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crude results discourage you, but apple will make a good writing lesremember that teachers must often son, and a story, giving the history walk by faith, and not by sight. of the apple's growth, will make a
Then, too, children sometimes delightful reading lesson, if written know better than they can tell, ow- on the black board. I would like ing to limited vocabularies. One of to emphasize the fact of getting all our boys, in describing the blow the reading out of this work that fly, said: “It lays its eggs in meat, you can. It will impress the facts . and they hatch out into into gained on the memory, and a child I don't know whether it is caterpil- is just as truly learning to read lars or butterflies.” Now, that boy when he holds a nice red apple in did really know more about flies his hand and reads, "This is a red than I did when I began teaching apple", as when he reads from his school. He knew the fly passed book, “I see cat.” Primary through the larva state, and he only teachers will find a hectograph very said caterpillar when he meant mag- helpful, as it enables you to make got. Now, I can almost hear ev- any number of copies of easy naeryone of you saying, "How can I ture work reading, which the chilfind time for all these things, with dren love to take home and read the reading, writing, number work over again and again. Twenty-five and all the other things that must cents sent to H. R. Pattengill, Lanbe done?” May I suggest a few sing, Mich., will procure you the things that it seems to me you
ink and receipt, and they are easily might do, for I would be glad to made. While studying the apple make this paper practically helpful the children can model the apple in Is it not possible to so mix the na- clay, cut it from paper, draw it on ture work with the other work as slate with colored chalks or make it to take very little extra time after with shoe pegs for seat work, also, all? For instance while studying modeling, cutting, drawing the half the apple let all the lessons of the apple, cut horizontally or in the usday gather more or less closely wal manner. about the apple. Sing some such This month we have been singing pieces as "Shake, shake, the ourselves into the spirit of the seaBranches," or "Our polished house son with such songs: is red and round,” etc. The uses of
"There's a purple tint on the woodthe apple will furnish material for
land leaves, several language lessons, the mak- The winds are up all day." ing of cider will give you a chance
“Come little leaves, said the wind for a temperance lesson, the seeds
one day, and their five croelles may be used Come over the meadow with me for the lesson in numbers, the word
Put on your dresses of red and read from the blackboard their own gold,
sentences made under the direction For summer is ended and the days
or in answer to the questions of the
teacher. Children who have grown "The brown birds are flying
apathetic trying to put themselves Like leaves through the sky."
into a book will brighten and “I'm only a little red leaflet.” quicken when the work becomes "What do the leaves say, children?” interesting and you will soon be ex
ulting over your bright boys and and others. Then come the de- girls. Drudgery, without love or description and comparison of dif- motive, fosters stupidity. Dull rouferent kinds of leaves, talks on uses tine and lifeless repetition make of the leaf, and why the trees in our lazy, ambitionless pupils. clime shed their leaves. The chil- I would have some nature work dren's own words give us our read- in
my school if I had to put it in out ing lessons, and the number of leaf
of school hours. Go out with the lets on a leaf, or the points on the children at noon or recess time, takmaple leaves make good number ing slates with you and draw the work, while nature stories on leaf trees or leaves or hills or creeks, if and tree will be used in various there is no other time, but I believe ways, and for seat work the leaf
there is always time for that which was modeled, cut and drawn. is best worth while. Enough time
The number of classes in some is wasted in many schools on nonschools is often given as a reason essentials to give ample time for one for lack of time to do this work, but lesson a day in nature work. I am I have known something like this glad to see that the tendency in the to be done. The whole school to- best schools is to hold the children gether may examine the object un- back in numbers for a few years under consideration, the very young- til their reason and judgment are est making some observations and better developed. Why not give getting the benefit of the remarks some of this time to nature work? of the older ones, then, when the I have no patience with teachers or oral work is finished, the most ad- superintendents who are all the time vanced class can write out a con- boasting of how far they have got nected statement of facts gained, their beginning classes in numbers. either alone or in answer to ques- I have no doubt that a child of six tions, on a blackboard, while an
years may be taught the whole mulother class can copy only a few sen- tiplication table in a year, but of tences, perhaps, and still another what use is it to do so? He does only a single statement or a few not know its application, and it can leading words, while another class be taught with so much less effort,
both on your part and his, when he teaching them to study subjects is ready for it. He would much rather than to go through books, better be making mud balls. Bet- to enjoy the going as well as the ter teach the children to see than to getting there, to listen to bird and count, to express themselves than bee and babbling brook, and be to say words. Let us strive rather able to hear "the heavens telling the to develop the children than to en- glory of God” and to appreciate to velop them, as some one has said. some extent, at least, the wonders Let us not only give them time to of His handiwork. think, but something to think about,
HELPS, HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS.
ONE HUNDRED EASY EXPERIMENTS
IN NATURAL SCIENCE.
BY E. E. RICHARDS. The closing years of the nineteenth century are aglow from the lamps of science; we talk, write and travel by electricity; we study the motion and condition of the stars rather than the moon's effect the weather or the crops.
