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and in “Richard Cour de Lion," that sovereign fights with a knight, and

“ Suche a stroke he hym lente,
That Richard's feet out of his styropes wente,
For plate, ne for acketton,
For hauberk, ne for campeson.
Suche a stroke he had none ore
That dydde hym halfe so moche sore."

" not

In a wardrobe account of the time of John, in the Harl. MS., 4573, is an entry of 12 pence for a pound of cotton to stuff an acketon for that king ; quilting or stitching it cost as much more.

Chaucer, in his “ Rime of Sir Thopas," tells us that the knight wore

« And next his schert an aketoun,

And over that an haberjoun.” Thynne, in his “

Animadversions on Chaucer,” 1598, says: “Haketon is a sleveless jackett of plate for the warre, covered with any other stuffe; at this day also called a jackett of plate."

Sir S. R. Meyrick, in his “ Critical Inquiry into Ancient Armour,” considers that this military garment was introduced into England until the time of Richard the First, after which it became, and continued for a long time, very prevalent" (vol. i. 48). It appears

to have been derived from the Asiatics during the Crusades; “and this,” says Meyrick, countenances the supposition of Perizonius, who supposes the word a corrupt pronunciation of the Greek xirwy. Whether the Turks had adopted the Greek name and corrupted it, or the garment was originally Asiatic, and called by the Greeks, who might be ignorant of its real name, ho kiton, i.e., 'the tunic,' when asked by the inquiring crusaders, may be matter of doubt; but the several corruptions of the word are in this order-hoketon, hoqueton, hauqueton, hauketon, haukton, auketon, aketon, actione, and acton.” The term was in use on the Continent at a comparatively recent period; thus, in “ Icones Historicæ Veteris et Novi Testamenti” (circa 1550), is a cut representing Joseph's brethren bringing his ensanguined coat to Jacob, which is

there styled le hoqueton. From the MS. “Chronicle of Bertrand du Guesclin [of the commencement of the fifteenth century] we learn that it was made of buckram :

“ Le haucton fut fort, qui fut de bouquerant; ”

“ The hacketon was strong, being made of buckram ;" and from the MS. “Roman du Ride et du Ladre," that it was stuffed with cotton:

“ Se tu vueil un auqueton,
Ne l'empli nie de coton,
Mais d'æuvres de misericorde,
A fin que diables ne te morde."
“ If you wish for an hauketon,
Do not fill it full of cotton,
But of works of mercy,

To the end the devils may not bite thee.” By an order in 1297 for the London City Gate guard the haketon and gambeson are to be both worn, or in default the haketon and corset, or haketon and plates. From this, as also the quotation from Richard Cour de Lion, it would appear that the baketon was not in all cases a quilted garment like the gambeson or panzar, both of which were so, and as their etymology shows protected the body specially. The City records further inform us in 1322 that the haketon and gambeson, covered with sendal or cloth of seye, shall be stuffed with new cotton cloth, and with cadaz and old sendal and nothing else. White haketons are to be stuffed with old woven cloth and cotton, and made of new woven cloth within and without. See Flotternel.

AGGRAFES. Hooks and eyes, used in ordinary costume or in armour.

AIGLETS (properly Aiguillettes). The tags or metal sheathings of the points, so constantly used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to tie different portions of the dress. • Aglotts of silver feyne” are mentioned in the 25th “ Coventry Mystery ;” and in Halliwell's “Glossary” to the edition of these early dramas printed by the Shakspeare Society, we have “agglet of a lace or point, fer.” The commentators on Shakspeare tell

us, that these tags or points sometimes represented small figures; which is what Grumio alludes to in the “ Taming of the Shrew," act i. scene 2, when he declares of Petruchio, that “give him gold enough,” and anyone may marry him to a puppet, or an aglet-baby.They were used profusely in the dresses of ladies and gentlemen from the time of Henry VIII. to that of Charles II. During the reign of Henry, they were appended to the ribbons or cords which drew together the different portions of the dress, and hung from the slashes of the garments, as well as from the cap, where they sparkled as ornaments. For passing allusions to these articles see pp. 224, 306, 308; and for their form see POINTS. The works of Holbein, and the many fine portraits of that period, furnish abundant examples of their form. Sir Anthony St. Leger, lorddeputy of Ireland in 1541, is described in a MS. in the State-Paper Office, quoted in Walker's “History of the Irish Bards,” as dressed in “a cote of crymosin velvet, with agglettes of golde 20 or 30 payer; over that a great doble cloke of right crymosin sattin, garded with black velvet, a. bonette with a fether set full of aggylettes of golde.” In the “Spanish Tragedy," 1592, occurs :

