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Exp. 1. The Hand Glass.
Grind the ends of a small lantern globe, then place on plate and exhaust the air. Allow each pupil to experience this 15 pounds downward pressure by placing hand on receiver. Turn the plate sidewise or invert to show that the air presses equally in all directions.
Exp. 2. Bursting Pressure of Air.
Have a pupil stretch very tightly over the small end of receiver used in Exp. 1 a piece of dental rubber. Exhaust the air quickly and the pressure of the outside air will burst the rubber with a loud report. This rubber may be gotten at any dental office. The dentist will give you waste rubber sufficient for a dozen experiments.
Exp. 3. The Magdeburg Hemispheres.
This famous experiment is beautifully illustrated by making a receiver of a glass tuinbler or glass cover from a butter dish or a candy jar. Exhaust the air and have two pupils try to pull the plate and the receiver apart. They are sure to fail. Of course you must remember that the larger the mouth of the receiver the greater the area pressed upon and the greater the effort required to separate the receiver from the plate. You will in all probability have to keep the pump at work to prevent failure from leakage.
Exp. 4. The Mouth as an Air Pump.
Repeat No. 3 using the mouth for
Make a jet tube by heating in flame of alcohol lamp or Bunsen burner a small glass tube. When the glass has softened pull asunder, then break off the small end so that the aperture will be about the size of a knitting needle. Pass the tube through a close grained cork, insert cork in bottle, attach small section
Reverse the glass tube of No. 5, Grind a receiver of a half gallon fill the bottle one-fourth full of or three quarts capacity. This may water, blow strongly into the jet be made from a candy jar or by tube and you will have a pressure grinding out the bottom of a three fountain the height of which will quart bottle using first the smooth depend upon your power to con- side of a grindstone, then finish on dense air with the mouth.
glass plate with fine emery. Place lighted candle under receiver and THE TEACHING OF DRAWING. exhaust. Explain.
At the last session of the SuperExp. 9. Air Supports Life. intendents' Round Table held at
Place a live mouse under receiver Dayton, November 25 and 26, the and exhaust. Better still, place following questions on the subject flies under receiver and observe of drawing were proposed. One of that they cannot fly. The air must the leading superintendents of the be well exhausted however or your State suggests that they be repubexperiment will fail. Try an Eng- lished in this department of the lish sparrow under receiver but do MONTHLY for the consideration of not kill the bird. It doesn't matter teachers and superintendents in about the flies. They are plentiful general. If a sufficient number of and cheap
concise and pointed answers is sent Exp. 10. Air in Wood.
to the editor at an early date a sumFasten a block of pine in the mary of them will be made up and bottom of a glass, fill with water, published sometime in the near place under receiver and exhaust. future. Long drawn-out communiHundreds of bubbles will arise from cations without pith or point cannot the wood. Try an egg and note the be considered. air bubbles.
1- Why is the teaching of drawExp. 11. Air in Water.
ing so barren of results? Place a bottle of water under re- 2 - What should be the special ceiver and exhaust. When the
purpose of drawing in the Primary? vacuum is good you will see hun- The Intermediate? The Grammar dreds of bubbles rising through the grades? Should it be the same in water. Fishes breathe the air thus all? dissolved in water. A very inter- 3 - What is the most profitable esting experiment is to place a fish material and method for each in water under receiver. Watch the grade? bubbles leave its mouth. It would
4- When and how far, if at all, soon die for want of air.
are the following profitable: Draw(Continued next month.) ing from the flat? Extensive draw
ing of types, (cubes, cylinders, etc.)? Our readers will be sorry to Drawing of conventional designs learn that Prof. Mills is, as he ex- and patterns? Rough sketching? presses it, "Flat on his back with Point and line drawing? Color "Grip", and as a result his article work or charcoal? on Arithmetic does not appear this 5 - Is the drawing of natural obmonth.
to abuse? What?
