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O honest face, which all men knew! might, and, in that faith, let us to O tender heart, but known to few! the end dare to do our duty. – O wonder of the age,

Lincoln. Cut off by tragic rage!

Force is all-conquering, but its

victories are short-lived. — Lincoln. And, children, you must come in bands,

Knavery and flattery are blood With garlands in your little hands,

relations. Lincoln. Of blue and white and red,

From Lincoln's First Inaugural To strew before the dead.

Address March 4, 1861. So sweetly, sadly, sternly goes

Intelligence, patriotism, ChrisThe Fallen to his last repose.

tianity, and a firm reliance on Him Beneath no mighty dome,

who has never yet forsaken this favBut in his modest home;

ored land, are still competent to The churchyard where his children adjust in the best way all our presrest,

ent difficulty. The quiet spot that suits him best,

We are not enemies, but friends. There shall his grave be made,

We must not be enemies. Though And there his bones be laid.

passion may have strained, it must And there his countrymen shall

not break our bonds of affection. come,

The mystic cords of memory, With memory proud, with pity dumb,

stretching from every battlefield And strangers far and near,

and patriot grave to every living For many and many a year. heart and hearthstone all over this For many a year and many an age,

broad land, will yet swell the chorus While History on her ample page

of the Union when again touched, The virtues shall enroll

as surely they will be, by the better On that Paternal Soul.

angels of our nature. QUOTATIONS FROM GREAT AMERI- One flag, one land, one heart, one CANS.

hand, Interwoven is the love of liberty

One nation evermore. Holmes. with every ligament of the heart.- A politician thinks of the next Washington.

election; a statesman, of the next To persevere in one's duty, and generation.James Freeman Clarke. to be silent, is the best answer to

One on God's side is a majority. calumny. - Washington.

- Wendell Phillips. If principle is good for anything, Once to every man and nation it is worth living up to. Franklin. comes the moment to decide, Whatever makes

In the strife of Truth with Falsegood

hood, for the good or evil side; Christians, makes them good citi

Some great cause, God's new Meszens. — Webster.

siah, offering each the bloom or Let us have faith that right makes blight,

men

Parts the goats upon the left hand,

The free school is the promoter and the sheep upon the right; of that intelligence which is to preAnd the choice goes by forever

serve us a free nation. Grant.
'twixt that darkness and that
light.

The laborer is the author of all

greatness and wealth. -- Grant. Then to side with Truth is noble, when we share her wretched

We believe that we have a good crust,

government, worth fighting for, Ere her cause brings fame and and, if need be, dying for.-Grant.

profit, and 'tis prosperous to
be just;

The will of the people is the best Then it is the brave man chonses, law. - Grant.

while the coward stands aside, Doubting in his abject spirit, till

Next in importance to freedom his Lord is crucified. —Lowell. and justice is popular education, The true prosperity and great

without which neither justice nor ness of a nation is to be found in

freedom can be permanently maintained. -- Garficld.

. the elevation and education of its laborers. — Grant.

A noble life, crowned with heroic I know of no method to secure death, rises above and outlives the the repeal of bad or obnoxious laws pride and pomp and glory of the so efficient as their stringent execu- mightiest empires of the earth. tion. -- Grant.

Garfield.

HELPS, HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS.

BY E. E. RICHARDS.

ONE HUNDRED EASY EXPERIMENTS teacher. Don't say you haven't IN NATURAL SCIENCE. No. 2.

time. Success finds time.

If these experiments are not clear [The air pump referred to in these articles can be purchased of Fred. J. Twining, Newark, 0.] or fail to work write me and we'll

Have you tried the experiments make them work. They are imin the January Monthly? To do portant inasmuch as they touch so will add much to your success upon the fundamental laws of and to succeed well means that you physical science as related to much must do something in addition to of your class work in geography, the daily rounds of your neighbor physiology, etc.

,

Exp. 12. Magic Transfer of put under receiver and exhaust. Water.

By a little practice you will soon be able to adjust the cork so that it will jump up against the top of the receiver. Explain just how the fifteen pounds pressure outside the bottle has been removed and how the fifteen pounds pressure inside forces out the cork. In the so-called cyclones, the pressure outside a house is sometimes much reduced so that the inside pressure bursts the walls outward.

