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They must run free and clear, or pils and their teacher. If it be they will not keep the machine in true that to secure freedom from vigorous motion. For example, a undue disturbance of the sensibility pupil who is full of rage, deeply is one of the constant tasks of the mortified, consumed by envy or teacher of the well regulated jealousy, or is strongly expectant school, what shall be said of a of something that lies outside of his

school in which the teacher herself school work, will accomplish little

is a constant source of such disturbor nothing so long as he remains ance? Not unfrequently this is in this condition. Nor is this all; precisely the case. Even in schools a single pupil in a state of violent

of high rank, it is desirable that excitement will communicate his

students should be on good terms own feeling to the school of which

with their teachers. The emohe is member, and thereby inter-' tional factor is of much importance fere most seriously with its proper to high schools and of considerable work. Accordingly, thunder gusts importance in colleges. But in the and cyclones of excitement or pas- grades, and particularly the early sion in the school house or school- ones, still more stress must be laid yard sky are strongly to be depre

upon this relation. College stucated. Every experienced teacher

dents have some power of discrimiknows that indulgence in a par- nation, and some control over their oxysm of emotion by a single pupil feelings. They may take "Old at the opening of school in the Crusty's” work, even if they do not morning will leave its effects for

like him, and get much good out hours, not merely in the single pu

of it, because he understands his pil, but in the teacher and in the

subject and is a good teacher. But school as well. If teachers were

young pupils are incapable of any always free to do what was best such discrimination or self-control. they would often consult the good

To do their best work they must of individual pupils, and of the like their teacher. A child is govwhole school, if they sent pupils erned by his feelings almost wholly, who were wrought up to a high de

and a teacher whom he does not gree of mental excitement out of

like, or at least strongly dislikes, the school until their excitement no matter how accomplished that had subsided. Feeling is commun- teacher may be, is necessarily a bad icated from mind to mind even teacher for him. Accordingly if a more rapidly and more completely

teacher, after a fair trial, can not than intelligence.

adjust herself to a school, or the 3. Another thing to look to is school to herself, — or, in a word, the relations that exist between pu- if she can not bring about a good

state of feeling - then the relation those who have the oversight of should be severed, and the sooner them. the better. This teacher may suc- Hitherto the school has existed ceed admirably in another school; primarily for an intellectual purshe may not be to blame for the

pose. Its great function has been state of things existing in this one; to train the intellectual faculties. but this makes no difference - for

The feelings and the will have althe time she is out of place.

ways been secondary. And this Only intellectual results of the state of things there is good reaemotional factor in education have son to think will always continue. been dwelt upon. As much or even

It is difficult to imagine a system more may be said of the moral re- of education as existing primarily sult. Great positive evil is engen

for the sake of the sensibilities and dered in children by the unfortu- wills of students. Still it is a fair nate relations that exist between question whether the other primary them and those under whose over- faculties of the mind have received, sight they are placed. Some teach- or are receiving, as much attention ers excite children, or particular in schools as is desirable. One children, morally as other teachers thing at least must be borne in excite them nervously, in the wrong mind. This is the fact that the sendirection. Children sometimes sibility and the will can not be disay, "I can't be quiet in that rectly approached by the teacher school.” The teacher strokes them as the intellect can be, but must the wrong way. It is equally true rather be approached indirectly. that children can't be good in that

The individual does not consciously school. Moreover, much the same allow his feelings and his will to be that has been said of the teacher unduly interfered with. The wise may be said of the nurse. Incal- preacher who desires to arouse his culable moral harm has been done congregation to love and good to sensitive children by putting works does not say to them, “Now them, and keeping them, in the I am going to make you feel as you care of nurses and teachers whom know you ought to feel,” or, “Now they did not like and for whom I am going to constrain you to do they felt an aversion. Children may what you know you ought to do"; be greatly harmed or wholly ruined but he puts before them subject by paying too much attention to matter chosen with reference to the their notions, whims, and caprices; effect that it will produce upon but that is no reason for refusing to

their minds, and thus accomplishes consult to a reasonable degree their the end before him. likes and dislikes in relation to In his book entitled "Mental

Physiology” the late Dr. W. B. fliction of punishment which the Carpenter touched thus felicitously child feels to be unjust; and nothing one of the topics that have been retards the acquirement of the dealt with above.

power of directing the Intellectual "Those 'strong-minded' Teach

processes, so much as the Emoers who object to these modes of tional disturbance which the feeling ‘making things pleasant,' as an un- of injustice provokes. Hence the worthy and undesirable 'weakness,' determination often expressed to are ignorant that in this stage of 'break the will' of an obstinate child the child-mind, the Will — that is, by punishment, is almost certain to the power of self-control-is weak; strengthen these reactionary influand that the primary object of Ed- ences. Many a child is put into ucation is to

encourage

and 'durance vile' for not learning the strengthen, not to repress, that ‘little busy bee,' who simply cannot power. Great mistakes are often give its small mind to the task, made by Parents and Teachers, whilst disturbed by stern comwho, being ignorant of this funda- mands and threats of yet severer mental fact of child-nature, treat as punishment for a disobedience it wilfulness what is in reality just the cannot help; when a suggestion contrary of will-fullness; being the kindly and skilfully adapted to its direct result of the want of Voli- automatic nature, by directing the tional control over the automatic turbid current of thought and feelactivity of the Brain. To punish a ing into a smoother channel, and child for the want of obedience guiding the activity which it does which it has not the power to ren- not attempt to oppose, shall bring der, is to inflict an injury which about the desired result, to the surmay almost be said to be irrepar- prise alike of the baffled teacher, able. For nothing tends so much the passionate pupil, and the perto prevent the healthful develop- plexed bystanders.” ment of the Moral Sense as the in

ARE TEACHERS UNDERPAID?

