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relation between the citizen and the state. I need not detail this subject to a body of teachers. You know how to teach it. I only wish to emphasize that the question of our relation to the state is not yet sufficiently widespread, and that we have a duty in this regard. I refer not merely to the financial support, but to the moral support and loyal enthusiasm, which is the duty of every citizen of our state, to learn their proper relation to the state. While I do not believe that they exist for the sake of the state, I do insist that, next to God, our supreme duty is to our country. The public school may rightfully insist that the proper support of the state is fundamental in our patriotism.
Second, - I mention the duty of directing the state. The state is not a machine that once started runs of its own accord and always in the right direction. As I see it, no citizen can do his full duty who simply studies currents and drifts with them. It is our duty to direct the current of popular thinking. The politician, so-called, should have no monopoly here. Our motto is not, "Our country first, last, and all the time, but rather - My country right, then my country first, last, and all the time.” This type of instruction seems to me necessary to preserve the freedom in which we delight. No country can remain free without free men. This means free discussion and free instruction. The teacher is in the same high sense the Redeemer of the land. His teaching must even touch the vital problems of citizenship and breathe the spirit of loyalty to the truth. The state is in constant need of support and direction. Her public institutions should foster both. To make them a possibility, every citizen in a republic must be potentially a soldier. He should also be a potential counsellor. I mean to say that he should be so free, so capable, so independent a thinker that the coun
try is not at the mercy of the daily newspaper, or of the demagogue in politics. I plead for a sober, conservative, honest thinker who shall mature his views, and insist that law-makers and politicians shall take him into consideration. We are educating our boys and girls in order to maintain a proper and wholesome sentiment upon all questions. These people stand for the truth that legislators must reckon with. By a very potent influence in that indirect way, they may touch the source of power and direct the action of the state. Here we find the reason for making the pubic school the home of patriotism. Over it the flag must ever float, because it is an expression of the truth. We mean our flag should be honored, because it is honorable. We mean that our loyalty should be expressed to something that is worthy of it. Patriotism is not therefore a sudden emotion or an occasional experience. It is a stated habit of the mind, and may express itself as really in a devotion to the state by supporting and directing it as by carrying a gun to Cuba.
In these stormy times of war like the present, the ethical problems of the state are uppermost and it is a happy commentary that the public school is a unit in its devotion to the ethics of international law. I have yet to hear the first public school teacher or scholar express a sentiment unworthy of the highest type of international ethics. The public school does not stand for jingoism but it stands for a devotion and loyalty to righteousness which means to support it if necessary in the interest of humanity. It has not forgotten the dignity of our country, nor has it forgotten the inhumanities elsewhere in the world. Conservative in its desire to enter into war, it has determined that the issue shall not be uncertain. This is why under the inspiration of public education and universal intelligence, the
I may say in conclusion, that the remaining question is the test of the ethics we teach. Shall it be Bible ethics, or what shall it be? I cannot discuss this question. I only have time to say
that we live in a Christian,- not a Pagan civilization. The state is not Pagan. I can see no reason for teaching Pagan ethics. I do see a difference, but I make no apology anywhere for the name of Jesus. I shall not impose my teaching upon you, but I will hold it up before you. If I am to mention
the name of Plato, I shall not close my eyes to Paul. I do not regard this as sectarian.
I believe in an honest study of the world's progress and its causes. The fact that the dominant power in the world to-day is essentially Christian, is all the more reason why our ethics should take their coloring from the best the world has yet seen. To proclaim such doctrine in our public school is no disloyalty to the state. In Ohio, at least, we shall not go to Paganism or sectarianism to learn our ethics. The people will never ask us to apologize for bringing to the young the best ideals. Without formal text-book instruction, therefore, it seems to me that all public education from the primary room to the university should recognize its obligations to set before the public the best we can learn of both social and civic ethics.
HIGH SCHOOL STUDIES IN GRAMMAR GRADES.
