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crude results discourage you, but remember that teachers must often walk by faith, and not by sight. Then, too, children sometimes know better than they can tell, owing to limited vocabularies. One of our boys, in describing the blow fly, said: "It lays its eggs in meat, and they hatch out into — into I don't know whether it is caterpillars or butterflies." Now, that boy did really know more about flies than I did when I began teaching school. He knew the fly passed through the larva state, and he only said caterpillar when he meant maggot. Now, I can almost hear everyone of you saying, "How can I find time for all these things, with the reading, writing, number work and all the other things that must be done?" May I suggest a few things that it seems to me you might do, for I would be. glad to make this paper practically helpful Is it not possible to so mix the nature work with the other work as to take very little extra time after all? For instance while studying the apple let all the lessons of the day gather more or less closely about the apple. Sing some such pieces as "Shake, shake, the Branches," or "Our polished house is red and round," etc. The uses of the apple will furnish material for several language lessons, the making of cider will give you a chance for a temperance lesson, the seeds and their five croelles may be used for the lesson in numbers, the word

apple will make a good writing lesson, and a story, giving the history. of the apple's growth, will make a delightful reading lesson, if written on the black board. I would like to emphasize the fact of getting all the reading out of this work that you can. It will impress the facts. gained on the memory, and a child. is just as truly learning to read when he holds a nice red apple in his hand and reads, "This is a red apple", as when he reads from his book, "I see a cat." Primary teachers will find a hectograph very helpful, as it enables you to make any number of copies of easy nature work reading, which the children love to take home and read over again and again. Twenty-five cents sent to H. R. Pattengill, Lansing, Mich., will procure you the ink and receipt, and they are easily made. While studying the apple the children can model the apple in clay, cut it from paper, draw it on slate with colored chalks or make it with shoe pegs for seat work, also, modeling, cutting, drawing the half apple, cut horizontally or in the usual manner.

This month we have been singing ourselves into the spirit of the season with such songs:

"There's a purple tint on the woodland leaves,

The winds are up all day." "Come little leaves, said the wind. one day,

Come over the meadow with me and play:

Put on your dresses of red and gold,

For summer is ended and the days grow cold."

"The brown birds are flying Like leaves through the sky.' "I'm only a little red leaflet." "What do the leaves say, children?"

and others. Then come the dedescription and comparison of different kinds of leaves, talks on uses of the leaf, and why the trees in our clime shed their leaves. The children's own words give us our reading lessons, and the number of leaflets on a leaf, or the points on the maple leaves make good number work, while nature stories on leaf and tree will be used in various ways, and for seat work the leaf was modeled, cut and drawn.

The number of classes in some schools is often given as a reason for lack of time to do this work, but I have known something like this to be done. The whole school together may examine the object under consideration, the very youngest making some observations and getting the benefit of the remarks of the older ones, then, when the oral work is finished, the most advanced class can write out a connected statement of facts gained, either alone or in answer to questions, on a blackboard, while another class can copy only a few sentences, perhaps, and still another only a single statement or a few leading words, while another class

read from the blackboard their own sentences made under the direction or in answer to the questions of the teacher. Children who have grown apathetic trying to put themselves into a book will brighten and quicken when the work becomes interesting and you will soon be exulting over your bright boys and girls. girls. Drudgery, without love or motive, fosters stupidity. Dull routine and lifeless repetition make lazy, ambitionless pupils.

I would have some nature work in my school if I had to put it in out of school hours. Go out with the children at noon or recess time, taking slates with you and draw the trees or leaves or hills or creeks, if there is no other time, but I believe there is always time for that which is best worth while. Enough time is wasted in many schools on nonessentials to give ample time for one lesson a day in nature work. I am glad to see that the tendency in the best schools is to hold the children back in numbers for a few years until their reason and judgment are better developed. Why not give some of this time to nature work? I have no patience with teachers or superintendents who are all the time boasting of how far they have got their beginning classes in numbers. I have no doubt that a child of six years may be taught the whole multiplication table in a year, but of what use is it to do so? He does not know its application, and it can be taught with so much less effort,

both on your part and his, when he is ready for it. He would much better be making mud balls. Better teach the children to see than to count, to express themselves than to say words. Let us strive rather to develop the children than to envelop them, as some one has said. Let us not only give them time to think, but something to think about,

teaching them to study subjects rather than to go through books, to enjoy the going as well as the getting there, to listen to bird and bee and babbling brook, and be able to hear "the heavens telling the glory of God" and to appreciate to some extent, at least, the wonders of His handiwork.