BY HENRY G. WILLIAMS.

The above question was discussed at the Round Table of Superintendents and Principals of Eastern Ohio and Western West

Virginia, held at Bellaire, O., Oct. 21-23, 1897. The chairman of the Executive Committee, the writer of this article, had several weeks

previously submitted to the teach- teachers are underpaid, some sayers of the district covered by the ing that primary teachers are usuAssociation, two questions for ally underpaid, others that country them to answer in writing, one of teachers are almost always underwhich was this: “Are teachers paid, others that lady teachers are underpaid? If so, why?" The an- underpaid. swers were sent to the writer and The remaining nine per cent by him compiled and submitted to may be classed as saying that the Round Table for discussion. teachers are not underpaid. SevThe Round Table decided that this eral of these answers, however, symposium of replies should be were qualified by such statements published.

as these: "for the preparation Several hundred teachers sub- made"; "for the degree of effimitted their replies. The follow- ciency employed"; "for the time ing classified summary is made of and interest put into it.” the answers read at the Round We shall discuss the sixty per Table. Several hundred pages of cent group first. The various reamanuscript had to be read, re-read, sons assigned as the cause of the and condensed in order to get the underpay of teachers may be clasexact meaning of the teachers and sified as follows: to classify these replies. It should 1. The fault is with the Board be said in this connection that the of Education. “Boards do not replies represented the unbiased appreciate the work of their teachopinions of the teachers them

“Boards of Education too selves, since they were not asked frequently measure a teacher by to sign them. The replies from all his certificates only, hence, the city teachers were collected by the cheapest teacher gets the place. Superintendents or Principals and The Board is likely to think that by them forwarded.

one certificate is as good as anA few teachers (about one per other, and that any one who holds cent) said they were satisfied with a certificate is a teacher.” “Boards their salaries. None of these gave do not adjust salaries properly. A any reasons.

good teacher should be paid in About sixty per cent replied, in proportion to her experience, substance, that good teachers are grade of work, certificate she holds, almost everywhere underpaid, and degree of skill as estimated by a gave various reasons for this con- competent superintendent, and dition of affairs, a number of which general fitness for her work. If are classified below.

a scale based on these essential About thirty per cent replied, in qualifications could be devised substance, that certain classes of and teachers paid accordingly,

ers."

salaries would be more satisfac- one can teach school.” “Because tory.” “Many teachers are over- there are many who are worthy of paid and many are underpaid. no better salary than they receive.” Teachers should be paid accord- "The same amount of energy and ing to their efficiency and experi- interest in other professions would ence." "School Boards in partic- mean absolute failure.” “Yes, but ular do not understand how hard it is the fault of the teachers. a good teacher works, and how They should take more time and much time and money are spent in care in preparation for this great preparing her for her work." "Be- work, prove to the public they are cause directors of schools do not worth more, and they will get comprehend the teacher's useful- more." "The competition of teachness. Teachers need never expect ers is wholly unprofessional, and is to be paid this side the Celestial responsible for the low wages in City." "Because qualifications and many places." "A large majority work to be done are not taken in- of teachers are practically inexpeto account by those employing rienced. Young people get the teachers.” “Because it is gener- idea that it is an easy matter to ally thought that a certificate is a teach school, that money is thus sufficient guaranty of qualifica- earned easily, and they decide to tions." "Because Boards and the enter the profession so-called for public are not sufficiently inter- this reason. This acts in two ways ested in education and do not ap- to cripple the profession: It lowpreciate the real importance of ed- ers the standard of quality in the ucation." "Yes, because the mar- teacher and it lowers the estimaket is flooded with a spurious ar- tion of teachers in the eyes of the ticle, which the average School public.” “Because there are SO Board is not able to distinguish many poor teachers, and the whole from the genuine."

class is judged by the worst, just 2. The fault is with the teachers as church members in general are themselves. "Some are dear at often judged by the most unpromany price."

“Because teachers ising." "Because too many teachthemselves do not bring the sub- ers so-called are willing to do ject before the people properly.” cheap

cheap work.”

“Because poor “Some teachers do not take the teachers are willing to cut wages, interest in their work that will and because there is not enough command higher salaries.” co-operation among teachers "Teachers will be underpaid until themselves. A Teachers' Union teachers themselves educate public might be a good thing." "Because opinion to realize that teaching is teachers themselves do not hold a profession, and that not every the profession of teaching up to

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