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far short of equipping the children with wish to go on record as heartily in favor the knowledge of the English language of bringing into our lower grades all that they should have. For this reason the material which is necessary and we open up new fields, acquaint him helpful in educating our children, even with new terms, and he takes more should they enter the high school. I interest and is better educated by hav- have no doubt that in a few years the ing access to them. What is true of children who have been educated in this defective children in the very simplest way will enter high school and complete manner is also true and will apply to a course with as much practical inforchildren with normal conditions. I ammation as the ordinary graduate of coltherefore heartily in favor of expanding lege has, when his primary work has our school work and to begin with the been conducted wholly in the so-called first year and to continue that work un. common branches. til the child has left the public schools. A. B. JOHNSON: I am ready to exIt is a fact that the ordinary boy or girl, claim, "Oh, educational reform, what and even the boy who has graduated crimes have been committed in thy from the high school after having spent name!"—Why is it that we hear, so some eight or ten years in the study of often, the complaint made against the arithmetic is not able to solve the sim- schools that they do not give the pupils plest problem in percentage, after being a reasonable mastery of the subjects out of school three or four years. What studied? has such a child to show for the time This is a serious charge and we shall spent in the public schools? Would it do well to give heed to it. If it be true, not be better for such graduates to have we shall not mend matters by still in their minds a true knowledge of the more overcrowding the course of study. English language and in various de- “Too much arithmetic,” we hear conpartments of science, mathematics, lit- tinually from the reformers; and their erature, even in an elementary form? pupils do not know arithmetic. A satOne reason why so many children learn isfactory degree of accuracy and rapidity arithmetic slowly is because they can in this branch is not reached by their not read intelligently and understand the pupils. directions of the problems with which "Algebra and less arithmetic." And they have to deal. They do not under- what is algebra? A mere link to constand the meaning of the words, nor nect the higher mathematics with ariththe terms, and consequently that which metic. A generalizer, useful, and only is intended to be conveyed by the useful, here and there, in the higher regwriter is obscure. This can only be ister of mathematics: the most mechanremedied by a wider knowledge of lan- ical of all. Teach the pupil a little algeguage, which will enable him to under- bra and you have shown him the lazy stand what he reads, and apply the di- way to arithmetical analysis. rections to securing the results. This W e talk much of teaching pupils to of itself seems to me to be sufficient think, and when they have reached the argument why the child's field of inves- upper grammar grades, and an age tigation should be enlarged, and how when the higher faculties of the mind can it be enlarged except by giving it begin to develop—the best exercise ever new subjects to think about and talk yet used in any school to cultivate clear, about, where new words appear and new logical, consecutive thought must, in sentences are used in expressing the opinion of these uneasy reformers, thought? Therefore, Mr. Chairman, I give place to a mathematical make-shift.

ure out your purchases. Give the boy a problem and he will take his pencil and figure it out. He ought to study it out in his mind. Algebra seems to be a popular study. A teacher goes to an examination. Instead of solving the problem by arithmetic as he should do he solves it by algebra. The boy in school very frequently solves the problem by algebra when he should solve it by arithmetic. I do not mean to say there should be no principles of algebra or geometry taught in the lower grades, but I maintain this is not the teaching of that branch as a subject. I believe we have enough work to do without this. Of course we can teach these principles where necessary, but we teach them in an elementary way and I think the high school work is only a continuation of the primary work, – or the work of the ordinary school Again, I would have no objection what ever to the study of Latin, especially with regard to prefixes and suffixes, but I would call it the study of English. When you come to the formal study of Latin and algebra and geometry it is carrying it too far.

E. W. WILKINSON: I spent some time here a few years ago studying the geological formation of this island and it took me two hours to come up to this point.

If I were coming up here now, I would take the street car, and come up in a few minutes and spend the rest of the time in study.

I believe in studying in the lower grades principles leading directly to the high school work.