Would an ideal course closely cor- in common schools profitable? relate drawing with nature work? Should all other drawing be strict
6 - Are there drawing drills ly free-hand? (like practice of scales on piano) 9 -- Should drawing cultivate the that are profitable?
imagination or be strictly limited 7 – Should perspective be
to representing visual impressions? taught by rule? Where should 10 — What can be done to give shading begin?
our teachers more freedom in the 8 – How far is the union of in- use of the crayon as a means of ventional Geometry with drawing illustrative teaching? desirable? Is mechanical drawing
0. T. R. C. DEPARTMENT.
AN AMERICAN'S VISIT TO PESTALOZZI.
( While this article has no direct bearing upon any of the books adopted this year, yet me feel sure that it will prove helpful to the members of the O. T. R. C.--ED.)
(In 1818, 1819 Prof. John Griscom, of New York City, made a study of the schools, colleges, and charitable institutions of Great Britain, France, Switzerland, Italy, and Holland, and on his return home embodied the fruits of his investigations in a work of two volumes to which he gave the name, “A Year in Europe.” “No one volume in the first half of the nineteenth century'', says Dr. Barnard, "had so wide an influence on the development of our educational, reformatory, and preventive measures, directly and indirectly, as this.” Ex-President Jefferson pronounced the view that the book gave of the literary and public institutions of the countries that the
author visited the best that he had ever read. He said he found in it useful hints for the University of Virginia, which he was then engaged in establishing. Griscom visited Pestalozzi, and wrote the account of his visit that is reproduced below. "A Year in Europe" is now a rare book. It owes much of its interest to the fact that it was written by a practical educator at a time when little was known about Pestalozzi and foreign education in the United States. – B. A. Hinsdale.]
Breakfast finished, our first and chief concern here was to visit the celebrated Institute of Pestalozzi. This establishment occupies a large castle the use of which was granted to Pestalozzi by the Canton of Berne, when the town of Yverdun was included in that Canton, and the government of the Pays de Vaud, to which it now belongs, con- of ambition and emulation, as untinues the grant. On entering the necessary, and as tending to councastle, we were invited into a pri- teract the sentiment of good will vate room. I gave my letters to the toward others. He thinks there is person in attendance, who took enough in the intuitive understandthem immediately to the chief. The ing of every child to accomplish the good old man soon came in, seized complete growth and maturity of me warmly by the hand, and seeing its faculties, if its reason be properly my hat on my head, he pointed to trained and nourished, and not it in a sort of ecstacy, with his eyes warped by injudicious treatment. almost filled with tears. I hardly The common plans of education he knew how to interpret this emotion regards as too artificial, too wide a and asked him if he wished me to departure from nature. Too much take it off. He answered very ear- stress is laid upon the memory, nestly, "no, no, no, keep it on, you while the imagination is too much are right.” He seemed very glad neglected. If the native feelings of to see us and as he speaks French the heart are allowed to operate, very imperfectly, and with an indis- under the domination of the native tinct accent, he said he would call powers of mind, drawn out and exMonsieur Greaves to talk with us. panded by faith and love, the child This gentleman soon came and en- is competent of itself to arrive tered immediately into a detail of gradually at the most correct and the institution, its principles, its important conclusions in religion spirit, its arrangement, etc. He is and science. There is a native and an Englishman, and, as I found up- inherent life, which only requires to on inquiry, brother to the lady be cherished by genial treatment to whom I had seen at Lausanne. He bring it into the full attainment of has been some weeks with Pesta- truth, and to the utmost perfection lozzi, for the purpose of under- of its being. He therefore insists standing the system thoroughly, in upon the greatest pains being taken order to aid a sister in England in to draw out this native life and to the education of her children. He preserve it in full vigor. There is a enters warmly into its concerns, and constant danger of urging the child will be useful in making it better forward beyond its natural strength, known. He explained to us very of anticipating its conclusions and clearly the leading ideas and views thus weakening its confidence in its of human nature, which induced own powers. In the plans he adopts Pestalozzi to become an instructor nothing is to be got by heart. The of youth. The two great instru- understanding is to be thoroughly ments with which he works are faith reached, and then the memory will and love. He discards the motives take care of itself.