A GENERAL DISCUSSION. E. W. WILKINSON: I firmly believe that in order to discuss a paper a man should first see, hear, or read the paper. Not having an opportunity to do either of these things, I shall have to fire some loose shots over your heads this afternoon and hope that some of them will take effect. I shall promise you to confine myself to the twelve minutes allotted to me. It seems to me that the discussion of this question is one of vital importance to us, because of the steps that are being taken in this direction. In some of the larger cities this matter is being agitated. I refer to the introduction of the high school studies
in the grammar grades. In some of the larger cities the change has already been made. For instance, in the city where I am employed, the Queen City, we have had experience along this line, in view of the fact that algebra is taught in the A grammar grade. I shall, in discussing it, look upon all sides of this question. The first thing to be considered is the relative effect on the course of study. I have made some inquiry in regard to this among the teachers in the grades where it has been introduced. As I said before, it has been introduced into the A grammar grade of the Cincinnati schools. I find that it is almost universally their opinion, that it is a good thing. They stop right here. That is their universal reply but upon pursuing the inquiry further they will say, that it clears up the dirty work of the teachers in the D grades of the high schools. They come into the high school with a knowledge of the fundamental principles of algebra, and a fairly thorough knowledge of the elements in an equation. The first question to be asked is whether it is a benefit to the pupil, whether iť assists him in his approach to the study beyond the A grainmar grade, or as he goes on to the college, or possibly to the university. Second, I think it is still more important that we must take into consideration the fact, that a large class of pupils seldom go beyond the intermediate department of our public schools. They finish the work here, but never go any further. That brings up the idea which is so often discussed here relative to the dogma, of the discipline of the mind. There is also another difficulty in the discussion of this question. Is it beneficial for the student to take this, if he is never going to take a high school course? I want to ask first, what do you mean by high school studies? What is the basis of the high school and the common school studies? It is customary to teach certain subjects in the common schools and certain branches in the high school. Now that brings us to the question, whether it is pedagogical to bring these studies into the lower grades. Then shall we drop the high school studies, throw them out or continue to use them and suit them to the boys and girls of that age? The average boy reaches the high school at the age of fourteen or fifteen years. Now the question is whether the child is ready to enter upon these studies. Shall we continue them and pare down the instruction, so that he can take it? Another difficulty that presents itself is the over-loading of the school course. The
complaint has already gone out, that we teach too much mathematics. Speaking from my observation in this matter and based on my own experience I want to say that the introduction of algebra into the A grammar grade has been a decided benefit to the pupil.
We have done it in a way that it does not over-load the course of study. We have given it the time of two recitations and taken a half hour from mental arithmetic and a half hour from practical arithmetic. My observation has been, that the change is a good one and I believe it has strengthened the children. I do not believe a child can understand percentage properly unless he understands the principles of the equation. There is another advantage that I think conies from this practice, and that is that the student learns to know that there is something more in mathematics than arithmetic. The trouble with children is, that they are too apt to study the book, instead of the principles in the book. If you ask a child where his lesson is, he will tell you it is on such a page, instead of giving you the subject of his work. A lesson in history means so many paragraphs on page 97, rather than the principles or the events. They get the idea that history is a book instead of the idea that man is what he is, from what he has done. One of the advantages to my children in the study of Algebra is, that they have gotten something in mathematics, that is, something beyond arithmetic. They seem pleased to know that there are two series of numbers instead of one. They have always thought of the positive numbers of the arithmetic and seem delighted to find that there is a series of negative quantities. That feature alone is a good thing. It has benefited us so far per se. I note also another benefit based on my own experience and that is that it has been a help in the other studies. It has been a great help to them in their mental and practical arithmetic. I have been highly pleased with the interest they take in their studies. I have frequently seen them solve the same problem by arithmetic and then by algebra. In this way they have been led to make a comparative study of arithmetic and algebra methods and it has been of great advantage to them. It seems to me this is a benefit to the pupil, whether he continues in school or whether he stops. The benefit he gets from this study will always be an advantage to him. I am of the opinion that our work in this study has been an advantage to our pupils.
J. W. MACKINNON: I was asked to discuss this subject and I want to say in the beginning, that there are good reasons for almost anything if it be followed in the right sense and spirit, and many times there is harm growing out of things that may have good feaľures. The great cry from all our teachers is, that the work is not as well done down in the lower grades as it should be. As a result of this they come up poorly prepared for their work in the high school. I think a very much larger number of our pupils fail during the first year in the high school than fail anywhere else. I believe there is too much expected of them and that there is too little attention paid to actual work. I do not believe we give them encouragement enough in their work. They have not had the opportunity to work and study for themselves. I believe this is a weak point in our system of instruction. They have not been thrown enough on their own resources. In the lower grades the teacher does too much work for the child. They do not get down to study for themselves. When they go to the high school they cannot stand. I am not in favor of crowding some of the studies back into the grammar grades. I think students are benefited by the study of algebra, but I do
not think they should be burdened with too much of it. I believe any successful teacher can do the same work without the algebra and can do it in the same time that he does with the algebra.
