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gion where a bounty was offered main that must otherwise pass on. for the destruction of the English I do sincerely believe, extravagant sparrows, the boys brought in as it may seem, that this would be great numbers of chipping and as paying an acre as any other on other sparrows, blue birds, fly- the place-viewed from a strictly catchers, vireos, and other innocent utilitarian standpoint only; but I birds, which either the lack of am not going into any ngures to knowledge or the greed for gain prove it. had sacrificed.
[The frontispiece of the Story of But ignorance alone is by no the Birds is a picture named Drivmeans the greatest enemy of our ing Away the Birds. The white birds-great as it is, unless we sky is shining through a "processtyle indifference an element of sion" of trees on a low ridge, and ignorance.
between the trees and the lookerI suppose that the statutes of on are piles of burning brush, sendMissouri are ample for bird protec- ing their white smoke into the evention, but few of us would maintain ing, and thus presenting a fair that they are efficient. If our peo- screen for the dark silhouette with ple could realize the purely utilita- pipe in mouth of Pat or Mike, who rian value of the small birds, as we is simply giving free rein to his do that of the so-called game birds, "noble rage" for clearing up.-B.] we would at least refrain for a sea- I have long felt, however, that son from their slaughter.
we shall not be able to convince If our Bob-whites leave us it will the average grown up practical be largely because the draws, the man that birds have any uses off of hedges and the fence-rows are the platter; or, the average grown cleaned up. At present, the ax, up woman that they are of any the plow and the barbed wire may value off of her hat or bonnet. Our be doing as much to exterminate hope lies in educating the childhim as the bird dog and the breech- hood and youth of the land. For loader.
this reason I have asked my old The situation is similar with ref- friend, the editor of the Journal, to erence to our smaller “birds of allow me this space to appeal to song and beauty.” In spite, how- the teachers of the state in behalf ever, of the necessary destruction of a rapidly fading feature of our of so much of our forests, if there landscape beauty. There was could be left (or planted) upon our time, in his boyhood and mine, that farms, certain brushy or wooded if one should go to see the other, streaks, these would afford ample there was scarcely a step within the hiding and breeding places, and two miles of deep bottom woods vast numbers of birds would re- that lay between our homes where
we should not have been cheered usual appeal—as it should be. To by the sight of a pretty wing flash leave the bird for some one else to or the sound of a warbling syrinx. enjoy is an exhibition of altruisni But to-day from the top of one that we can scarcely hope for yet. house the other can be seen brown- Of course it would be well if we ing beyond the barest fringe of the could go further and eliminate the old forest, which the creek still element of human selfishness from claims as its own; and there is the matter altogether, and leave the many a long stretch upon the old bird free and unharmed, because, path that is bare and voiceless.
so long as it does not interfere with There are few persons, surely, our progress or is not needed for that, at some period of their lives,
our sustenance, it has the same have not felt themselves thrilled at God-given right to be free as we. the flight of a bird, the brilliancy of But with the idea inborn and cultithe plumage, the intricacy of its vated that all things are made for architecture, or the beauty of its man, intensified by our inherited eggs. There has run through us vanity and cruelty, we can scarcely all, from the shaver with the pinch hope to save the birds by this of salt and the gamin with his gum- means, although the general adsling, up to the youth or the man mission of the dogma by no means with his gun and the maid or ma- implies that all things were made tron with her millinery, the desire for man to destroy. Moralist as I to possess the bird because of its
am, I very much doubt the outlook interesting characteristics. It is
It is for immediate good along the chanupon this basis that we must build nel of the bird's rights. Our reli—not so much by its further ex- gion has almost utterly failed to do tension as by its modification. anything
anything for the birds. Every Heretofore our admiration for the aigrette is the badge of the parent bird has scarcely been above that bird worn while the young are fed of the cat's or the hawk's. Our in the nest. For a lady to wear esthetics has been on the level with one costs the lives of many nesttheir blood-thirst or hunger. Our lings; yet the votaries of fashion hope lies in the outlook of refining will bow them before the altar or our selfishness. We will have quiver them in their "te deums”made a great step in blending a though they dare the curse of Deushade of ethics with our esthetics teronomy in the sacred precincts of when we can leave the bird free the sanctuary (22, 6). If, as hinted now that we may enjoy it another in Genesis, the curse fell upon the day. This is the substitution of a lower creatures because of man's higher form of selfishness for a transgression, we should blush to lower, and is the ground of our admit that they have profited very slightly by his claims of restora- now extant; and if desired sometion to divine favor.
thing of the bird's kinship to each It is therefore along the line of other, and to other vertebrates, the pupil's esthetic and purely intel- based upon structure, may be lectual interests at first that we noted. Possibly some hint of its must look for our greatest good- evolution may be very enthralling though there are certainly many to some minds. But these higher kind hearts in our children and peo- expositions are by no nieans called ple where the bird's case may find for in order to interest the pupil. lodgment. Hence the appeal to A hunting friend took his little teachers. The thing to do, there- girl and boy out while shooting fore, is anything that may increase doves. The boy retrieved with a interest.
