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conception, from the real to the ideal, from the concrete to the abstract, from the letter to the spirit, from the realm of sense to the realm of reason, from individual notions to general notions. He then clearly pointed out that in practice these principles or maxims are rendered relatively valueless since they figure an ideal process from its initiative to its culmination. Methods are in danger of two extremes — overconcretedness, and over-abstracted


The first thing the elementary school must accomplish is the training of the feelings. Too often the child is exhorted to think, while it is not taught to feel. The folly of attempting to teach everything in the elementary school, thus leaving no time for the culture side of education, was made so plain as to carry conviction to all unprejudiced minds. This scholarly, practical and helpful address closed with the following very suggestive words:

"The elementary school fulfills its mission then by training the feelings; by such a simplification of the curriculum as will give the culture side of education greater prominence; by emphasizing the mastery of language, as the central possession of the child; by an intellectual versatility, the best mental equipment for life; by promoting the virtues of politeness, conscientiousness and humility; by giving greater prominence to the permanent rather than the transient results in teaching; and by placing in the elementary schools teachers so thoroughly trained and enthused with the ideals of the school as to render the school career of the child marvelously successful by making it supremely pleasant."

The Wednesday morning session was mainly devoted to the consid

eration of "Child Study," the subject being presented in two papers by Prof. J. P. Gordy, Columbus, Ohio, and Prof. R. P. Halleck, Louisville, Ky., on "What can Child Study Contribute to the Science of Education?"

In his preliminary remarks, Dr. Gordy raised the question of the possibility of the existence of a science of education, and discussed at some length the different theories regarding this subject. He thought that instead of talking so much about the science of education, it would be more helpful to give more careful consideration to the scientific elements entering into education. He then discussed what is meant by "Child Study,' quoted the idea of Prof. Barnes that it is the inductive and quantitative study of human beings, as being helpful. The following questions and answers proposed by Dr. Gordy certainly throw much light upon the important problem of education.


(1) The question, What is the end of education? must be answered by philosophy.

(2) The question, What agencies should society employ to realize the ends of education? must be answered by a study of comparative politics.

(3) The question, What subjects should be studied in order that the student may be educated? must be answered by general psychology.

(4) The question, What methods shall be used in teaching these subjects in order that they may be made to bear this educational fruit? must also be answered by psychology.

(5 and 6) The questions as to how much the student can safely be required to do and in what order we shall take up particular subjects,

and how long we shall pursue them, must be answered by genetic psychology.

It is needless to state to any one who has heard Dr. Gordy that his discussion was well received by the entire audience.

The audience expected much from Prof. Halleck and it was not disappointed. Among many excellent things, he stated that observation of children has certainly done something for the science of education in regard to teaching morality. Such observation has shown that teaching morality by word of mouth is a waste of effort. Morality concerns itself with action alone. Where there is no action, there can be no morality. Children frequently receive more training in both thought and morals from games than from books. Special attention was called to the fact that heaping together a mass of statistics about children is not studying children. Without sympathetic interest for children on the part of the teacher, such statistics will be of little value.

At the evening session, the association was given a genuine treat in the discussion of "Influence of Music and Music Study Upon Character" by Prof. J. A. Gantvoort of Cincinnati, who is recognized everywhere as a master in his treatment of such topics. He dwelt especially upon music as a medium for the expansion of the soul, and made very plain that music produces such expansion. The methods of music study were criticized to some extent and a plea was made for more rational methods of presenting this important subject in the public schools. It should be taught slowly and the pupil should

not be burdened with the scientific features of the study.

At the close of Prof. Gantvoort's paper President Schaeffer called to the platform Dr. Scovel of Wooster, Ohio, who gave in a few minutes a most comprehensive and pleasing discussion of the excellent points which the paper contained. He gave special emphasis to the influence of music upon the intellect, and the development of National character.

The remainder of the session was occupied by United States Commissioner W. T. Harris in the treatment of "The Value of the Tragic and the Comic in Education."