J. W. Jones: The position which one takes on this question depends largely upon what he has been doing. I take it that the gentleman who has just spoken is either a school examiner or an instructor of eachers. Eu at'on is l'rgely a matter of development, and the measure of one's education is the vocab

ulary in which he expresses himself. There is but little opportunity for the pupil to enlarge his vocabulary by remaining in the same studies for many years. I, at one time, thought that every person could learn the subject of arithmetic. But I have abandoned that notion. I am sure that but few people can become good arithmeticians. Why whole classes should be kept in a routine work in the same subject year after year, using the same words, not being permitted to learn anything new, is more than I can understand. I think it highly important that the child should have access to all avenues of information and to subjects which lead up to one's complete education. I care not whether you call it nature study or high school study, but the fact remains that the more the child has to do with these subjects, the earlier he has to do with them the more familiar will he become with them. It is not necessary for the child to defer on the enlargement of his vocabulary until he enters college. The child of to-day, properly instructed in all of the fields of information, can have a greater variety of words, in which to express his thoughts, also more thoughts, than many of us had when we entered college and at least in some instances possibly when we completed our college course. But this can not be done by working the same field over year after year. New work must be given the child to do where thought is expressed in new words, new language. We have found it absolutely necessary in the education of deaf children in our institution to give them more variety of language in order that they can be educated in other branches. The English language is to them what the German or the French language is to the Englisb.child and I am quite sure that if we should confine our educational work wholly to the words found in the common branches, so-called, we would fall

far short of equipping the children with wish to go on record as heartily in favor the knowledge of the English language of bringing into our lower grades all that they should have. For this reason the material which is necessary and we open up new fields, acquaint him helpful in educating our children, even with new terms, and he takes more should they enter the high school. I interest and is better educated by hav- have no doubt that in a few years the ing access to them. What is true of children who have been educated in this defective children in the very simplest way will enter high school and complete manner is also true and will apply to a course with as much practical inforchildren with normal conditions. I am mation as the ordinary graduate of coltherefore heartily in favor of expanding lege has, when his primary work has our school work and to begin with the been conducted wholly in the so-called first year and to continue that work un- common branches. til the child has left the public schools. A. B. Johnson: I am ready to exIt is a fact that the ordinary boy or girl, claim, "Oh, educational reform, what and even the boy who has graduated crimes have been committed in thy from the high school after having spent name!"—Why is it that we hear, SO some eight or ten years in the study of often, the complaint made against the arithmetic is not able to solve the sim- schools that they do not give the pupils plest problem in percentage, after being a reasonable mastery of the subjects out of school three or four years. What studied? has such a child to show for the time This is a serious charge and we shall spent in the public schools? Would it do well to give heed to it. If it be true, not be better for such graduates to have we shall not mend matters by still in their minds a true knowledge of the more overcrowding the course of study. English language and in various de- "Too much arithmetic,” we hear conpartments of science, mathematics, lit- tinually from the reformers; and their erature, even in an elementary form? pupils do not know arithmetic. A satOne reason why so many children learn isfactory degree of accuracy and rapidity arithmetic slowly is because they can in this branch is not reached by their not read intelligently and understand the pupils. directions of the problems with which “Algebra and less arithmetic." And they have to deal. They do not under what is algebra? A mere link to constand the meaning of the words, nor nect the higher mathematics with ariththe terms, and consequently that which metic. A generalizer, useful, and only is intended to be conveyed by the useful, here and there, in the higher regwriter is obscure. This can only be ister of mathematics: the most mechanremedied by a wider knowledge of lan- ical of all. Teach the pupil a little algeguage, which will enable him to under- bra and you have shown him the lazy stand what he reads, and apply the di- way to arithmetical analysis. rections to securing the results. This We talk much of teaching pupils to of itself seems to me to be sufficient think, and when they have reached the argument why the child's field of inves- upper grammar grades, and an age tigation should be enlarged, and how when the higher faculties of the mind can it be enlarged except by giving it begin to develop—the best exercise ever new subjects to think about and talk yet used in any school to cultivate clear, about, where new words appear and new logical, consecutive thought must, in sentences are used in expressing the opinion of these uneasy reformers, thought? Therefore, Mr. Chairman, I give place to a mathematical make-shift.

“What knowledge is of most worth" to any pupil in grammar school, high school, college, university, in a profession or in any other position? A reasonable mastery of the branches found in the last two years of the grammar school course.

Here we have the essentials of an English education; all above this is mere ornament useful to strengthen and adorn the foundation and solid framework. Teachers should guard with jealous care this part of the course and not suffer the less important studies of the high school to be thrown back upon it. He who can show us how better to stimulate, guide and instruct the grammar grade pupils will render a service of far greater value than any likely to be furnished by these innovaters.

E. W. WILKINSON: I do not want to discuss this question further. I think when we study arithmetic we teach them mensuration, although it contains the principles of geometry. I think these things always belong to arith

metic. I think these things should be taught in a more elementary way. In many branches you must teach principles of higher branches. I would like to know how you would teach some parts of arithmetic, without teaching the principles of geometry.