The closing years of the nineteenth century are aglow from the lamps of science; we talk, write and travel by electricity; we study the motion and condition of the stars rather than the moon's effect on the weather or the crops.

Modern society demands and rightly too, that the man or woman who pretends intelligence must know something of the elements of natural science. The teacher who would excel in her work, who would have her influence reach beyond her school-room must equip herself with information beyond the simple requirements of the text book and the teacher's examination.

In no way can this be done so successfully as in work in nature study and simple experiments.

In this and succeeding articles, directions will be given for performing 100 simple experiments, all having relation to work now taught in the graded and common schools of the state. These experiments have been carefully and repeatedly made as described and no previous study is necessary to perform them successfully. They will prove of especial value to your classes in geography and physiology. Your pupils will assist you most gladly in preparing apparatus. There is an ever growing demand for science knowledge in all departments of life. Parents and pupils alike become interested in experiments and until you try it you cannot estimate the value of such work in your school. Indifferent pupils often become interested in all their studies and the discipline of the school becomes relatively easy. It is urged that pupils prepare all ap

paratus possible for them and that these experiments be made a part of opening exercises. One experiment carefully made and thoroughly understood is enough for a les


Will you kindly gain your own consent right now to start with me in this work? I assure you a pleasant and profitable journey.



The most interesting and useful single piece of apparatus for a school is the Air Pump. Twentyfive experiments are here given and as many more may be suggested by ingenious pupils.


Fig 1

These you may call your 15 pound experi ments for they all depend upon the 15 pound atmospheric pressure. To understand the philosophy of the air pump it is well that we first make and explain the common lift or "suction" pump such as may be found in wells and cisterns. Pupils here see the action of the valves and the philosophy of the "suction" pump is that of the air pump.

TO MAKE A LIFT OR "SUCTION" PUMP. Secure a heavy Argand lamp chimney, two good corks, two tacks, two pieces of leather and a

good wire or a forked stick for a piston rod. Bore smooth holes size of a lead pencil through the corks, then place the lower as shown in Fig. 1 with leather valve fastened by tack so that it covers hole through cork. Insert small glass tube or one of rubber to reach water in cistern and arrange cork for piston with valve similar to first. If necessary wrap the piston cork with thread that it may fit neatly, though not tightly. When the piston is raised a partial vacuum is formed between the corks into which the 15 pound atmosphere pressure forces the water from below. When the piston descends the lower valve closes and the upper rises to allow the water to pass above the piston. If desirable a hole may be bored with a broken file as at s and a spout placed in pump. This pump will work perfectly and if your pupils understand the action of the valves they are ready to study the air pump.


The directions here given will enable any school to have this useful piece of apparatus at the most trivial cost. The cost need not be more than your wages for one day but the value to yourself and to your school will be many times such price. To make this pump is the

* Twining and Gillman of Newark, O., furnish an 81⁄2 inch pump carefully tested for $1.00. They supply pump, plate and connections for $1.50, purchaser to pay expressage.

[blocks in formation]

FIG. 2. R is a receiver made from lantern globe. It is covered by a small piece of glass.

ameter using for this the rough end of a broken file held in a common

brace such as carpenters use. Keep the end of the file wet with turpentine, camphor or oil. Some emery powder added will hasten the work. It will probably require fifteen minutes to bore the hole. Then place some emery on one face of the plate and with another piece of glass grind the surface perfectly true. You will then have a better plate than if it were iron or brass as it will not corrode or rust nor will it be eaten in holes by acids. For convenience of handling, fit your plate into a little wood frame.

say two or three inches high leaving one side open that you may connect the pump. Fit in the hole of plate an inch section of rubber tubing through which pass a two inch glass tube bent at right angles. These fittings must be air tight. You are now ready for a pump. Select a good bicycle pump and if the piston is held on by a screw remove and invert the leather. You must then secure a bicycle valve, take apart and cut off from the spring enough wire that when put together you can force back the valve by blowing strongly. It is now necessary to get a 30 inch piece of inch diameter heavy rubber tube into which push your valve being careful that the valve lifts toward the piston of the pump. Then attach the pump to the tube and the tube to the glass tube in the plate when, if your fittings are all perfect, and the valves properly arranged you have in your hands a magnificent triumph in apparatus making and an appliance with which you can make many delightful and useful experiments.


Grind all vessels from which you wish to exhaust the air on an extra piece of glass being careful to see that the rim is perfect, or air tight. It is well to have two sizes of emery powder, coarse and fine. Moisten the emery with oil or water when grinding. Place oil or vasaline on plate to prevent air getting under receiver.

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