boy's savageness the birds as they Writing in this off-hand way, I fell from fight, but the little girl am not prepared to outline any smoothed their pretty plumage and method of procedure. It is doubt- cried over them. At last, as she less better that this should be left saw her father crouch for another flexible so that the child may be shot, she threw her arms around taught at the point of interest or of him and hampered him, saying: mutual contact of information be- “Papa, you just shan't shoot antween the mind of teacher and pu
I can't stand it." And pil. It may be the egg, the manner the bird flew by unharmed, and the of flight, the nest, the young, the father went home, because he did colors, etc., that may be stimula- not care to rub that pretty bloom off ting. I have found the habits of his little daughter's heart. great interest to little children. The I should rather a little girl of pupil may be taught the usefulness mine should know and love a dozen of color to the bird; and a new in- birds in the woods than to count all terest in brilliancy and markings the notches in the sternum or note may be provoked beyond that of all the insertions of the toe-tendons the mere pleasures of beauty. A of a single specimen upon the dislarge amount of interest may be de- secting table. The dissector, like veloped in the field of purpose or the collector, has his calling and use of certain parts. As an expan
election sure, but few-certainly sion of this, the bird may be studied few in our common schools
are in its skeletal, plumage and muscu- really chosen. Take the student lar structure, by means of any good out to the bird rather than bring treatise—so many of which are the bird into the student.
HELPS, HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS.
Mr. Richards is very busy at this more than a high hill. Isolated season of the year, and has therefore mountains, moreover, are of rare dropped his interesting and helpful occurrence, and whenever they ocarticles on scientific experiments cur they are very apt to be volcanic for the present. He will continue cones or domes, neither of which is them next fall, beginning either a good type of structure with which with the September or October to begin the study of mountains. number.
The range, and not the peak, is
the unit of structure, and the essenHIGHLANDS.
tial feature about it is the fact that BY JACQUES W. REDWAY, F. R. G. S.
it is a wrinkle or fold of the earth', The sometime way in which rock-layers. In fitting themselves courses of study here and there pro- about a more rapidly shrinking invide for the teaching of the high- terior the layers of the earth -- the lands of the earth may be both log - part we commonly call the "crust" ical and psychological; but when -- must of necessity wrinkle, cockle, viewed from the standpoint of na- and crumble in order to adapt themture, the “method” is not always selves to it. In other words, missupported by the facts of the case. fits and wrinkles go always to
Quite frequently we begin — “A gether, no matter whether in tailor hill is an elevation of land.” “A made garments, or in the evolution mountain is an elevation higher of the earth. than a hill.” “A mountain range i; But a range is always inuch worn a line of mountain peaks,” etc. - weathered, we may say. From Such a scheme has a charming sim- the very moment the fold begins to plicity about it: it is logical, because be formed, the waters of the atmossystematic in the order of presenta phere set to work to wear it down tion: it is psychological, because to base level. The top layers or the pupil proceeds from the known, strata are broken and worn away, step by step, to the unknown.
leaving long ridges. Thus, the ApThe only trouble about the de- palachian ranges consist of comparvelopment of the subject is the fact atively few folds, but the latter have that no such mountains exist in na- been crowded into very many ture. Hills and mountains have ridges. The crests of ridges are each the quality of elevation, it is often very unequally worn, and the true, but the mountain is something higher parts form mountain peaks.
The intermontane troughs are the AN HOUR WITH EUGENE FIELD. valleys: the transverse notches, ( Arranged by Eleanor Skinner, Columbus
Normal School.] passes, canons, and water gaps.
(In three parts.) Very frequently a short range is called a mountain, and so also is
PART I. BIOGRAPHY. a plateau of no considerable area. PART II. FAIRIES, FUN AND FROLIC.
In a few instances softer rocks PART III. HUSHABY, LULLABY. may be worn away leaving a boss NOTE.- The Eugene Field exerof harder material in the form of a cise can be made intensely interestmountain peak. Mount Holyoke ing by the aid of a few blackboard and Mount Tom are examples. drawings, illustrating some of the Pocono, Broad, and Broad Top, in most dearly loved songs and poems. the Appalachian ranges, are prac- When the program was given in tically plateaus. Finistaarhorn, the second grade training school Matterhorn, and Wetterhorn are last year, we had no difficulty in each what the latter part of the name finding simple drawings of children suggests - a "horn" or pinnacle of for the board work. “Good Chilhard rock projecting above the dren Street" was represented by a main ridge.
train of happy looking boys and Here are a few questions: Does girls carrying flags, drums, dolls the expression "everlasting hills" and various other toys suggesting convey truth or falsity? Why is the fun and frolic. We found a little floor of an intermontane valley usu- soldier boy to illustrate “I'm a ally flat and comparatively level? Beautiful Big Red Drum"; "Lady Why is the landscape of the Appa- Button Eyes" became very real lachian mountains generally round- when her work was shown by a tiny ed and graceful, while that of the figure locked in dreamland. "PitRocky Mountains is almost always typat and Tippytoe" were the darharsh and angular? How does a lings of the school for several days. high range between two peoples They were two baby figures seated affect their intercommunication? on the floor, playing with numerous How have Khyber Pass, Mohawk scattered toys. The drawings were Gap, and St. Gotthard Pass, affected quite simple, being done in rough history? How are canons formed? outline. Children are so responsive, In what way have the slopes of the and pictures appeal to them so Rocky Mountains changed the con- strongly that one never need fear tour of the Gulf of Mexico?
the intended suggestion will be lost.