L. H. Jones: During the debate I was reminded of the anecdote told of Gen. Sherman, who was called upon to examine a class of cadets at West Point. He asked them to define strategy, as used in a military sense. After the definition had been given, he asked them to give an example of strategy. One of the students said that if you were in an engagement with the enemy and should run out of ammunition it would be a good piece of strategy not to let the enemy know it by keeping right on firing.

I have been pleased with the discussion all round. I think it will do us good to exchange views on these questions. We are all after the best results.

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NECROLOGY.

BY W. W. ROSS.

It seems to me thať the year has been remarkable for the large number of those who have fallen. Among the names, first is Leroy D. Brown, form erly a school commissioner in this State; A. C. Deuel, formerly a president of this association and for thirty-five years a superintendenť of the schools of Urbana; J. P. Patterson, formerly superintendent of the schools of Washington Court House; Father McMillan, Hampton Bennett, W. V. Rood, E. M. Neill, a teacher in the Cleveland

schools for many years. It was my privilege to know Mr. Brown for many years. During his commissionership, as a member of the State Board of Examiners, it was my privilege to meet with him in Columbus. I know with what zeal, labor and ambition he sought to discharge the duties of his office. I know but little of his work in the West. He was an active member of this association. I knew Mr. Deuel well. His eloquent speech, his high Christian character, and his power in debate was

known to all of you. I was much he could not come. I went to his home shocked by the news of his tragic death. to see him. I was told there that he I also knew Mr. Patterson; I was iden- would soon recover. tified with him in a summer school at I went to his bedside, and he said to Lakeside. I can recall his great zealme, pointing up, “I have not lost my in his chorus work. He was a great hold up there; I am still trusting." I teacher and student of natural history. knew he referred to a conversation that He was in Florida for a number of we had some time before this. He was a years. A few years ago he wrote me man of implicit trust, which gave him for a few words of commendation. He great endurance, under difficulties. was then struggling about the life of a As to Father McMillan, I attended daughter. She finally died after a ling- his funeral at Canfield, and obtained ering illness and he did not survive her some facts concerning him. He was long. Then there is Father McMillan.

born in October, 1820, and was seventyI speak of him who loved everybody eight years old when he died. At the and whom everybody loved. I remem- age of thirteen he was taken vut of ber his kind words at Chatauqua. We school to work ať harness making. He shall hear his words no more. Peace

spent four years in learning the trade to his ashes. I was not acquainted with of harness maker, and was said to be Miss Neill. This comprises the list of quite proficient in it. He had the privigrand and good men and women, who

leges of the common school prior to have fallen during the year. They lived this work. He studied Latin during noble lives and died in the harness and this apprenticeship. In 1837, he began they are entitled to the highest respect

to teach. He taught in the country of this association.

schools, and studied as he taught. He Samuel FINDLEY: I desire to say a attended a term in an academy, in that ew words, in regard to Mr. Rood. He part of the State. He never entered has been a member of this association college, but was honored by some colfor many years. I am not sure that his lege with the degree of Ph. D. voice was ever heard in this association. He continued to study and teach for He was principal of the Akron High a time. He taught at Youngstown in School for eighteen years. I knew him 1853. I am not sure when he became very intimately. He was quiet, and un- superintendent, but he was connecteci pretending, but he was true, and faith with these schools from 1853 to 1861. ful in his work. He was always weak Then came a period when he traveled in body. He had several attacks of for Wilson, Hinkle & Co. He then rehemorrhages of the lungs. His lasť turned to the work of teaching, at Lisyear in Akron was a very suvere test of bon, Hanoverton and Salem. His last his strength. He met with difficulties. work was at Youngstown. Father McHe said to me, “This will be my last Millan, was elected superintendent of year, and it shall be my best year.” the schools of Cleveland, but he deAlthough he labored under difficulties, clined, and then Dr. Harvey was elected, he maintained his excellent spirit. I but he also declined, and finally Dr. have often heard him say: "It is all Rickoff took the place. He was marright, and it will be well in the end." ried in 1849 to Susan Campbell. His He was taken ill on Thursday afternoon, funeral was unique. It was conducted a week ago last Thursday. Word came by one of his old pupils, Dr. Dixon, asto the high school Friday morning that sisted by his former pastor, Dr. Young.

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