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con-gre-ga-tion sem-i-na-ry


sys-tem-at-ic com-mit-tee




HE subject of this sketch was for twenty years a slave in Maryland. Both his parents and grandparents were stolen from Africa, and died in slavery. He is therefore of pure African blood, though born in this country.

2. Dr. Pennington made his escape from slavery at twenty years of age. He was sheltered for the first six months by a worthy Quaker in Pennsylvania, who kindly taught him to read and write, and gave him his first knowledge of arithmetic and geography.

3. While there, he made rapid progress in those studies; but there was danger of his being carried back to slavery by the men-stealers who were on his track; and so, at the end of six months, he was obliged to leave the friends who were so kind to him and go farther to the North.

4. His next stopping-place was Long Island. He missed his worthy teacher very much; but he sought and found employment in a gentleman's service, where he remained three years, improving all his scanty leisure in study.

5. When he had been five years out of slavery he received an application to teach a small school for

colored children at Newtown, near Flushing, on Long Island. He passed the regular examination by the committee, and taught the school with good success for two years.

6. Having, some time previous to this, become hopefully pious, he felt a strong desire to fit himself for preaching the gospel of Christ to his own people. So he came to New Haven in Connecticut, obtained a larger school there, and studied for the ministry in a theological seminary.

7. He applied himself faithfully to gain a knowledge of history, astronomy, algebra, philosophy, logic, rhetoric, and systematic theology. After a three years' course of study he returned to Newtown, taught the school again, and, being ordained as a minister of the gospel, gathered a flourishing congregation, to whom he preached the words of eternal life.

8. After two years' labor in Newtown, he was called to Hartford in Connecticut. There he preached eight years, teaching also a part of the time, as at Newtown. On leaving this place, he spent considerable time in Europe, where he was received with great respect. When he returned to this country, he became pastor of the First Colored Presbyterian Church in the city of New York.

history, record of past events. | logic, sound reasoning. astronomy, science of the rhetoric, art of using lanheavens.


algebra, art of computing by theology, system of truth letters instead of figures. taught in the Bible.

philosophy, explanation of scanty, little.


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HERE are other products of the earth besides those which grow on or near its surface. Savages and barbarians content themselves chiefly with such things as they can get from the soil without

much labor or cultivation. But civilized nations wish for more comforts and conveniences; and to get them are willing to apply both labor and skill.

2. Now, in order to till the soil well, and to make the most of what they raise, men must have something more than their bare hands. For this purpose they want metals and minerals; and one want creates another. If they dig in the earth for iron, they must get also coal to melt it and make it fit for use. This digging for iron or coal is called mining.

3. Mining has become a great and valuable business; and in this the United States stand in the front rank as producers. We mine for gold, silver, iron, copper, lead, zinc, mercury, coal, and salt. All these our bountiful Creator has hid in the earth for our use and benefit.

4. Gold is found in small quantities in several of the States; but its largest yield is in California. This State, and Oregon, Washington, Nevada, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Dacotah, all in our western and south-western borders, probably constitute the most productive gold region in the world.

5. Silver also exists in large quantities in our country. It is most profitably worked in Nevada, New Mexico, and Arizona. Iron is found in every State and Territory, and in every form known, from the pure metal to the bog ore, which contains only a small proportion of iron.

6. Copper has been mined in considerable quantities in Connecticut, New Jersey, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee. But the great

copper region is around Lake Superior, which lies between the United States and Canada; and the State of Michigan, bordering on the lake, is the largest producer of copper.

7. Lead also is found in small quantities in several of the States, but the largest lead mines are in Missouri, Arkansas, Iowa, and Illinois. Zinc is in great abundance in New Jersey and Pennsylvania; and to some extent in other States. Mercury is most largely found in California.

8. Coal is found in all the States except Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, New York, and New Jersey. Its largest production is in Pennsylvania and Ohio. It is every year becoming more important for fuel and for gas, and other processes of the arts. The best salt springs are found in New York, Michigan, Virginia, Kentucky, and Arkansas.

9. Within the last few years a new source of wealth has been found to exist in Pennsylvania,petroleum oil. Large tracts of land are now being bored to find the oil wells; and tubes are sunk through which the oil flows to the surface. Immense quantities of this product are now obtained. When war was using up the wealth of the land, God opened to us this new treasure.

What is mining? What do our people mine for? Where do we find gold? Where is the largest yield of silver? What is said of iron? What States have copper mines? Where is the great copper region? Which State produces most copper? Where are the largest lead mines? Where does zinc abound? Where is the most mercury found? What is said of coal? Where are the best salt springs? What new mines in Pennsylvania?

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