The Thursday morning session was taken up with the discussion of "Vacation Schools," and "Continuous Sessions at Normal Schools," papers being presented by Richard Waterman, Jr., of Chicago, who enthusiastically favored the vacation school which he said is no longer an experiment in his city, and by Irwin Shepard of Winona, Minn., who strongly advocated continuous. sessions in Normal Schools. In the discussion of these papers Supt. A. T. Barrett of Chattanooga opposed the idea of making the vacation. school a part of the public school, believing that, with the average child, ten months of school in the year is enough. Supt. R. K. Buehrle of Lancaster, Penn., spoke in opposition to continuous sessions in Normal Schools, believing that teachers need the rest which comes only with a vacation free from care and study.

"Grading and Promotion with Reference to the Individual Needs of Pupils" occupied the afternoon session of Thursday, papers being read by John T. Prince, agent of

the Massachusetts Board of Education, Supt. James H. Van Sickle of North Denver, Colo., Supt. Wm. J. Shearer of Elizabeth, N. J., and oth


At the last session held in the new Auditorium on Thursday night, President S. T. Scovel of the University of Wooster, Ohio, delivered a masterly address on "Realizing the Final Aim of Education." It is impossible to give even an outline of this scholarly address which President Schaeffer considers one of the most valuable additions to pedagogical literature made in recent years.

We believe that every one who attended the meeting really felt that it was a success. President Schaeffer had put forth unusual efforts to arrange a profitable program, and it was the unanimous verdict that he made an ideal presiding officer. To his hard work and courteous treatment of all, the success and pleasure of the meeting are largely due.

Supt. Barrett of Chattanooga as the representative of her enterprising citizens had arranged in detail all the conveniences so necessary to the success of such a meeting, and he was warmly congratulated upon his work. Being a Buckeye Boy, it was quite natural that he greatly enjoyed meeting the members of the Ohio delegation.

The press of Chattanooga gave exceptionally good reports of the proceedings of each session, and the appreciation of this courtesy by the Department was voiced in the following resolution included. in the report of the committee on resolutions:

"We heartily appreciate the courteous attention and the full reports which the press of Chattanooga has

given the proceedings of the department, and accept their intelligent, comprehensive reports as an assurance of the efficacy of the press as an educational factor. May the example of the press of Chattanooga inspire journalism everywhere to give closer attention to educational problems, and to lead in the solution of questions which concern the development of intelligence."

Nearly every one who attended the meeting visited one or more of the historic battlefields in the vicinity of Chattanooga, and the following resolution offered by the committee found a hearty response in the minds and hearts of all who were present.

"The profit of this meeting has been enhanced by the privilege of viewing the scenes where conflicts were waged that are memorable in the history of the nation and of the world. Though memorials of strife and of valor stand upon the fields of Chickamauga, Missionary Ridge and Lookout mountain, there has been no bitterness in our hearts as we have discussed measures designed to promote the permanent prosperity and enduring peace of the republic. Let us hope that education everywhere may teach the sentiments of humanity, and that henceforth all differences between nations may be amicably settled through the peaceful mear's of arbitration."

One of the most pleasant features. of the meeting, from an Ohio standpoint especially, was the very large vote given Columbus as the preference for the place of holding the meeting in 1899.

The vote was as follows: Columbus, 75; Detroit, 17; Austin, 13; Asheville, 3; Albany, 5.

Although one of the orators rep

resenting a competing city described Ohio as "owning the political earth fenced in," it will be observed from the above vote that the members of the Department were not led by this charge to oppose to any serious extent our Capital City as the place of the next meeting. Now that the meeting has again been secured for Ohio, we feel sure that all the educational forces of the State will rally to the support of Supt. Shawan and his teachers in making 1899 a memorable year in the history of the Department. The location is ideal in every respect and we feel sure that the attendance will be larger than it was even at the great Cleveland meeting in 1895 which is considered by many as being the high water mark in attendance and interest.

It is specially gratifying to Ohio teachers that Supt. E. H. Mark of Louisville, an Ohio boy, has been selected to preside over the next meeting. His first experience as a teacher was in the country schools of Favette County. Afterward he had charge of a village school in the same county for a number of


much credit is due for the satisfactory local arrangements, and President-elect Mark are both Ohio boys; the committee on nominations had a representative from Ohio; three of the best papers presented at the meeting were read by Prof. J. A. Gantvoort, Dr. J. P. Gordy, and President Scovel, all from Ohio. The attendance from the state was large, and represented nearly every section, Dayton sending the largest delegation which included thirteen of her principals and teachers.


