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place religion in the most amiable light; and which recommend a great variety of moral duties, by the excellence of their nature, and the happy effects they produce. These subjects are exhibited in a style and manner which are calculated to arrest the attention of youth; and to make strong and durable impressions on their minds.*

The Compiler has been careful to avoid every expression and sentiment, that might gratify a corrupt mind, or, in the least degree, offend the eye or ear of innocence. This he conceives to be peculiarly incumbent on every person who writes for the benefit of youth. It would indeed be a great and happy improvement in education, if no writings were allowed to come under their notice, but such as are perfectly innocent; and if on all proper occasions, they were encouraged to peruse those which tend to inspire a due reverence for virtue, and an abhorrence of vice, as well as to animate them with sentiments of piety and goodness. Such impressions deeply engraven on their minds, and connected with all their attainments, could scarcely fail of attending them through life, and of producing a solidity of principle and character, that would be able to resist the danger arising from future intercourse with the world.


The Author has endeavoured to relieve the grave and serious parts of his collection, by the occasional admission of pieces which amuse as well as instruct. If, however, any of his readers should think it contains too great a proportion of the former, it may some apology to observe, that in the existing publications designed for the perusal of young persons, the preponderance is greatly on the side of gay and amusing productions. Too much attention may be paid to this medium of improvement. When the imagination, of youth especially, is much entertained, the sober dictates of the understanding are regarded with indifference; and the influence of good affections is either feeble, or transient. A temperate use of such entertainment seems therefore requisite, to afford proper scope for the operations of the understanding and the heart.

The reader will perceive, that the Compiler has been solicitous to recommend to young persons, the perusal of the sacred Scriptures, by interspersing through his work some of the most beautiful and interesting passages of those invaluable writings. To excite an early taste and veneration for this great rule of life, is a point of so high importance, as to warrant the attempt to promote it an every proper occasion.

To improve the young mind, and to afford some assistance to tutors, in the arduous and important work of education, were the motives which led to this production. If the Author should be so successful as to accomplish these ends, even in a small degree, he will think that his time and pains have been well employed, and will deem himself amply rewarded.

*In some of the pieces, the Compiler has made a few alterations, chicfly ver bal to adapt them the better to the design of his work.

THE HE author of the application of the Inflections, &c. to the collection of reading lessons in Murray's English Reader, has, with many others of his profession, borne testimony to the excellency of that work, by making it an almost exclusive reading book in his school for nearly fifteen years. Indeed, public taste has determined the merits of the English Reader, by pronouncing it the best work of the kind now in use. No reading book in the English Language, has a more unlimited circulation, or has done more to advance the art of reading. The writer, however, always supposed the work imperfect; in as much as Mr. Murray's strictures on correct reading are too abstruse and difficult for the generality of pupils; and none of his principles applied to practice; they therefore remained as mere inoperative precepts, without the force of examples. The subscriber has endeavoured to remedy this defect in the work, by applying the acknowledged principles of elocution, by sensible characters, to most of the pieces in the collection; and he has also furnished a Key, for the benefit of the pupil, exhibiting those principles, by rules and examples, and illustrating the manner of applying them to practice. The learner, by consulting this Key, will soon be enabled to extend the principles to general reading ;-for this purpose, let him, in the outset, compare his intended lesson with the rules and examples furnished in the Key, and with a pencil, make the requisite characters; this exercise will soon make him master of the principies, and the mode of applying them. These principles will enable him to impart to his reading, the greatest precision, harmoný, force and variety, and give a finishing polish to his style of delivery.

The work has now received its utmost perfection, and wears the stamp of its highest excellence. Mr. Murray's selections have been kept entire, and his order of arrangement scrupulously preserved; for in these respects no writer could have been more fortunate. The book is, in short, what it always has been, the English Reader, with the addition of the principles of Elocution, dictating the precise manner of reading its contents. It is there. fore humbly but confidently submitted to the favour of a discrimnating public, by that public's devoted servant,

Ulica, May 1, 1823.

A 1



Exhibiting the manner of applying the principles of Inflections and Emphases to the pronunciation of written language, with the definition of those terms.


HE infections of the voice are those peculiar slides

pronouncing a strongly emphatic

word, or making a necessary pause. Of these there are two, the upward slide, and the downward. The first is represented by a small dash inclining to the right in an angle of about 45 degrees, thus; the second is marked by the same character, inclining to the left, thus`.



Definition and Rule. The direct period consists of two great members, commencing with corresponding connectives, either expressed or implied, and the former part depending on the latter for sense-at the close of the first the rising inflection is applied, and at the close of the latter the falling inflection.

