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the language that it shall assist us grammar grades. But usually the in expressing the truth in a pleas- classes are too large, the light is ant way. So with regard to nature badly arranged, and the teachers study, it should not be turned into are very timid about undertaking a drawing lesson, except incident- it, with all these difficulties conally) we ask the drawing to help us fronting them. In teaching shadexpress with truthfulness what we ing, (and in fact all M. and 0. have observed, in a non-offensive drawing) much individual help is way at least.

needed. For first lessons and for Question 6-Drawing drills. the purpose of teaching principles, Yes! The elements of form are

through actual observation, the spheres, spheroids, ovoids, and

light should come from one direccones, for natural objects; and

tion, either from the left or the cubes, prisms, pyramids, etc., for

right, not from the front or the artificial. From these we get linear

back. elements, as dots, lines, straight and

If all conditions are favorable, the curved, light and shade and color.

elements of shading may be sucBy varying these forms attractive cessfully taught in the Grammar exercises for drills are easily con

grades. structed.

Question 8 - Inventional geomeA few minutes' practice at the try. beginning of a lesson, on some form The union of inventional geomthat is the basis of the lesson, is of etry and drawing is on the mechangreat practical advantage.

ical and decorative design side, Question 7 -- Perspective.

where instruments are exclusively Some of the simpler elements of

used. This union will not be speperspective should be discovered cially useful in M.,and O. drawing, and fixed in mind while drawing

or in nature study except that all from models and objects, just as the

exactness is useful. simpler forms of language are

MECHANICAL DRAWING. learned in the so-called language

Not much of it below the High lessons. But there is nevertheless a place for technical grammar, and

School. Educationally it is valu

able in training the faculty of spaceso there is a place for scientific per

imagination, and so a little elemenspective. Its place is perhaps in the High School.

tary work of this kind may be prof

itable in the eighth grade. SHADING.

All other drawing except the Shading is not so difficult but drawing of original designs, should that it may be taught in the higher be free hand.


ferred to,

Question 9– Imagination. and that it is within their grasp by

Drawing should certainly culti- a reasonable amount of effort, there vate the imagination, both for its might be a revolution in one year. educational and ästhetic value.

NATURE STUDY. 1. Because the Sensibilities are

BY F. M. WEBSTER. the very doorway to all other knowledge, whether material or spiritual.

[At a recent meeting of the Ohio

State Horticultural Society held in 2. Because Æsthetics is coordi- Wooster, the main topic discussed nate with Logic and Ethics, and

at one of the evening sessions was is a fundamental part of human

“Nature Study”. The following nature.

quotations are taken from the ad3. Because Æsthetics points out dress made on that occasion by to us what we may safely admire Dr. F. M. Webster of Wooster, and follow.

Entomologist of the Ohio ExperiQuestion 10-Drawing for teach- ment Station. In this connection

special attention is called to the Teachers should practice the

valuable Bulletins issued by the free movement exercises before re

Ohio Agricultural Experiment Staon the blackboard,

tion. Number 86 — "The Story of from 18 inches to 24 in size. They

the Lives of a Butterfly and a

Moth" — will be found very helpshould begin at once to illustrate some lessons, however simply, even

ful to teachers. These bulletins if it be nothing more than to make

will be sent free to any resident of a few marks.

Ohio who requests them. AdDrawing on the blackboard is much easier than

dress Experiment Station, Woos

ter, Ohio. - Ed.] drawing on paper and any persever

“It seems to me that we shall ing teacher can make great pro

get a better idea of what the term gress in one term.

really means if we reverse it and There are a few books also that

say studies of nature. If the objectreat of illustrative blackboard

tion be raised that nature studies drawing for teachers, which would

are for the young, and must be afford good suggestions to all be- simple, I can only reply that nature ginners in such work. After a is noted for simplicity, and we are teacher understands her subject, all children, though some of us the most effective single device she

may be a bit overgrown. Nature can possess as a teacher, is the is ever truthful, and if it had no power to illustrate at the black- other virtue this would suffice. board. If teachers knew its value Nature studies may be translated,

then, into true, simple studies of selections from Puck on the covers nature, not of books. Books are a of a Bible. means and not an end, and useful only so far as they are truthful. I "I have here a third book, on hold in my hand a book treating the front cover of which is the picon insects, and on the cover is rep

ture of a butterfly. There is here resented an insect that almost any- no attempt at natural coloration, one, even one not versed in ento- the colors being black and blue, or mology, would not fail to at once

those of the ink and the cover, yet recognize as one of our larger

no one would mistake our comkatydids. It is an object lesson, mon mourning cloak butterfly. and as true to nature as art can

This is not only a study in nature, make it. Here is part of a “Nature

but in truth. Study", which may be aptly finished when the child has found "I also have another book, put and recognized a katydid in the out by a firm of school-book pubfields. I have here another book, lishers, and children are expected as truthful and reliable as the other, to learn and recite the truths conbut the cover is illuminated with tained therein. I am here told that plant pictures no botanist could the Lepidoptera is composed of possibly recognize, brown instead butterflies, moths and hawkof green, over which what was moths! Just so. In America doubtless intended to represent in- some of the household pets are sects are crawling. Some of these cats, dogs and lapdogs. Or I look like water beetles, while a big might with almost equal propriety green stag beetle occupies a con- say that gardens were composed of spicuous place. Now stag beetles, flowers and cauliflowers. In the in nature, are brown, and not same work I am told that what is green, and the child who looks for a pupa in the life of a moth is an object such as is represented among butterflies termed a chryon the cover of his book will never salis, but on the same page we find it. The book is prefaced by a

have the information that the catfalsehood, and lacks the first ele- erpillar of the hawk-moth goes inment of a nature study. With such to the ground and transforms into an unlimited wealth of form and a chrysalis. Such entomology as color there is surely no need to this is beyond my comprehension, draw upon the imagination for and its production in text books such hideous figures as these, and seems to have been inspired by a they are as much out of place on love of gain rather than a love of the cover of this book as would be truth,

“Only recently a firm manufac- “There is one other feature of turing insecticides, chose for a nature studies to which I wish to trade mark a spider web on which call attention, and that is to the dewas shown a spider of a red color sirability of having plain, simple, accompanied by the legend, 'Kill it but exact articles on various natsure.' In some correspondence ural phenomena published in the over the matter the excuse was daily papers, and introduce these, made that most people did not occasionally, into the schoolroom know the difference between a for a single recitation, instead of spider of a red color and the com- the customary readers now so conmon red spider, which is no spider tinuously in use. at all and very destructive, while spiders proper are harmless and

“This will do as much as anytheir death benefits no one, hence

thing to prevent pupils from bewhy kill them?

coming bookish and the daily read

ing lesson a treadmill. At present, "If we are to have nature studies, if a pupil reads correctly it is not and it is certainly very desirable necessary for him to understand that we should, then let them be the nature or teachings of the lestruthful, and, while furnished for son. A change as above indicated the young, let us not forget that will be to the mind of the child those of more mature age are also what relishes are to his dinner. in need of them.

Give part of a story in nature, and "One of the essentials to a suc- send them out to find the remaincessful life in any profession or vo- der. Tell them of the birds, and cation is the ability to observe

ask them to see if the sparrow closely, to see an object as it is hops or runs, or whether the fly otherwise termed close observa- on the wall alighted with head uption; hence we see that nature ward or downward. Thus the habit studies are conducive to a success- of close, careful observation will ful business life. Again, it is but be formed in youth, and form the a step from the study of a butter- basis of a successful life, be it busifly or a flower to the study of men ness or professional, it does not and life in general.




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