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eral classification of gymnastic exercises.

6. Explain the various limits of education.

7. Show the place of family worship, religious ceremony, and membership with church in religious education.

8. Give a general outline of the psychological epochs in education, and indicate the leading characteristics of each epoch.

9. Show the comparative value of text-book and oral method of instruction.

10. Define education, attention, sense perception, creative imagination, and concept.

POLITICAL ECONOMY. 1. Distinguish between Political Economy and Civics. How are they closely related?

2. What fallacy, if any, in the doctrine that good business management for an individual is good business management for the public?

3. State the differences between direct and indirect taxation. Show by examples what you mean. State the advantages and disadvantages of both.

4. State the difference between cooperative and profit-sharing industries.

5. Define the principal terms used in Political Economy.

6. Is Protective Tariff a temporary expendient or a universal principle, theoretically?

7. Name the great writers on economics. What was the doctrine of Henry George, stated as an economic principle?

BOOK-KEEPING. C. B. Rantz, of Colfax, Mass., is in the retail grocery business. On Tuesday, June 15, 1897, he opened his store with $28.75 cash in the drawer, and his stock invoiced $2,341.13. His entire sales for the day amounted to $178.42, including a bill of goods sold on credit to D. T. Lonroy, as follows: 10 lbs. of sugar at 7 cts. per lb.; 1 sack of flour,

$1.50; 2 lbs. of checse at 12} cts. per lb.; 4 doz. eggs at 15 cts. per doz.; 3 lbs. of crackers at 8 cts. per Ib. Mr. Lonroy was already indebted to Mr. Rantz to the amount of $17.72, and he paid $10 on account, for which he took a receipt. Mr. Rantz paid a gas bill of $4.28 and paid a clerk $10. He sent a check of $201 to the Fulton Grocery Co., and gave his note for $100 to R. C. Gregg & Co., payable in 60 days with interest at 6 per cent. He deposited in the Second National Bank, where he kept his bank account, $150. In the evening his stock invoiced $2,204.27.

Rule and post his books for the day according to double entry methods, and write all the papers involved in the business of the day.

GERMAN. 1. Translate:

An den Fruehling.
Willkommen, schöner Jüngling!

Du Wonne der Natur!
Mit deinem Blumenkörbchen

Willkommen auf der Flur!
Ei! Ei! da bist ja wieder!

Und bist so lieb und schön! Und freun wir uns so herzlich,

Entgegen dir zu gehn.
Denkst auch noch an mein Mädchen?

Ei, Lieber, denke doch!
Dort liebte mich das Mädchen,

Und's Mädchen liebt mich noch!
Fürs Mädchen manches Blümchen,

Erbat ich mir von dir — Ich komm und bitte wieder,

Und du? du giebst es mir. - Schiller.

2. Give the construction of Wonne, Blümchen, Flur, fürs, und uns.

3. Decline Natur, Jüngling, du, mir, ich, Mädchen.

4. Translate:
Verlassen hab' ich Feld und Auen,

Die eine tiefe Nacht bedeckt,
Mit ahnungsvollem, heil'gem Grauen

In uns die bess're Seele weckt.

LOGIC.

Entschlafen sind nun wilde Triebe,

Mit jedem ungestümen Thun; Es reget sich die Menschenliebe, Die Liebe Gottes regt sich nun.

Goethe.

5. Give the construction of Feld, Nacht, in, es, Menschenliebe, and sich.

6. Translate into German:

Alexander was only twenty years old when he became King, but he soon showed that he could manage his kingdom as well as he could manage his horses. Because the king was so young, the people that his father had conquered thought they could now win back their freedom. But Alexander marched swiftly from one end of the kingdom to the other, and everything was soon quiet again. The King then made ready to carry out his father's plans, and made war on the Persianş. Soon he had an army of Macedonians and Greeks ready, and with this he crossed over into Asia.