Modern society demands and rightly too, that the man or woman who pretends intelligence must know something of the elements of natural science. The teacher who would excel in her work, who would have her influence reach beyond her school-room must equip herself with information beyond the simple requirements of the text book and the teacher's examination.
In no way can this be done so successfully as in work in nature study and simple experiments.
In this and succeeding articles, directions will be given for performing 100 simple experiments, all having relation to work now taught in the graded and common schools of the state. These experiments have been carefully and repeatedly made as described and no previous study is necessary to perform them successfully. They will prove of especial value to your classes in geography and physiology. Your pupils will assist you most gladly in preparing apparatus. There is an ever growing demand for science knowledge in all departments of life. Parents and pupils alike become interested in experiments and until you try it you cannot estimate the value of such work in your school. Indifferent pupils often become interested in all their studies and the discipline of the school becomes relatively easy. It is urged that pupils prepare all ap
paratus possible for them and that good wire or a forked stick for a these experiments be made a part piston rod. Bore smooth holes size of opening exercises. One experi- of a lead pencil through the corks, ment carefully made and thorough- then place the lower as shown in ly understood is enough for a les- Fig. 1 with leather valve fastened son.
by tack so that it covers hole Will you kindly gain your own through cork. Insert small glass consent right now to start with me tube or one of rubber to reach water in this work? I assure you a pleas- in cistern and arrange cork for pisant and profitable journey.
ton with valve similar to first. If THE AIR PUMP. TWENTY-FIVE necessary wrap the piston cork with EXPERIMENTS.
thread that it may fit neatly, The most interesting and useful though not tightly. When the pissingle piece of apparatus for a ton is raised a partial vacuum is school is the Air Pump. Twenty- formed between the corks into five experiments are here given and which the 15 pound atmosphere as many more may be suggested by pressure forces the water from beingenious pupils.
low. When the piston descends the These you may call lower valve closes and the upper your 15 pound experi- rises to allow the water to pass ments for they all de- above the piston. If desirable a pend upon the 15 pound hole may be bored with a broken atmospheric pressure.
file as at s and a spout placed in To understand the phil- pump. This pump will work perosophy of the air pump fectly and if your pupils understand it is well that we first the action of the valves they are make and explain the ready to study the air pump. common lift or "suc
TO MAKE AN AIR PUMP.* tion" pump such
The directions here given will enmay be found in wells
able any school to have this useful and cisterns. Pupils
piece of apparatus at the most here see the action of
trivial cost. The cost need not be the valves and the phil
more than your wages for one day osophy of the "suction"
but the value to yourself and to pump is that of the air
your school will be many times such pump.
price. To make this pump is the Fig 1
TO MAKE A LIFT OR
"SUCTION” PUMP. * Twining and Gillman of Newark, O., Secure a heavy Argand lamp
furnish an 872 inch pump carefully
tested for $1.00. They supply pump, chimney, two good corks, two
plate and connections for $1.50, purtacks, two pieces of leather and a chaser to pay expressage.
hardest task I shall ask of you and say two or three inches high leaving the better you succeed the greater one side open that you may conyour cause for just pride. Secure nect the pump. Fit in the hole of a piece of scrap plate glass seven or plate an inch section of rubber tubeight inches square from a hard- ing through which pass a two inch ware or drug store for the plate of glass tube bent at right angles. your air pump. Through the cen- These fittings must be air tight. ter of this bore a smooth round hole You are now ready for a pump. about three-eights of an inch in di- Select a good bicycle pump and if
the piston is held on by a screw remove and invert the leather. You must then secure a bicycle valve, take apart and cut off from the spring enough wire that when put together you can force back the valve by blowing strongly. It is now necessary to get a 30 inch piece of inch diameter heavy rubber tube into which push your valve being careful that the valve lifts
toward the piston of the pump. FIG. 2. R is a receiver made from
Then attach the pump to the tube lantern globe. It is covered by a small
and the tube to the glass tube in the piece of glass.
plate when, if your fittings are all ameter using for this the rough end
perfect, and the valves properly arof a broken file held in a common
ranged you have in your hands a brace such as carpenters use. Keep magnificent triumph in apparatus the end of the file wet with turpen
making and an appliance with tine, camphor or oil. Some emery
which you can make many delightpowder added will hasten the work.
ful and useful experiments. It will probably require fifteen min
TO MAKE RECEIVERS. utes to bore the hole. Then place Grind all vessels from which you some emery on one face of the plate wish to exhaust the air on an extra and with another piece of glass piece of glass being careful to see grind the surface perfectly true. that the rim is perfect, or air tight. You will then have a better plate It is well to have two sizes of emery than if it were iron or brass as it powder, coarse and fine. Moisten will not corrode or rust nor will it the emery with oil or water when be eaten in holes by acids. For grinding
grinding. Place oil or vasaline on convenience of handling, fit your plate to prevent air getting under plate into a little wood frame receiver.