Exp. 14. To Boil Water WithFIG. 2. Ris a receiver made from lantern globe. It is covered by a small piece of glass.

out Fire. An experiment beautiful and in- Pour slowly into a 4 ounce botstructive is suggested by reference

tle one-third filled with water to Fig. 2. Bend a glass tube as

enough sulphuric acid to fill it twoshown in illustration, leaving the

thirds full, stirring the liquid conarms of equal length and long stantly. When it becomes much enough to reach the bottom of the heated place under receiver and exbottles. Fit the cork and tube of

haust. The water will soon boil the left-hand bottle air tight but cut

violently although much below the a small V shape air passage full

normal boiling point. If you prelength along the side of cork of the

fer to modify this experiment place right-hand bottle. Fill half full

a bottle of water somewhat below with indigo water the left-hand bot

boiling point under receiver and tle, connect as shown in figure and

proceed as above. If your pump exhaust. See how many pupils in

works well you will be much suryour school can explain why the prised at the low temperature of the liquid is transferred. You may violently boiling water. •The redrive the liquid back and forth as

duced pressure explains to your puoften as you wish by readmitting pils why it is not possible to boil the air and exhausting again. This eggs and potatoes in open vessels is often called the Bacchus Illustra- on high mountains. tion. Why?

Exp. 15. Freezing Produced by Exp. 13. The Magic Cork. the Air Pump

Select a close-grained cork, size Place a spoonful of ether in a to fit a 5 cent vaseline bottle. Mois- watch crystal or other shallow, ten or oil the cork, insert in bottle, wide-mouthed vessel and into the

[graphic]

Burn brown paper under mouth of receiver until filled with smoke. Place on plate and exhaust. Note that the rare air will not float the smoke and that it falls to the plate.

ether put a few drops of water. Place under receiver and exhaust until ether is almost evaporated. If the pump works well the water will be found frozen. If the pump is not perfect the water will be found very cold. The pressure of the air being removed by the pump, the ether evaporates rapidly and removes the heat from the water. This explains why a room may be cooled by sprinkling the floor or why it turns cooler after a rain.

Exp. 16. A Magic Test Tube.

To show liquid condition of ether due to the fifteen pounds' pressure, fill a test tube with water. Replace a few drops by ether and keeping thumb over mouth of tube insert in a wide-mouthed bottle of water and place under receiver. When the air is exhausted the liquid ether changes to a gas and the test tube rises as by magic. Let the air return to the receiver and the tube suddenly sinks in the water.

Exp. 19. Pressure and Volume. Fill with air to one-half its capacity a toy balloon or bladder, place under receiver and exhaust. Explain the undue expansion. Is this experiment related to No. 13? Put a shriveled apple under receiver and note effect upon exhausting the air.

a

Exp. 20. A Fish Under the Receiver.

Have the pupils bring you small live fish. This they will be most happy to do. Place in a vessel of water and put under receiver. Exhaust rapidly noting the effort of the fish to keep from floating. Notice the air bubbles escaping from the mouth of the fish.

On readmitting the air, see how heavy the fish appears to be, how it sinks to the bottom of the vessel. Explain to your Physiology class how a fish breathes air. Refer to Exp. 11.

Exp. 17. To Show How Clouds are Formed.

Moisten the inside of a receiver and exhaust the air. The removal of a part of the air removes likewise a part of the heat and leaves the temperature of the remaining air below the dew point. This simple experiment explains the philosoplay of cloud formation.

Exp. 21. Fountain Under Receiver.

Place under your tallest receiver (you ought to have several) the bottle with jet described in Exp. 6, January number. It should be 1 filled with water. Exhaust and ex

[blocks in formation]

plain the fountain. What pressure May be the valves are dry, or poson the water, in the bottle?

sibly there may be a leak. Attach the pump to a rubber tube connected with good piece of glass tubing entering a tightly corked quart bottle. Exhaust the air for two or three minutes. Then pinch the rubber tube tightly, disconnect the pump and insert the end of tube in basin of water. The bottle should almost fill with water. This is as successful a test as the highpriced mercury apparatus for testing.

Exp. 24. The "Sucker."

This illustrates in a unique manner atmospheric pressure. Pierce

with an awl through the center a BUATE

3-inch piece of harness leather. Pass a strong cord through the

opening, soak the leather for some Exp. 22. To Fill an Inverted

hours in water when by pressing it Bottle.

closely upon some flat surface and Invert a slender bottle in a cup

pulling the string quickly a weight or in a glass of water and place un

of several pounds may be supder the receiver. Exhaust the air

ported. and on re-admitting it the bottle will appear to suck up the water from the vessel in which it was Exp. 25. The Inverted Glass of placed. This experiment may be

Water. rendered more striking if the upper The following experiment may bottle be supported on a glass tube lead your pupils to question the Law through a closely-fitting cork. of Gravitation. Cut a piece of

writing paper to near the size of the Exp. 23. To Test Air Pump. top of a glass tumbler. Fill the

It may be wise to halt a little and glass with water, place the paper take your bearings. Possibly some carefully over the glass and invert of the experiments may not come holding the paper in place with the up to the “diagram and specifica. hand. Then remove the hand and tions.” Test your pump carefully. explain the phenomenon.

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