7. Show what reading and study you have done in German.

8. Oral reading and questions.

1. Show the relation of Logic to Psychology

2. What is a percept? A concept? Perception? Reasoning?

3. Explain the several kinds of definition.

4. State the rules for correct definition.

5. Define and illustrate disjunctive reasoning.

6. Define and illustrate the laws of identity, contradiction, excluded middle and sufficient reason.

7. Make a comparison between deductive and inductive reasoning.

8. What rules should be observed in forming hypothesis?

9. What is meant by formal fallacies? Give an illustration.

10. What is the general nature of the "Laws of Thought," and what are their divisions?

SCHOOL HABITS.

BY E. F. WARNER.

I shall embrace this opportunity to secure an attendance at school, to speak somewhat of the habits equal to the number of days due. that the school should aim to pro- Many parents, and some teachers, duce in its pupils. The chief among see in this only an earnest effort to these are: regularity, punctuality, secure continuous interest in lescheerfulness, obedience, the habit of sons, and diminish the friction incimastery, self-control, unselfishness. dent to the running of a school.

The regular attendance of pupils These are ends to be attained it is is insisted upon, more and more, true, but it should never be lost in all good schools; absences are sight of, that one great end is the carefully noted and reported to pa- begetting of a feeling of responsirents; many devices are resorted to, bility upon the part of the pupil, a

are

habit of strict and regular attend- School and home should heartily ance upon his duties. He should

co-operate to secure this desirable be taught that his desk is as much habit of mind in our young people, his place of business as the father's especially when with Addison we desk in bank or counting room is realize that happiness is in us and his.

not in the objects offered for our Closely related to the habit of amusement. One's future may be regularity is that of punctuality. happy or wretched as he has formed, The pupil should be led to see that or failed to form, this habit in early his teacher's protests against tardi- life. ness not so much for the A ready and cheerful obedience to school's sake as the pupil's sake. constituted authority, is a fourth That an effort is being made to help habit that should be secured him in acquiring an invaluable through school life. Contributing habit, one that we all prize in our to this end we have the drills, friends, the habit of being on time marches, gymnastics and other conand doing on time. Teachers make certed exercises of the schools. a great mistake to our way of think- Some critics failing to see the real ing, if they do not put this view of end in view, have not been wanting the case forcibly before the child in in strictures upon what they have all discussions concerning tardi- been pleased to call "the compliness.

cated mechanism of the school.” I am well aware that prenatal in- Every experienced teacher sees fluences as well as environment have in these exercises a means of cultimuch to do in giving or withhold- vating a habit that is vital to law ing that cheery spirit, that sheds and order in school, in the comradiance upon all around; yet the munity. That school which does schools can do much towards culti- not secure from the great majority vating the habit. Nothing con- of its pupils a prompt and cheerful tributes more to this in children obedience to all reasonable and leand young people than regular gitimate demands should be disconhours, steady employment, plenty tinued. Habits of disorder and inof sleep. How many parents per- attention formed during a single mit their children to violate all the term, under an incompetent teacher, known laws of health, keep all kinds have been known to curse the life of hours, attend parties and socials of the child ever afterward. innumerable, indulge in pastries The habit of mastery is another and sweetmeats, ad libitum, and that should be cultivated early and then charge their moody, morose, persistently, all the more, because sullen disposition to overwork in of the tendency seen on many hands the schools.

to substitute the appearance of the

thing, for the reality. Give me a boy mission to the U.S. Naval Academy who has set his mind his mind upon

at Annapolis, 24 only out of 64 apmastering every problem in his al- plicants met the requirements. It gebra, satisfactorily demonstrating was my privilege to see the quesevery original proposition in his ge- tions; while they were searching, ometry, one who persists in his pur- yet they contained nothing farpose until it is attained, and I will fetched, nothing unusually difficult. show the material from which the The fault lay with the applicants successful men of the century are and was to be found in the fact that made. This is the secret that ac- they had not developed the habit counts for Field, Edison, Pasteur, of self-reliance and mastery. Koch, and nineteen-twentieths of Closely allied to self-reliance, but all the other men eminent in art, with much niore of the moral eleinvention, science.

