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verely reflects on the good king Edward VI. and his government; and says, That the discipline of the university was discomposed and troubled by that king's injunctions and the flattering novelty of the age. It then commends the reign of his sister, the bloody queen Mary, and says, that the discipline of the church revived and flourished in her days, under Cardinal Pole; when, by the much desired felicity of those times, an inbred candour supplied the defect of statutes.Neal, Vol. 11. p. 282. Note. The reformation under king Edward is here styled a flattering novelty :" and the discipline and times of queen Mary and Cardinal Pole," a much desired felicity!"

“ Dr. Montague, one of the king's chaplains, had in several books publicly maintained that the church of Rome had ever remained firm upon the same foundation of sacraments and doctrines instituted by God. That the controverted points between the church of England and church of Rome are of a lesser and inferior nature; of which a man may be ignorant without any danger of his soul at all. That images may be used for the instruction of the ignorant, and excitation of devotion. That there are titular saints as angels.--He was called to the bar of the house of commons, and severely reprimanded by them, and admonished by his archbishop, (Abbot) but the king so much approved and favoured him that he advanced him to the bishopric of Chichester.”Rapin, Vol. x. p. 14, 17, 40, 204.“ He took Montague to be his chaplain (says Coke) a virulent, seditious, ill-natured fellow, to protect him from his contempt against his metropolitan and the parliament, for publishing new-fangled opinions to the disturbance of the peace of church and state : and when the commons questioned Montague for them, the king took part with him against them : alleging that he had taken the business into his own hands: whereas he took Montague into his power to protect him from the justice of them and his metropolitan, but never took other notice of Montague's busi, ness."-Coke Det. p. 20.

“ Dr. Cosins, (afterwards bishop of Durham) affirms in one of his sermons, that when our reformers took away the mass they marred all religion : but that the mass was not taken away in as much as the real presence of Christ remained still, otherwise it were not a reformed but a deformed religion. And to persuade a papist to come to church he told him, the body of Christ was substantially and really in the sacráment. This divine printed also a book of devotion in imitation of the Roman Horary : containing the lord's prayer, the creed, the seven sacraments, the eight beatitudes, the seven deadly sins, &c. This book was licensed by the bishop of London and publicly sold, when those of the most resolved protestants were (by authority) suppressed.”— Neal, Vol. 11. p. 302.

“ Mr. Adam in a sermon at St. Mary's in Cambridge asserted the expediency of auricular confession, saying, it was as necessary to salvation as meat is to the body. Others preached up the doctrine of penance, of authoritative priestly absolution for sin, and of the merit of good works. Others, that in the sacrament of the supper there was a full and proper sacrifice for sin. Some declared for images, crucifixes and pictures in churches; for purgatory, and for preserving, reverencing, and even praying to the reliques of saints.”-- Ibid. p. 303. * The greatest part of the controversy,” says Heylin,“ between us and the church of Rome not being in fundamentals, or in any essential points of the christian religion,


I cannot otherwise look upon it but as a most christian and pious work to endeavour an atonement in the superstructure.-It must be acknowledged,” proceeds that doctor, “ that the professors of the church of England, especially those of greatest worth, learning and authority, love temper and moderation; that the doctrines are altered in many things, as, the pope not antichrist, pictures, free will, inherent righteousness, the merit of good works ; the 39 articles seeming patient if not ambitious also of some catholic

Our churches begin to look with a new face, their walls to speak a new language, and some of our divines to teach that the church had authority in determining controversies of faith, and interpreting the scriptures ; and that for the exposition of scripture we are bound by canon to follow the fathers.”—Life of Chillingworth, p. 113. Note (A A.)

“ By letters intercepted,” says Whitelock, “it appeared that by authority from the pope, a new popish hierarchy by bishops, &c. was to be set up in all counties in England, and letters sent to Rome about the same."-Whitelock, Mem. p. 72.

“ Mr. Speaker,” (says Lord Falkland, a most zealous and active friend of the king)“ it seems to have been their work (speaking of some prelates and their adherents) to try how much of a papist might be brought in without popery; and to destroy as much as they could of the gospel, without bringing themselves into danger of being destroyed by the law. To go yet further; some of them have laboured so industriously to deduce themselves from Rome, that they have given great suspicion that in gratitude they desire to return thither, or at least to meet it half way. Some have evidently laboured to bring in an English, though not a Roman popery: I mean not the

Vol. iv.

outside of it and dress only, but equally absolute, a blind obedience of the people upon the clergy, and of the clergy upon themselves; and have opposed papacy beyond the sea, that they might setile one beyond the water at Lambeth ; nay common fame is more than ordinarily false, if none of them have found a way to reconcile the opinions of Rome to the preferments of England ; and to be so absolutely, directly and cordially papists, that it is all 1,500 pounds per ann. can do to keep them from confessing it.”—Rushw.

“Popish recusants were by King Charles not only tolerated, but moreover protected, countenanced and considered as the best subjects. They resorted publicly to mass at Somerset house, and returned from thence in great multitudes, as if their churches had been allowed by authority,” Rapin, Vol. x. p. 435. Let us hear Lord Clarendon's account of this matter--" The papists were, upon the matter, absolved from the severest parts of the law, and dispensed with for the gentlest. They were looked upon as good subjects at court, and as good neighbours in the country; all the restraints and reproaches of former times being forgotten. Their pomp and boldness increased to that degree that they entertained and urged conferences more avowedly than had before been known : they attempted and sometines obtained proselytes of weak uninformed ladies, with such circumstances as provoked the rage and destroyed the clarity of great and powerful families, which longed for their suppression. They grew not only secret contrivers, but public professed promoters of, and ministers in, the most odious and the most grievous projects. The priests and such as were in orders (orders that in themselves were punishable with death) were departed

from their former modesty and fear, and were as willing to be known as to be hearkened to. And for the most invidious protection and countenance of that whole party, a public agent from Rome, first Mr. Con a Scottish man, and after him the count of Rozetti an Italian, resided at London in great port; publicly visited the court; and was avowedly resorted to by the catholics of all conditions, over whom he assumed a particular jurisdiction, and was caressed and presented magnificently by the ladies of honour, who inclined to that professioni."-Clarend Vol. 1. p. 148. “The queen had prevailed with the king to receive this agent as a sort of nuncio.”-Rapin, Vol. x. p. 435.

“ Cardinal Barbarno was appointed by the pope protector of the English and Scottish nations, and Cardinal Ludovico of the Irish. These two cardinals erected a special society of four orders of jesuits in England, of whom the pope's legate residing in England for the time being was to be rector. Sir William Hamilton was also sent hence as envoy to Rome.”Hist Stu. p. 128.

Smith, titular bishop of Chalcedon, exercised episcopal jurisdiction over the English catholics, by commission from the pope ; appointed a popish vicar general and archdeacons over all England; conferred orders, and appeared in Lancashire with his mitre and crosier."--Neal Vol. 11, p. 164, 305.--Fuller, B. XI. p. 133.

“ In Ireland the king granted a toleration for the popish religion; it was there openly professed; and thicir ecclesiastical discipline avowed ; monasteries, nunneries, and other religious houses re-edified and filled with men and women of several orders even in Dublin itself. Mass houses, colleges and convents of friars were erected in the open view of the state : Lord Falkland complains they had their officials and vicars-ge

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