegal to Galam, on the banks of the Niger, an expedition full of fatigue and danger. His remarks concerning the various people whom he visited, and his information respecting articles of commerce in that country, are particularly valuable: to attempt to abridge them would be useless, but we strongly recommend those, who are interested in the concerns of the African trade, to consult them in the original. Such readers as are unacquainted with the French language, have an opportunity of availing themselves of a translation of this work, united with the voyages and travels of M. Brisson, just published by Niessrs. Robinsons; of which we shall take farther notice hereafter.
ART. XVII. CAROLI LINNÆ Flora Lapponica, exhibens Plantas
per Lapponiam crescentes, fecundum Syftema Sexuale, collettas ir itinere impenjis Soc. Reg. Scient. Upsalienfis, Anno 1732 instituto. Additis fynonymis, et locis natalibus omnium, defcriptionibus et figuris rariorum, viribus meditatis et æconomicis plurimarum. Editio altera, autta & emendata, fudio & cura JACOBI EDVARDI SMITH. 8vo. 125. Boards.
White and Son, London. 1792. The republication of works of real excellence ought to be
received with all poflible favour; because it enables the less fortunate to receive the pleasure of poffeffing them, to which surely they are so justly entitled.—When works of value become scarce, the price is raised enormously :-Nor is the bookseller to be blamed. Why is precious gold so estimable? Why is the jewel of Golconda the envy of the world ? From their scarcity, and from the difficulty of procuring them. Why then is not the golden gem of literature to receive proportionate honours ? When such enormous accidents happen, Jet the rich, who can afford it, remedy them.--Here, however, we need not wait for riches. The industry of Messrs. White, and the learning and good-nature of Dr. SMITH, have Z 入
joined joined to restore to us, at an easy rate, one of the prime Line néan valuables *. They are entitled to our best thanks, and we wish them an abundant fale.
It will not be expected of us to say any thing of the original merit of Linné in constructing this first of Floras; of the beautiful preface, descriptive of his perils and difficulties in the attempt to explore the wide Lapland wastes; of his surmount: ing them all ; of his recital of the simple life of the Lapland. ers, and their blest innocence; of his happy success and return; and of the plants which he has so well described, and enriched with such varied anecdote; they are already well known: it is more to our purpose to exhibit the excellencies of the present edition, in comparison with the former.
'In the first place, we may observe, that the entire contents of the former edition are comprehended in this-the letterpress, the notes of reference, and the plates-even the frontifpiece, with its fimple representation of the path of the arctic sun.-In addition to all this, we have the Linnéan name given to every species throughout the whole. This could not take place in the former edition, for it was published before the Linnéan nomenclature was settled. All those species, likewise, are inserted, which peregrinators, fince Linne's time, have discovered to be natives of Lapland ; to the honour of Linné's consummate accuracy and diligence, they are not a very large number. Several errors, also, into which that great naturalift, from the accidents and imperfect knowlege of the time, had fallen, are corrected. These corrections are made partly from Linné's own MSS. and partly from the fagacity of Dr. SMITH, and the examination of his invaluable herbarium.
The botanical world, we must repeat, is much indebted to our booksellers, Messrs. White, for their publishing this edition in so accommodating and useful a manner ; equally fo indeed with the original one.
Their edition of Browne's Jamaica was another instance of the same kind. Neither should it be forgotten, that they enriched their publication fo very considerably as they have done, by liberally associating with themselves to learned a coadjutor as Dr. SMITH +.
It was deemed an intance of good luck formerly to meet with a copy of this work at a guinea.
+ The Doctor gives us reason to hope that, if his prefent labours are acceptable, (and who is there that will not admire them ?) he will publish a new and proper edition of the Syftema Vegetabilium, examined and corrected throughout from the Lingean manuscripts and his own actual observations. A work much so be desired! As would also another, highly worthy of the Linnean cabinet, a new edition of the Sp. Plantarum, including all plants known to the present time. Q92
ART. XVII. Obfervationes Botanicæ ; quibus plante Indie Occi.
dentalis ali eque systematis Vegetabilium, ed. XIV. illuflrantar, earumq. cbaracteres palim emendantur. Cum tabulis Æneis. Auétore OLAVO SWARTZ, M. D. Muf. Reg. Suec. Præf. Acad. Cafar. Nat. Curios. Regia Holmiens, &c. 8vo. Erlangæ. Sold
in London by White and Son. Price 145. Boards. 1791. SWEDE WEDEN may well plume herself on having produced, among
others, such illustrious naturalifts as the LINNÆI, father and son, THUNBERG, and SWARTZ. The torrid zone is by no means favourable to the inhabitants of northern regions : but this circumstance was no check to the ardour of ThunBERG and SWARTZ. The former will be immortalized by his researches in the East, and his Flora Japonica ; the present work will give equal reputation to the lacter. It is no small satisfaction to every one acquainted with their undertakings, that they returned fafely from their hardy adventures, and that they are ftill living to enjoy the credit which they have truly earned.