ment in it, is self-control. It is this Encourage a boy to rely upon which distinguishes man most himself, to disdain help, and you largely from the brute. The latter have done much for his permanent is the creature of instinct and imadvantage. Too much of school pulse, the former is supposed to enwork to-day has the child assume a throne reason and will. To assist passive attitude while the teacher the child in the control of his imdoes the talking, the thinking, is the pulses, in becoming his own ruler, only one really active. While I be- the school should be organized. lieve most heartily in talks, exer- The prohibitions of the school cises, lectures, in which the teacher room, “thou shalt not whisper nor does the most of the work, I should otherwise engage in communicainsist also upon a time sacred to tion”, “thou shalt not permit thy study; a time when the child's best

mind to linger upon the social of efforts should be directed towards last evening, or to wander to the the mastery of the difficulties in his

ball game of the morrow", "thou special branch of study. If the shalt not be overcome of evil to loteacher removes all the obstacles in cate the bent pin upon thy neighthe pupil's path, levels all his moun- bor's seat in his absence”, and othtains for him, he will be a weakling, ers like unto these that are a part of a dependent all his days. A writer the code, written or unwritten, of in a recent number of the MONTHLY, every school, are intended not only gets at the truth when he says, “the for the preservation of the peace, most substantial and enduring ed-' quiet, and dignity of the school ucational results must still come community, but they should be set from learning lessons thoroughly forth and explained to the pupil as and reciting them well.”

intended largely for his aid in the At the May examinations for ad- government of himself. The ideal

of a man, a woman, a boy, a girl, country. They show what can be governed by restraints from within

in the way of habit of self-control. and not by restraints from without, What a valuable contribution to should ever be kept before the pu- the body of citizenship must be such pils of our schools.

a band of students as they go forth What can be accomplished by into the life of a community. Apfaithful efforts in this direction, can peals to the honesty, honor, the best best be shown by relating the story in boys and girls, when made by a of the transforming influence of teacher who is the impersonation of self-control upon a large school in honor and self-control himself, are one of the less favored districts of not without results. The whole orthe city of Nashville, as told me by ganization of the schools should Thos. P. Ballard, of the publishing contribute to the formation of this firm of Ginn & Co. Having heard habit in every boy and girl. of the school as remarkable for its Before we leave this subject, we self governing qualities, Mr. Bal- wish to lay emphasis upon the virtue lard determined to see for himself. or habit of unselfishness. If our age Entering a large room in which

needs any one thing more than anwere seated several hundred pupils, other, it is a redemption from the he found them all quietly intent up- overweening materialistic tendenon their tasks, although no teacher, cies, that are infecting all phases of principal or monitor was present. our life and breeding disaffection, A few raised their eyes from their disorder, lawlessness, avarice, opbooks as Mr. Ballard seated himself pression, injustice. Selfishness and at the teacher's desk, but the greater greed sit enthroned. In our haste part took no note of his presence. to get rich, we too often give conAfter some minutes a side door

science to the winds, and honor to opened and a class that had been re- the dogs; we trample upon honciting filed quietly to their seats, esty, and sacrifice virtue. Even the while another section as quietly church is sometimes used as a arose and withdrew. For nearly an means of social and business preferhour this large school pursued its ment, and the training of the schools work, without the least internal dis- as a means to selfish aggrandizeturbance. Upon the return of the ment. The repression of this egoprincipal, Mr. Ballard was informed istic spirit can best be done in childthat the school had called itself to hood. The teacher, particularly the order, pursued its tasks, dismissed primary teacher, can do much to initself for several days at a time, with- culcate an interest in others, a love out the presence of a teacher. for others, that will develop into a

There are, doubtless, many such blessed altruism, recognizing the schools in different parts of the brotherhood of man and the father

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