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is to give. Fre'quent means happening often; to frequent' is to visit often.

What is accent? How many accents may a word have? Mention some words that have different meanings according to the accent.


1. The first sentence in Lesson XVI, on page 35, is this: "Do you know what a pilot is?" In reading it, which of the words do you speak most strongly, or with the most force of voice?

2. Is it the word a? "Do you know what a pilot is?" No, you would not read it so poorly as that: you make pilot the most important word. "Do you know what a pilot is?"

3. Speaking one or more words in a sentence more strongly than the rest is called emphasis. No one can read well without emphasizing the right words.

4. How can you learn to give correct emphasis? By understanding well the meaning of what you read. When people talk in earnest, they emphasize the important words. If John would rather play than read, he says, "I don't like to read, I want to play." Emphatic words are sometimes printed in Italics, like the words read and play in the foregoing sentence.

What is emphasis? How can you learn to give it correctly? How are emphatic words sometimes printed?


1. A sentence is one or more words expressing a complete thought. When you say "Go!" as a command, you utter a sentence, although you speak but one word.

2. Again you may say: "I gò;" or, "I will go to the city to-morrow;" or, "I would go if you would go with me;" or, "Will you go with me?" or, "How I wish

you would go with me!" Each of these would be a


3. How is the close of a sentence marked? If the sentence is a question, like "Will you go with me?" the close of it is marked by an interrogation-point (?). If the sentence expresses strong feeling, like "How I wish you would go!" its close is marked by an exclamationpoint (!). In all other cases, it has at its close a period (.).

4. At each of these points, you make a pause in reading. Sometimes several pauses are made in reading or speaking a sentence. If the pause is almost as long as at the close of the sentence, it is marked by a colon (:). If still shorter, it is marked by a semi-colon (;). The shortest pause of all is indicated by a comma (,).

5. A dash is used when the meaning of the sentence takes a sudden turn, as if something had been forgotten; as, "Was there ever—but I will not boast."

6. Quotation-marks (" ") are used to show that the words which stand between them are not those of the writer; as, Job said, “Blessed be the name of the Lord.”

7. The marking of a sentence so as to make it better understood is called punctuation. Turn to Lesson XVI., and see if you can find all the marks of punctuation of which you have now read.

What is a sentence? How is the close of a question marked? How is the close of other sentences marked? Mention all the marks of punctuation given in this section.


1. In reading or speaking, the voice does not always keep the same tone or pitch, but rises and falls according to the sense.

2. When you ask a question that can be answered by

"Yes" or "No," the voice rises at the end of the question. Try it with these questions: "Will you come?" "Is the war over?"

3. At the end of other questions, and of all other sentences, the voice falls. Thus the voice falls at every period. Try it with these sentences: "I come." "The war is over." "How wise is God!"

4. This change of the voice so as to make it higher or lower is called inflection. It is made at other places in a sentence besides at the end. For example, when you say, "Will you ride, or walk?" you give to ride the upward inflection, and to walk the downward inflection. The way to give the right inflections in reading is to understand the lesson thoroughly, and then read it as if you understood it.

What is inflection? What sort of questions have a rising inflection at the close? What inflection does the close of other sentences have? Can there be inflections except at the end of a sentence? Give an example. How can you learn to give the right inflections?


The following table embraces most of the combinations of consonants found in ordinary reading. It should be used thoroughly for instruction in articulation.

Blow, cloth, flash, glide, flow, sled, trick, crib, drop, fret, grow, fry, trust, three, wrap, chide, scud, shove, skirt, slam, smash, snail, spat, squeal, stamp, swell, twist, scrub, shrub, spread, strive, when.

Bulb, fence, robbed, baked, bold, blamed, wind, hoped, lord, crossed, proved, waxed, glazed, self, long, large, cloth, clothes, milk, think, shark, ask, help, limp, harp, wasp, ribs, loads, roofs, eggs, locks, awls, false, homes, bones, sense, raps, wars, worse, lots, loves, fact, raft, salt, joint, apt, quart, last, next, adz.

Scratched, world, inch, march, breadth, fifth, health, strength, ninth, worth, sixth, ends, songs, births, charms, cents, themselves, lov-edst, heardst, mak'st, tempt, tempts.


The following table contains, in a classified form, all the letters and combinations which represent the vowel-sounds in our language. It should be used often as an exercise in pronunciation and spelling.

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e fate, aim, day, aye, gauge, break, eight, they.


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pine, die, sign, right, dia-mond, is-land, aisle, sleight, eye, guide, buy, my, rye.

I pin, car-riage, sieve, moun-tain, for-feit, for-eign, tortoise, build, pret-ty, been, mon-key, wom-en, bus-y, min-ute, a-byss.

note, door, boat, hoe, four, though, low, yeo-man,

sword, haut-boy, bu-reau, sew.


ï mete, need, peace, seize, peo-ple, key, chief, ma-chine. met, dead, heif-er, leop-ard, Wednes-day, ma-ny, said, says, friend, guess, bur-y, di-ær-e-sis.

I, err, early, sir, word, myrrh, urge, guer-don, ad-journ,

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fat, plaid, guar-an-ty.

care, hair, prayer, bear, heir, there.

bar, balm, laugh, heart, guard.

ask, chance, stanch.

all, talk, haul, daugh-ter, law, awe, George, broad, form, brought.

wolf, wom-an, wool, could, bull.

tube, rude, true, beau-ty, feu-dal, rheum, few, view, your, fruit, a-dieu.

tub, stud-y, young, son, flood, does, sur-geon, porpoise, bel-lows, na-tion, one. oi oy oil, broil, toy, oys-ter. ou ow out, bough, owl, vow-el.

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not, hon-or, hough, knowl-edge, was, yacht.

do, moon, shoe, through, soup, two.

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E have no account of the creation of the world


except what we find in the Bible. We should not have known how the world was made if God had not told us. The first verse in our English Bible reads thus: "In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth."

2. God was in heaven among his holy angels when

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