Dr. SWARTZ very modestly entitles his work, Observationes: had he given to it, like many a modern empiric, a more glaring name, he would have been justified on the merits of the case: for the botanical student has here a long list of West India plants most accurately defined, and cleared from the errors under which they before lay obscured. This was an evil that sprung up even under the arrangements of Linné himself: for as Dr. S. obferves, being often obliged to describe from dried specimens, and being under a necessity of trusting to the information of other botanists, and (which is an extremely fallacious method,) to the figures of authors, it could not well happen, that mistakes should always be avoided. These are here duly pointed out--a service for which that immortal man would have been the first and the most ardent to thank him.
Dr. Swartz directed his attention principally to the iland of Jamaica: but many plants from other islands are inserted.
The great merit of this publication consists in the large addition made to the known plants of the West Indies, in the very elaborate descriptions of all plants heretofore erroneously fet forth, or but imperfe&tly known, and in the scientific delineation of several plants, on eleven plates, at the close of the volume.
Had not the Linnéın cabinet been suffered to be carried out of Sweden, under the auspices of a Thunberg and a SWARTZ, (not to mention others,) Natural History mult still have main tained her empire there : fed victi ceffere DEI. It must, however, still be said of these great naturalists, jointly or individually,
Si Pergama dextra Defendi pollent, etiam hâc defensa fuiffent. The whole of this work is in Latin,
ART. XIX. The History of the Revolution of France. Translated
from the French of M. RABAUT DE SAINT ETIENNE. 8vo. pp. 328. 55. Boards. Debrett.
*HE translator of this valuable History, (James TVhite, Esq.)
gives the following account of his author : M. RABAUT DE ST. ETIENNE, after having distinguished himself as a legislator and as an orator in the National Assembly, assumed, with not less ability and zeal, the character of the national historiaa :-brief, elegant, eloquent, satisfactory, he hath recorded, within the compass of this compact and lively volume, the remote origin, the immediate causes, the progress, and the completion of that rapid and renowned regeneration.'
In heftowing a great, and probably a just, encomium on M. RABAUT, who intends by this work to vindicate the ca. lumniated reputation of his country, Mr. White apprehends that while this publication proves how indispensable a revolution was to France, it will also thew how unnecellary such a measure is for Great Britain :
• At the same time, (he adds,) I am far from thinking that there is nothing in our system of social order which requires the hand of reformation. Abuses do undoubtedly exist in this island, and the legillature is competent to invent and apply the remedy. But the fuccess of such designs will depend on the persons who originate and promote them. - The good sense of the men of Britain will induce them to disapprove alike the perverse timidity which infifts that all is right, and the unprincipled audacity which exclaims that all is wrong.'
With such remarks as these, the translator, in his preface, unites a few observations relative to those persons who have written against the French nation :
• The wrathful pamphlets (he says,) that have reviled the revolution, which it is the object of the following history to justify and defend, are as deficient in point of wisdom, as they are with respect to temper. They are ungenerous, injudicious, and unjust. It is ungenerous to insult and vilify a nation, which is struggling to relieve herself from the unchristian yoke of tyranny: it is injudicious, since none can tell what the Omnipotent may have in store for her; fince the persecution which the endures, the firm relittance which the is making, and the recollection of her former servicude, will at length interest every heart; since the side of general favour will turn violently in her behalf, from the noble delire to recompense her, for having rafhly thought unkindly of her ; fince, in fine, as hath been the case of late years with America, a prosperous issue may reconcile all Christendom to her cause : it is unjuft, fince no nation, and still less an individual of any nation, hath a right to censure the internal legislation of another, which in herself forms a sovereign and independent empire. One is astonithed at the waste of calents and tire which hash been committed in this kingdom, for Q13