In each of the thirteen districts of Mad River Township, Champaign County, twenty dollars' worth of good library books, including those recommended for the State

Pupils' Reading Course, have been placed within the past year. Nearly four hundred pupils are now reading the course. Since the establishment of the two township high schools in 1891, educational sentiment has been constantly growing, and most excellent work is being

We congratulate Supt. A. B. Graham, his teachers, patrons, and pupils on the splendid condition of affairs now existing.

done. He then entered the Ohio State University where his work in mathematics and science made for him a wide reputation. In this work he was closely associated with Dr. T. C. Mendenhall. After this successful experience, he was called to the Louisville High

School, and in a short time was promoted to the superintendency of the city schools. A warm welcome awaits President Mark when he takes charge of the meeting in 1899.

The "Ohio Man" was very much in evidence at Chattanooga. As has already been stated, Supt. Barrett of Chattanooga, to whom so

-Frank M. McMurry, Ph. D., of Buffalo, N. Y., has been called to the Chair of Theory and Practice of Teaching at the Teachers' College of New York, recently incorporated in the educational system of Columbia University.

-The Tri-county Teachers' Association Ashland, Medina, and Wayne Counties-held a large and enthusiastic meeting at Orrville, January 28 and 29. At the evening session, January 28, Supt. John E.

Morris of Alliance made an excellent talk on "Music in the Public Schools," and an an entertainment was given by Frank S. Fox, Principal of the Capitol School of Oratory, Columbus, O.

The Saturday morning session opened with an address of welcome by T. W. Orr, Clerk of the Board of Education, Orrville, which was responded to by Supt. B. F. Hoover of Lodi. Then followed an address by Joseph Porter of Hayesville on "The New in Education," and a paper on "The Teacher as a Moral Factor" by Miss Mary Murdock of Orrville. These papers were discussed by School Commissioner Corson and others. The forenoon session closed with papers by Supt. F. H. Martin of Spencer on "Scientific Progress of the Century," and by Supt. S. H. Maharry of Millersburg on "The Qualifications of a Successful Teacher."

At the afternoon session Supt. J. S. Miller of Seville discussed "The High School Course," Miss Fannie E. Thomas of Medina, "Why Cultivate the Esthetic in Nature?" and Principal John M. Sarver of the Canton High School gave a very interesting and instructive address on "My Trip through Italy." In addition to the above there were general discussions of "The Directors' Side of Education" and kindred topics in which members of school boards and teachers took part.

All who were present agreed in the generally expressed opinion that great credit was due Supt. J. B. Mohler and his corps of teachers for their untiring efforts to make the meeting one of the most successful in the history of the association.

-The Defiance County Institute held a quarterly session recently at Defiance. In spite of the profound roads there was a good attendance. The Hicksville teachers came Friday morning before daylight and spent the day looking into the schools. J. J. B.

The Pickaway County Teachers' Association held an interesting session at Circleville, February 12. The forenoon session was devoted to a discussion of several questions of a general character in which Prof. Balthazer, Supt. Lewis and others took part. The afternoon session opened with a paper on "Reading" by Delphene Trout of Nebraska which was followed by a paper on "Esthetics in in Our Schools" by Supt. M. H. Lewis of Circleville. The next meeting will be held April 23.

The Ohio Valley Superintendents' Association met at Wheeling, W. Va., February 10 and 11. Many interesting questions. were discussed, special attention being given to Vertical Writing and Arithmetic.

-We desire to acknowledge the receipt of a copy of the Catalogue of the Bethel township, Miami county, Public Library.

-The Evening Tribune of Bowling Green, Ohio, in a recent issue, speaks in glowing terms of the prospects of a "Summer Normal" to be conducted in that city the coming summer by Supt. M. E. Hard, and Principal J. W. Grabiel. It will certainly be a success under such management.

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