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he drew the first sketch of An history of the four last years of Q. Anne. The work would have been published foon after, if his friends in the ministry had not disagreed about it; and, after the Queen's death, he spent much time in improving and correcting it; but it has not yet appeared. [D. S. p. 340. vol. 4. p. 23.)

DURING all this time, he received no gratuity or reward till the year 1713 ; and then he accepted the deanery of St Patrick's Dublin.

It may perhaps be thought strange, that his friends did not rather procure him a bithoprick in England, and place him in the house of Lords, where his political eloquence might have been employed with great advantage, But this was not in their power; and they might be willing to secure to him such advantage as they could,


" look upon them as certainly ruined. Some are of opinion the “ whole ministry will give up their places next week; others ima

gine, when the sessions is over. I do resolve, if they give up, or are turned out foon, to retire for fome months, and I have pitched upon the place already. I would be out of the way upon the first of the ferment. For they lay all things on me,

cven some I have never read.” [Dec. 15.]Nevertheless, while things continued in this doubtful situation, and many of the friends of the ministry had given all for gone, fuch was the force of reasoning, and such were the merits of that pamphlet, The condu&t of the allies, " that the Tory Lords and Commons in par, " liament argued all from it; and all agreed, that never any thing

of that kind was of so great confequence, or made so many " converts." [Dec. 18.] And at last, such were the effects that ir produced almost universally in the minds of men, that “ the

house of Commons” (faith the Doctor) “ have this day made many severe votes about our being abused by our allies. Those wbo spoke drew all their arguments from my book, and their vores confirm all I writ. The court had a majority of 150. All agree that it was my book that spirited them to these reso

lutions.” [Feb. 4.) And presently after he confirms what he had asserted beyond all possibility of inistake. “ The resolutions" ( he) “printed the other day in the votes, are almost quota. “tions from it, and would never have passed, if that book had " not been written." [Feb. 8.)- -Such were the politics, and fuch was the importance of Dr Swifi, in close furious times, D, S. p. 332.-337.

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knowing their own instability, and foreseeing their fall *. {vol. 4. p. 203.]

But, with whatever view, or from whatever cause, the deanery of St Patrick's was given him, he received it with less pleasure than he would have done a settlement with much less power and profit in England.

He immediately croffed the channel to take poffeffion of his new dignity; but did not stay in Ireland more than a fortnight, being urged by an hundred letters to hasten back, and reconcile Lord Oxford and Lord Bolingbroke, the consequences of whose misunderstanding were juftly dreaded by their friends I. (vol. 4. p. 201.


ř• I am much inclined to believe, that the temper of Swift might occasion bis English friends to wish him happily and properly promoted, at a distance. His fpirit, for I would give it the foftest name, was ever untractable. The motions of his genius were often irregular. He assumed more the air of a patrou, than of a friend. He affected rather to dictate than advise. He was elated with the appearance of enjoying ministerial confidence. He enjoyed the shadow : the substance was detained from him. He was employed, not trusted; and at the same time that he imagined himself a subtle diver, who dextrously shot down into the profoundeft regions of politics, he was suffered only to found the Smallows nearest the fhore, and was scarce admitted to descend below the froth at the top. Perhaps the deeper bottoms were too muddy for his inspection 0. let. 4.

In the beginning of the year 1714, Swift returned to England. He found his great friends, who sat in the seat of power, much disunited among themselves. He saw the Queen declining in her health, and distressed in her situation ; while faction was exerting itself, and gathering new strength every day. The part which he had to act upon this occafion, was not so difficult, as it was disagreeable. He exerted the utmost of his skill to reunite the ministers, and to cement the apertures of the state. I could descend into very minute particulars, were I to relate what I have heard him say upon this occasion. But we are at present too near that æra, and have had too many unexpected consequences from it, either to judge impartially, or to write undauntedly, of those tempestuous times. As soon as Swift found his pains fruitless, his arguments unavailing, and his endeavours, like the stone of Sysiphus, rolling back upon himself, he retired to a friend's house in Berkshire, where he remained till the Queen died. So fatal a catastrophe put a final period to all his views in England, and made him return, as fast as possible, to his deanery in Ireland, loaded with those agonizing paflions, grief and discontent. 0. let. s.

When he returned, he found their quarrels and coldness increased ; and having predicted their ruin from this very cause, he laboured to bring about a reconciliation, as that upon which the whole interest of their party depended.

WITH this view he contrived to bring them to Lord Masham’s at St. James's; and Lord and Lady Masham being acquainted with his purpose, left him alone with them. He then expoftulated with them both ; but to Little effect ; being able only to engage them to go to Windfor the next day; still hoping, that if he could keep them together, they would come to some agree ment; well knowing, that in absence the mind perpetually revolves the recent offences of a friend, and heightens them by every possible aggravation ; but that, when the offended and offender meet, the dying sparks of esteem or kindness often brighten into a flame, the remembrance of past pleasure and confidence retums, and mutually inclines them to secure, by an accommo. dation, that which they feel they cannot lose without-re. gret.