“And all those stars that gaze upon her face

Are aglets on her sleeve, pins on her train.” AILETTES (Fr.) Little Wings. A word applied to the small square shields worn upon the shoulders of knights from the latter part of the reign of Edward I. to that of Edward III. The brass of a knight in Gorleston Church, Suffolk, engraved p. 149, fig. 110, shows their appearance; as do one of the Septvans family, in Chartham Church, Kent, engraved in Hollis's “ Monumental Efigies ;” and that of Sir Roger de Trumpington, 1289, in Trumpington Church, Cambridgeshire. The Royal MS., 14 E 3, contains other examples, some of which are engraved in Hone's edition of Strutt's “ Sports and Pastimes of the People of England." Their use, it is hard to determine ; for their position in effigies behind the shoulders is opposed to the theory that they were defences for the neck. The only effigies in England on which they are seen are at Ash-bySandwich, Clehongre, and Great Tew. In these they are

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quadrangular, but in illuminated MSS. and other instances, the round, pentagonal, and lozenge shapes are seen also.

In the Pembridge effigy, circa 1330 (see Hollis) they are shown attached by arming points. They frequently serve as additional opportunities for the display of the armorial bearings of the wearer; and the mention of ailettes of leather, covered with cloth, for the Windsor tournament, 1278, and those of Piers Gaveston in 1313, “garniz et frettez de perles,” shows that they were more for ornament

than use.

ALAMODE. A plain kind of silk, something like lutestring, but thick and loosely woven, mentioned in the Act for the better encouragement of the silk-trade in England, passed in the year 1692 (Ruffhead, vol. ii. p. 567).

ALB. An ecclesiastical garment which reached to the feet; being, in fact, a long gown, generally secured by a girdle. It is, properly, made of fine linen, and of pure white; for it takes the name of alb from its white colour; but other colours were used, and silk, velvet, and cloth of gold albs worn, in the middle ages. It was furnished with apparels, and was anciently the ordinary dress of an ecclesiastic, and the second vestment put on by the priest

at mass.

ALCATO. A protection for the throat, used by the Crusaders, and alluded to by Matthew Paris. It was derived from the Arabs, and was probably of the nature of a gorget of mail.

ALLECRET. A light armour for light cavalry and infantry; consisting of a breastplate and tassets which reached sometimes to the middle of the thigh, and sometimes below the knee. (See fig. 224 of the History.) It was much used in the sixteenth century, particularly by the Swiss soldiers, who are commonly depicted in it in paintings and prints of that period. In the “ Triumph of Maximilian,” pl. 98, the officers of infantry wear these allecrets; and they are especially recommended light cavalry by Guillaume de Bellay, a writer on military discipline during the reign of Francis I., as quoted by Meyrick. He says: “They ought to be well mounted, and armed with a haussecol; a hallecret, with the tassets to just below the knee; gauntlets; vambraces and large epaulettes; and a strong salade, so as to give an open sight." This armour, he adds, is neither so heavy nor so secure as that of the mer-at-arms: but it gives less trouble to horses, and they are erabled to move about with greater facility than when ridden by heavier-armed soldiers.

ALMAYNE RIVETS. Overlapping plates of armour for the lower part of the body, held together by sliding rivets, allowing greater flexibility, and invented in Germany, whence the name. They were introduced in the sixteenth century. Suits of armour fitted with these rivets are constantly referred to by the term Almain rivets.

Lord Willoughby of Eresby, in his will, 1526, leaves to his nephew“ ten almaine rivetts.On pl. xxx. of Meyrick

and Skelton is shown a breast and back of such armour. It will be observed that in the breast the plates overlap upwards, in the back the reverse.

Otherwise the body could not be bent forward. The construction of the Almayne rivet

will be best understood by the aid of the cut, in which the system applied to a tace is shown front and back.

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ALMUCE or AUMUCE. A furred hood, having long ends which hung down the front of the dress, and which was worn by the clergy for warmth when officiating in the church during inclement weather. It is seen upon the figure of Laurence Lawe, in All Saints' Church, Derby, engraved fig. 162, and is commonly found on the brasses of canons during the fifteenth century. The brass of John Aberfeld, rector of Great Cressingham, Norfolk, from 1503 to 1518, engraved in Cotman's “Sepulchral Brasses” of that county, pl. 100, shows him in the hood, fur-tippet, and gown of a bachelor of canon law. It is similar to that of Laurence Lawe above referred to, except that a row of

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