If we will spend more time in the work suggested by Dr. Thompson to prepare our children for good school work and for good successful life work it will be better. I think they can get these branches later on in their school course. I think you are liable to throw too much work on these children. Many a child is discouraged because of the amount of work he is expected to do. If he does less work he is liable to do it better. In this way he will be better prepared for the high school work. Therefore, on this ground I would deplore the crowding of lower grades with work belonging to the higher grades.
H. C. MINNICH: My experience is not at all like that of the last speaker. I believe in the high school studies in the lower grades. I am in favor of putting these studies where they should have been long ago. I am opposed to any school curriculum that is not continuous in its character. I am opposed to any system in which the boy feels that he is not getting it all, as he goes along. I want the boy to feel that the school curriculum is continuous and that he is getting just what he ought to have in each year. I am in favor of the largest possible opportunity in every grade of the school. It seems to me that it is preposterous to take a stand against the teaching of botany in the lower grades. That is a nature study, and it is very delightful work. I do not see how you can take a stand against this. I call that high school work. Now the same thing is true of algebra. I want to say that if algebra is introduced into the seventh and eighth year grades it will be found of assistance in the work of arithmetic. He is coming in contact with principles that will make him en
joy his work more in arithmetic. It is think it is right and proper to teach just the same with botany. The study these subjects in the lower grades. of this branch will give him a better in- SAMUEL FINDLEY: The last speaker sight into biology. It is true that he seems to me to present the true phase does not know the technical data of of this question. The phase which I acthese branches, but he knows the terms, cept is the classification which is not just as he knows his friends. It will the old notion. The old notion seems help him later on in his work. I be- to have been that it divides into vertical lieve in the systematic instruction of the sections, and the subjects are to be high school studies from the ground up. taken from bottom to top in steps. Is I believe in the systematic study of these not the horizontal section the natural branches, without the formality of plac- division, taking certain departments, ing them in the course of study. Sup- certain branches and certain subjects in pose that you can teach four hundred their lower steps? A very little child facts in a certain time. Now if you teach can study astronomy. A very little four hundred potent facts will it not be child can study geometry. Is it not the the best use you can make of the time true theory that the child should take of the pupil, and when he has grown up these phases which he can? into the high school work, he will be We have been trying to finish ariththe better prepared for it.
metic when the strength of the child has I do not want to push the high school not been prepared for this phase. Let studies down into the lower grades, but the childen take the elementary phase I want to put these branches where they of many subjects. I have no objection always belonged. I also believe in the to the little child of six years studying introduction of the study of Latin in the something of astronomy, seeing and lower grades. If there are any teachers thinking and looking along that line. who want to take algebra out of the We have been having them read in lower grades, I do not know of them. the lower grades, yet they are not preThis work will give children new ideas pared to read. This opens up the whole of the branches. As it is now, a pupil subject of the correlation of studies. I fears to enter the high school because have come to think the whole subject of the severe tests which he must meet. has advanced in horizontal sections. As a matter of fact, he goes into the J. J. BURNS: I would like to ask Dr. high school with much fear and trem- Findley if he contemplates the use of a bling. Now, if you put in these text-book in these studies of astronomy branches you will give him a gradual and botany? approach to the high school work, and SAMUEL FINDLEY: I have not he will not fear it.
thought of that. I would say yes if you This continuous work from the lower know how to use it, and no, if you know grades to the higher is my conception of how to get along without it. I would a good and well organized course of not put a class of little children into study. I have in mind a boy that we Lockyer's Astronomy. saved for graduation by giving him MARGARET W. SUTHERLAND: I want something out of the ordinary work. I to say a few words on the subject. I called him into my office and told him want to congratulate ourselves that we I could not tell the difference between are getting back to-day where Dr. Tapa horse chestnut and a buckeye. That pan, and other distinguished educators, boy worked for weeks to show me the were twenty years ago. I can rememdifference between those two plants. I ber, when I first came to the Associa