Example. As Columbia expects her sons to be brave, so she presumes her daughters will be virtuous`.


Definition and Rule. The inverted period consists also of two great members, similarly connected, yet making sense as it proceeds; it is also capable of being transposed and rendered direct, by which the dependence of the parts may be tested. These parts adopt the same inflection that are adopted in the direct period.

Example.-At the declaration of peace, in obedience to the voice of the people, the General returned his sword to its scabbard', because it was in obedience to the same respected voice that he drew it at the approach of war`.


Pefinition and Rule.-The loose sentence consists of a direct or an inverted period, with one or more additional members. The period is read as in the above examples, and the falling inflection is applied to each additional member that forms good sense.

Example. As you will find in the Bible all the truths ne

cessary to be believed', so you will find, at the same time, every necessary direction for the performance of your duty; this book, therefore, must be the rule of all your actions; and it will prove your best friend in all the journey of life`.


Definition and Rule.-The penultimate member is the last limb or member in the sentence but one. As the final member takes the falling, the penultimate adopts the rising inflection.

Example.-The soul, considered abstractly from its passions, is of a remiss and sedentary nature`; slow in its resolves, and languishing in its execution.


Whenever the member of a sentence, claiming the rising inflection, terminates with a strongly emphatic word, the falling inflection is applied; for strong emphasis always dictates the downward slide of the voice.

Example.-I must therefore desire the reader to remember that, by the pleasures of the imagination, I mean those only that arise from sight; and that I divide them into two kinds.


Definition.-Series implies that succession of similar or opposite particulars, or portions of a sentence, whether single, double, triple, or compound or whatever other variety they may assume, which frequently commence or close a compound sentence. These may be divided into 1st, The Simple Series;

2d, The Compound Series; 3d, The Series of Serieses.


Definition. The simple series consists of two or more single particulars, following each other in succession, either in commencing or closing a sentence.

RULE 1.-When the sentence commences with two particulars, the 1st takes the `, and the 2d the inflection.

Example.-Manufactures` and agriculture', give steady employment to thousands of the poorer order.

RULE 2.-When the sentence closes with two single particulars, the 1st takes the ', and the 2d the inflection.

Example.-Example is generally more forcible than precept or discipline`.

RULE S.-When the sentence commences with three single particulars, the 1st and 2d take the `, and the 3d the ́inflection.

Example. The head`, the heart, and the hands', should be constantly and actively employed in doing good.

RULE 4.-When three single particulars form the concluding series, the 1st and 3d take the `, and the 2d the ́inflection

Example.--Whatever obscurities involve religious tenets, the essence of true piety consists in humility`, love', and devotion'.

RULE 5.-When four single particulars form the commencing series, the 1st and 4th take the `, and the 2d and 3d the inflection.

Example. Health', peace, fortune`, and friends', constitute some of the ingredients of the cup of human happiness`. RULE 6.-When four single particulars form the concluding series, the 1st and 4th adopt the ', and the 2d and 3d the`, inflection.

Example. The four elements into which the old philosophers classed the material world, are fire', water, air, and earth'.

RULE 7.-When the commencing series contains a long list of particulars, they are divided from the right, into periods of three members each, and set off by the dash; the last period may be read after Rule 3, the others after Rule 4, and odd particulars after Rule 1.

Example of 5 particulars.-Gold, silver-copper, iron`, and lead', are found in many parts of the new world.

Example of 6 particulars. The elk, deer, wolf,—fox`, ermine, and martin', abound in cold climates.

Example of 7 particulars.-The Amazon,-La Plate, Missisippi', Missouri,--St. Lawrence, Oronoco, and Ohio', rank among the largest rivers upon the globe.

Example of particulars.-Cotton, coffee,-sugar, ruin', molasses, spice`, fruits`, and drugs', are imported from the West-Indies.

Example of 9 particulars.-Love, joy, peace`,-long-suffering, gentleness, goodness,-faith, meekness, and temperance, are the fruits of the divine spirit.

Example of 10 particulars.-Metaphors, enigmas, mottos', parables-fables`, dreams', visions, the drama', burlesque, and allusion', are all comprehended in Mr. Locke's definition of wit`.

RULE 5. When this long list of particulars forms the closing series, they admit of the same division, and are read according to Rule 4th ; but odd members agreeably to Rule 1st. Example of 5 particulars. The productions of Brazil, are grain, fruits-dye-woods, metals', and diamonds`.

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