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eral classification of gymnastic exercises.

6. Explain the various limits of education.

7. Show the place of family worship, religious ceremony, and membership with church in religious education.

8. Give a general outline of the psychological epochs in education, and indicate the leading characteristics of each epoch.

9. Show the comparative value of text-book and oral method of instruction.

10. Define education, attention, sense perception, creative imagination, and concept.


1. Distinguish between Political Economy and Civics. How are they closely related?

2. What fallacy, if any, in the doctrine that good business management for an individual is good business management for the public?

3. State the differences between direct and indirect taxation. Show by examples what you mean. State the advantages and disadvantages of both. 4. State the difference between cooperative and profit-sharing industries. 5. Define the principal terms used in Political Economy.

6. Is Protective Tariff a temporary expendient or a universal principle, theoretically?

7. Name the great writers on economics. What was the doctrine of Henry George, stated as an economic principle?


C. B. Rantz, of Colfax, Mass., is in the retail grocery business. On Tuesday, June 15, 1897, he opened his store with $28.75 cash in the drawer, and his stock invoiced $2,341.13. His entire sales for the day amounted to $178.42, including a bill of goods sold on credit to D. T. Lonroy, as follows: 10 lbs. of sugar at 7 cts. per lb.; 1 sack of flour,

$1.50; 2 lbs. of cheese at 12 cts. per lb.; 4 doz. eggs at 15 cts. per doz.; 3 lbs. of crackers at 8 cts. per lb. Mr. Lonroy was already indebted to Mr. Rantz to the amount of $17.72, and he paid $10 on account, for which he took a receipt. Mr. Rantz paid a gas bill of $4.28 and paid a clerk $10. He sent a check of $201 to the Fulton Grocery Co., and gave his note for $100 to R. C. Gregg & Co., payable in 60 days with interest at 6 per cent. He deposited in the Second National Bank, where he kept his bank account, $150. In the evening his stock invoiced $2,204.27.

Rule and post his books for the day according to double entry methods, and write all the papers involved in the business of the day.

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5. Give the construction of Feld, Nacht, in, es, Menschenliebe, and sich. 6. Translate into German:

Alexander was only twenty years old when he became King, but he soon showed that he could manage his kingdom as well as he could manage his horses. Because the king was so young, the people that his father had conquered thought they could now win back their freedom. But Alexander marched swiftly from one end of the kingdom to the other, and everything was soon quiet again. The King then made ready to carry out his father's plans, and made war on the Persians. Soon he had an army of Macedonians and Greeks ready, and with this he crossed over into Asia.

7. Show what reading and study you have done in German.

8. Oral reading and questions.


1. Show the relation of Logic to Psychology.

2. What is a percept? A concept? Perception? Reasoning?

3. Explain the several kinds of definition.

4. State the rules for correct definition.

5. Define and illustrate disjunctive reasoning.

6. Define and illustrate the laws of identity, contradiction, excluded middle and sufficient reason.

7. Make a comparison between deductive and inductive reasoning.

8. What rules should be observed in forming hypothesis?

9. What is meant by formal fallacies? Give an illustration.

10. What is the general nature of the "Laws of Thought," and what are their divisions?



I shall embrace this opportunity to speak somewhat of the habits that the school should aim to produce in its pupils. The chief among these are: regularity, punctuality, cheerfulness, obedience, the habit of mastery, self-control, unselfishness.

The regular attendance of pupils is insisted upon, more and more, in all good schools; absences are carefully noted and reported to parents; many devices are resorted to,

to secure an attendance at school, equal to the number of days due. Many parents, and some teachers, see in this only an earnest effort to secure continuous interest in lessons, and diminish the friction incident to the running of a school. These are ends to be attained it is true, but it should never be lost sight of, that one great end is the begetting of a feeling of responsibility upon the part of the pupil, a

habit of strict and regular attendance upon his duties. He should be taught that, his desk is as much his place of business as the father's desk in bank or counting room is his.

Closely related to the habit of regularity is that of punctuality. The pupil should be led to see that his teacher's protests against tardiness are not so much for the school's sake as the pupil's sake. That an effort is being made to help him in acquiring an invaluable habit, one that we all prize in our friends, the habit of being on time. and doing on time. Teachers make a great mistake to our way of thinking, if they do not put this view of the case forcibly before the child in all discussions concerning tardi


I am well aware that prenatal influences as well as environment have much to do in giving or withholding that cheery spirit, that sheds radiance upon all around; yet the schools can do much towards culti

vating the habit. Nothing con

tributes more to this in children and young people than regular hours, steady employment, plenty of sleep. How many parents permit their children to violate all the known laws of health, keep all kinds of hours, attend parties and socials. innumerable, indulge in pastries and sweetmeats, ad libitum, and then charge their moody, morose, sullen disposition to overwork in the schools.

School and home should heartily co-operate to secure this desirable habit of mind in our young people, especially when with Addison we realize that happiness is in us and not in the objects offered for our amusement. One's future may be happy or wretched as he has formed, or failed to form, this habit in early life.