Sivift soon after followed them; but was told by Lord Bolingbroke, that his scheme had come to nothing; and he had the mortification to observe, that they grew more cold to each other every day. In the mean time Lord Oxford's credit grew less and less, and the Queen's health visibly declined.

Swift, however, contrived yet once more to meet them at Lord Malham's, and was again left alone with them. This was the last time they ever met, and he spoke to them both with great freedom; but at length defpairing of his purpose, he told them he would retire, for that all was gone. Bolingbroke whispered him that he was right, but Oxford said all would do well.

Swift Itill adhered to his opinion; and therefore went in a day or two to Oxford by the coach, and thence to the house of a friend in Berkshire, where he continued till the Queen's death, which happened in about ten weeks. (vol. 4. p. 201, 2 ]

While he was at this place, his mind was still busy for his friends ; and he wrote a discourse, called Free thoughts on the present state of affairs, which he thought

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might be useful at that juncture, and sent it up to London; but, fome difference of opinion happening between him and Lord Bolingbroke concerning it, the publication was delayed till the Queen's death ; and then he recalled his copy ; which was afterwards deposited with the late Alderman Barber, and having been fince published, will be found in vol. 2. p. 362. (vol. 4. p. 22, 23-]

A few weeks after the death of the Queen, he went back to his station in Ireland; all his connections with the court being broken, and all his expectations disappointed.

But it would be an injury to Swift not to stop a momeet here ; and, before we descend with him into the vale of private life, look back, as from an eminence, upon the country we have paffed.

Few of those who have been permitted to associate with persons greatly superior in rank and fortune, who bave climbed in the retinue of power, and been distinguished by reflected greatness, have been able to sustain the native dignity of their own character, without stoop; ing as they ascended the hill, or being blinded by the light that made them conspicuous to others.

LÈT it therefore be recorded to the honour of Dr Swift, and to animate others by his example and reward, that, during his connection with those who were in the highest rank, and who in'every rank would have been great, he would never suffer himself to be treated but as an equal ; and repulsed every attempt to hold him in dependence, or keep him at a distance, with the ut; moft resentment and indignation.

It happened upon fome occasion, that Harley fent him a bank-bill of 50 1. by his private secretary Mr Lewis ; which Swift inftantly returned, with a letter of expoftulation and complaint. Harley invited him to dine, but he refused. He wrote to Mr Lewis to mediate between them, defiring to be reconciled; but Swift fent word, that he expected farther satisfaction. Harley replied, if he would but come and see him, he would make him eafy: but Swift infifted, that he should apo .

logize by message; and declared, that, otherwise, be would cast him off *. [D: S. p. 324, 5. leti to S.]

It is possible that this favour might have been rejected, as not worth his acceptance : but it is certain, that, if it had been of greater value, it would not have atoned for any indecorum in the offer, or have induced Swift to suffer an obligation from those whom he did not esteem ; for he refused the place of historiographer with disdain, because it was in the disposal of a person whom he regarded with disgust and contempt t.

He would not suffer even negative incivilities from those who, if by their station they had not been his superiors, would have been his equals by learning and parts. It happened, that having on a Sunday dined with Mr St John, who was then

secretary of state, and remarked that he appeared to be much out of temper; he took the first opportunity to see him alone, aked him



* Swift was a man of such exalted spirit and fire, that if a benefit designed him were not accompanied with elegance and grace in the manner of proposing it, he would scorn the intended favour, and resent it as an affront. He quarrelled with his friend Harley on a punctilio of this kind. "Mr Harley” (faith Dr Swift) " desired me to dine with him again to-day, but I refused “him ; for I fell out with him yesterday, and will not see him a

gain till he makes me amends." (Let. to S. Feb. 6. 1910.) " I

was this morning early" (fays he) “ with Mr Lewis of the se“cretary's office, and saw a letter Mr Harley had sent him, defie

ing to be reconciled; but I was deaf to all intreaties, and have " delired Lewis to go to him, and let him know I expect further * fatisfaction. If we let these great ministers pretend too much, " there will be no governing them. He promises to make me easy " if I will but come and see him; but I won't; and he shall do “it by message, or I will cast him of ; in that he did something " which he intended for a favour, and I have taken it quite other " wise, disiking both the thing and the manner : and it has

heartily vexed me; and all I have said is truth, tho' it looks • like jeit: and I absolutely refused to submit to his intended fa

vour, and expect farther satisfaction.” (Feb. 7. 1710.) But in a few days after, he says, “ I have taken Mr Harley into fa.

vour again.” [Feb. 13.] D. S. p. 323, 4,

ť If Swift refused this place, he could not, as Lord Orrery supposes, be mistaken in believing it intended for him; and that he did refuse it, we have his own express declaration in his letter te Pope, dated Jan. 10. 1721. (vol. 4. p. 23.) Hawkes.


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