A ready and cheerful obedience to constituted authority, is a fourth habit that should be secured through school life. Contributing to this end we have the drills, marches, gymnastics and other concerted exercises of the schools. Some critics failing to see the real end in view, have not been wanting in strictures upon what they have been pleased to call "the complicated mechanism of the school."

Every experienced teacher sees in these exercises a means of cultivating a habit that is vital to law and order in school, in the community. That school which does. not secure from the great majority of its pupils a prompt and cheerful obedience to all reasonable and legitimate demands should be discontinued. Habits of disorder and inattention formed during a single term, under an incompetent teacher, have been known to curse the life of the child ever afterward.

The habit of mastery is another that should be cultivated early and persistently, all the more, because of the tendency seen on many hands to substitute the appearance of the

thing, for the reality. Give me a boy who has set his mind upon mastering every problem in his algebra, satisfactorily demonstrating every original proposition in his geometry, one who persists in his purpose until it is attained, and I will show the material from which the successful men of the century are made. This is the secret that accounts for Field, Edison, Pasteur, Koch, and nineteen-twentieths of all the other men eminent in art, invention, science.

Encourage a boy to rely upon himself, to disdain help, and you have done much for his permanent advantage. Too much of school work to-day has the child assume a passive attitude while the teacher does the talking, the thinking, is the only one really active. While I believe most heartily in talks, exercises, lectures, in which the teacher does the most of the work, I should insist also upon a time sacred to study; a time when the child's best efforts should be directed towards the mastery of the difficulties in his special branch of study. If the teacher removes all the obstacles in the pupil's path, levels all his mountains for him, he will be a weakling, a dependent all his days. A writer in a recent number of the MONTHLY, gets at the truth when he says, "the most substantial and enduring educational results must still come from learning lessons thoroughly and reciting them well."

At the May examinations for ad

mission to the U. S. Naval Academy at Annapolis, 24 only out of 64 applicants met the requirements. It was my privilege to see the questions; while they were searching, yet they contained nothing farfetched, nothing unusually difficult. The fault lay with the applicants and was to be found in the fact that they had not developed the habit of self-reliance and mastery.

Closely allied to self-reliance, but with much more of the moral element in it, is self-control. It is this which distinguishes man most largely from the brute. The latter is the creature of instinct and impulse, the former is supposed to enthrone reason and will. To assist the child in the control of his impulses, in becoming his own ruler, the school should be organized.

The prohibitions of the school room, "thou shalt not whisper nor otherwise engage in communication", "thou shalt not permit thy mind to linger upon the social of last evening, or to wander to the ball game of the morrow", "thou shalt not be overcome of evil to locate the bent pin upon thy neighbor's seat in his absence", and others like unto these that are a part of the code, written or unwritten, of every school, are intended not only for the preservation of the peace, quiet, and dignity of the school community, but they should be set forth and explained to the pupil as intended largely for his aid in the government of himself. The ideal

of a man, a woman, a boy, a girl, governed by restraints from within. and not by restraints from without, should ever be kept before the pupils of our schools.

What can be accomplished by faithful efforts in this direction, can best be shown by relating the story of the transforming influence of self-control upon a large school in one of the less favored districts of the city of Nashville, as told me by Thos. P. Ballard, of the publishing firm of Ginn & Co. Having heard of the school as remarkable for its self governing qualities, Mr. Ballard determined to see for himself. Entering a large room in which were seated several hundred pupils, he found them all quietly intent upon their tasks, although no teacher, principal or monitor was present. A few raised their eyes from their books as Mr. Ballard seated himself at the teacher's desk, but the greater part took no note of his presence. After some minutes a side door opened and a class that had been reciting filed quietly to their seats, while another section as quietly arose and withdrew. For nearly an hour this large school pursued its work, without the least internal disturbance. Upon the return of the principal, Mr. Ballard was informed that the school had called itself to order, pursued its tasks, dismissed itself for several days at a time, without the presence of a teacher.

There are, doubtless, many such schools in different parts of the

country. They show what can be in the way of habit of self-control.

What a valuable contribution to the body of citizenship must be such a band of students as they go forth. into the life of a community. Appeals to the honesty, honor, the best in boys and girls, when made by a teacher who is the impersonation of honor and self-control himself, are not without results. The whole organization of the schools should contribute to the formation of this habit in every boy and girl.

Before we leave this subject, we wish to lay emphasis upon the virtue or habit of unselfishness. If our age needs any one thing more than another, it is a redemption from the overweening materialistic tendencies, that are infecting all phases of our life and breeding disaffection, disorder, lawlessness, avarice, oppression, injustice. Selfishness and greed sit enthroned. In our haste. to get rich, we too often give conscience to the winds, and honor to the dogs; we trample upon honesty, and sacrifice virtue. Even the church is sometimes used as a means of social and business preferment, and the training of the schools as a means to selfish aggrandizement. The repression of this egoistic spirit can best be done in childhood. The teacher, particularly the primary teacher, can do much to inculcate an interest in others, a love for others, that will develop into a blessed altruism, recognizing the brotherhood of man and the father

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